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Full text of "NFPA 101 (2003): Life Safety Code"

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NOTICE OF INCORPORATION 

United States Legal Document 

J^" All citizens and residents are hereby advised that 
this is a legally binding document duly incorporated by 
reference and that failure to comply with such 
requirements as hereby detailed within may subject you 
to criminal or civil penalties under the law. Ignorance of 
the law shall not excuse noncompliance and it is the 
responsibility of the citizens to inform themselves as to 
the laws that are enacted in the United States of America 
and in the states and cities contained therein. "^& 

* * 

NFPA 101 (2003), the Life Safety Code, as incorporated 
by and mandated by the States and Municipalities, 
including Maryland, Florida, Maine, et. alia. 




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IMPORTANT NOTICES AND DISCLAIMERS CONCERNING NFPA DOCUMENTS 

Notice and Disclaimer of Liability Concerning the Use of NFPA Documents 

NFPA codes, standards, recommended practices, and guides, of which the document contained herein is one, are de- 
veloped through a consensus standards development process approved by the American National Standards Institute. 
This process brings together volunteers representing varied viewpoints and interests to achieve consensus on fire and 
other safety issues. While the NFPA administers the process and establishes rules to promote fairness in the develop- 
ment of consensus, it does not independently test, evaluate, or verify the accuracy of any information or the soundness 
of any judgments contained in its codes anS standards. 

The NFPA disclaims liability for any personal injury, property or other damages of any nature whatsoever, whether 
special, indirect, consequential or compensatory, directly or indirectly resulting from the publication, use of, or reliance 
on this document. The NFPA also makes no guaranty or warranty as to the accuracy or completeness of any information 
published herein. 

In issuing and making this document available, the NFPA is not undertaking to render professional or other services 
for or on behalf of any person or entity. Nor is the NFPA undertaking to perform any duty owed by any person or entity 
to someone else. Anyone using this document should rely on his or her own independent judgment or, as appropriate, 
seek the advice of a competent professional in determining the exercise of reasonable care in any given circumstances. 

The NFPA has no power, nor does it undertake, to police or enforce compliance with the contents of this document. 
Nor does the NFPA list, certify, test or inspect products, designs, or installations for compliance with this document. 
Any certification or other statement of compliance with the requirements of this document shall not be attributable to 
the NFPA and is solely the responsibility of the certifier or maker of the statement. 

Important Notices and Disclaimers continued on inside back cover. 



10/03 



101-1 



Copyright © 2003, National Fire Protection Association, All Rights Reserved 



,® 



NFPA 101® 
Life Safety Code 1 

2003 Edition 

This edition of NFPA 101®, Life Safety Code 9 , was adopted by the National Fire Protection 
Association, Inc., at its November Association Technical Meeting held November 16-20, 2002, 
in Atlanta, GA. It was issued by the Standards Council on January 17, 2003, with an effective 
date of February 6, 2003, and supersedes all previous editions. 

This edition of NFPA 101 was approved as an American National Standard on January 17, 2003. 

IMPORTANT NOTE: This NFPA document is made available for use subject to important notices and legal 
disclaimers. These notices and disclaimers appear in all publications containing this document and may be 
found under the heading 'Important Notices and Disclaimers Concerning NFPA Documents. "They can also 
be obtained on request from NFPA or viewed at www.nfpa.org/disclaimers. 

Origin and Development of NFPA 101 

The Life Safety Code had its origin in the work of the Committee on Safety to Life of the National Fire 
Protection Association, which was appointed in 1913. In 1912 a pamphlet tided Exit Drills in Factories, 
Schools, Department Stores and Theaters was published following its presentation by the late Committee 
member R. H. Newbem at the 1911 Annual Meeting of the Association. Although the pamphlet's 
publication antedated the organization of the Committee, it was considered a Committee publication. 

For the first few years of its existence, the Committee on Safety to Life devoted its attention to a 
study of the notable fires involving loss of life and to analyzing the causes of this loss of life. This 
work led to the preparation of standards for the construction of stairways, fire escapes, and other 
egress routes for fire drills in various occupancies, and for the construction and arrangement of 
exit facilities for factories, schools, and other occupancies. These reports were adopted by the 
National Fire Protection Association and published in pamphlet form as Outside Stairs for Fire Exits 
(1916) and Safeguarding Factory Workers from Fire (1918). These pamphlets served as a groundwork 
for the present Code. These pamphlets were widely circulated and put into general use. 

In 1921 the Committee on Safety to Life was enlarged to include representatives of certain inter- 
ested groups not previously participating in the standard's development. The Committee then began to 
further develop and integrate previous Committee publications to provide a comprehensive guide to 
exits and related features of life safety from fire in all classes of occupancy. Known as the Building Exits 
Code, various drafts were published, circulated, and discussed over a period of years, and the first edition 
of the Building Exits Code was published by the National Fire Protection Association in 1927. Thereafter, 
the Committee continued its deliberations, adding new material on features not originally covered and 
revising various details in the light of fire experience and practical experience in the use of the Code. 
New editions were published in 1929, 1934, 1936, 1938, 1939, 1942, and 1946 to incorporate the amend- 
ments adopted by the National Fire Protection Association. 

National attention was focused on the importance of adequate exits and related fire safety 
features after the Cocoanut Grove Night Club fire in Boston in 1942 in which 492 lives were lost. 
Public attention to exit matters was further stimulated by the series of hotel fires in 1946 (LaSalle, 
Chicago — 61 dead; Canfield, Dubuque — 19 dead; and the Winecoff, Adanta — 119 dead) . The 
Building Exits Code, thereafter, was used to an increasing extent for regulatory purposes. However, 
the Code was not written in language suitable for adoption into law, because it had been drafted as 
a reference document and contained advisory provisions that were useful to building designers but 
inappropriate for legal use. This led to a decision by the Committee to re-edit the entire Code, 
limiting the body of the text to requirements suitable for mandatory application and placing 
advisory and explanatory material in notes. The re-editing expanded Code provisions to cover 
additional occupancies and building features to produce a complete document. The Code expan- 
sion was carried on concurrendy with development of the 1948, 1949, 1951, and 1952 editions. The 
results were incorporated in the 1956 edition and further refined in subsequent editions dated 
1957, 1958, 1959, 1960, 1961, and 1963. 

In 1955, NFPA 101B, on nursing homes and NFPA 101C, on interior finish, were published. 
NFPA 101C was revised in 1956. These publications have since been withdrawn. 

In 1963 the Committee on Safety to Life was restructured to represent all interested factions and 
to include only those members with broad knowledge of fire matters. The Committee served as a 
review and correlating committee for seven sectional committees whose personnel included mem- 
bers having a special knowledge and interest in various portions of the Code. 

Under the revised structure, the sectional committees, through the Committee on Safety to 
Life, prepared the 1966 edition of the Code, which was a complete revision of the 1963 edition. The 
Code tide was changed from Building Exits Code to the Code for Safety to Life from Fire in Buildings and 
Structures. The Code text was written in enforceable "code language," and all explanatory notes were 
placed in an appendix. 



101-2 LIFE SAFETY CODE 



The Code-was, placed on a three-year revision schedule, with new editions adopted in 1967, 1970, 1973, and 1976. 

In 1977 the Committee on Safety to Life was reorganized as a Technical Committee, with an Executive Committee and 
standing subcommittees responsible for various chapters and sections. The 1981 edition contained major editorial changes, 
including reorganization within the occupancy chapters, to make them parallel to each other, and the splitting of require- 
ments for new and existing buildings into separate chapters. Chapters on detention and correctional facilities were added, as 
well as new sections for ambulatory health care centers. 

The 1985 edition contained a new Chapter 21 on residential board and care occupancies with related Appendixes F and G, 
a new Appendix D on alternative calculations for stair width, and Appendix E — a Fire Safety Evaluation System (FSES) for 
detention and correctional facilities. 

The 1988 edition contained a major change in the method of determining egress capacity with the deletion of the 
traditional units of exit width and the substitution of a straight linear approach to calculating egress capacity. Appendixes C 
through G were moved from NFPA 101 into a new document, NFPA 101M. 

The 1991 edition contained numerous new requirements for mandatory sprinklers in new health care facilities, hotels, 
apartment buildings, lodging and room houses, and board and care facilities, as well as mandatory sprinkler requirements for 
existing high-rise hotels and apartment buildings. The requirements for board and care facilities were split into two chapters, 
Chapter 22 for new construction and Chapter 23 for existing buildings. 

The 1994 edition contained new requirements for accessible means of egress, areas of refuge, and ramps, putting the Code 
in substantial agreement with the Americans with Disabilities Act Accessibility Guidelines (ADAAG). 

The 1997 edition relocated the material on day-care occupancies from Chapter 10 and Chapter 11, Educational Occupan- 
cies, to new Chapter 30 and Chapter 31. The operating features requirements, previously contained in Chapter 31, were 
interspersed throughout the Code, as applicable. 

The 2000 edition introduced a performance-based option via Section 4.4 and new Chapter 5. That edition also reformated 
the Code for substantial compliance with the NFPA Manual of Style: (1) former Chapter 1, General, was split into Chapter 1, 
Administration, and Chapter 4, General; (2) the mandatory references list was moved from Chapter 33 to Chapter 2; (3) all 
definitions were moved in Chapter 3 and each defined term was numbered; (4) the paragraph numbering scheme that 
separated the chapter number from the section number by a hyphen was changed to use a decimal point as the separator; and 
(5) the appendixes were renamed annexes. Former Chapter 32 on special structures and high-rise buildings was moved to 
Chapter 11 to join the core chapters (i.e., the chapters that are not occupancy specific). The subject of interior finish, 
contents, and furnishings was moved from Section 6.5 into a separate new chapter, Chapter 10. The occupancy chapter 
numbers, formerly 8 through 32, became 12 through 42 with some repositioning of chapters. For example, the day-care 
occupancies chapters were renumbered from 30/31 to 16/17 so as to be positioned immediately after the chapters for 
educational occupancies. 

The 2003 edition reformats all exceptions into numbered or lettered paragraphs. Some reformatting of paragraphs with 
multiple requirements was done for additional compliance with the NFPA Manual of Style. 

To the User 

The following comments are offered to assist in the use of the Life Safety Code. Additional help on using the Life Safety Code 
can be obtained by attending one of the seminars NFPA conducts on the Life Safety Code or by using the Life Safety Code 
Handbook available from NFPA. Further information on these seminars is available through NFPA's Division of Continuing 
Education. 

Essentially, the Codeis comprised of four major parts. The first part consists of Chapter 1 through Chapter 4 and Chapter 6 
through Chapter 11; these are often referred to as the base chapters or fundamental chapters. The second part is Chapter 5, 
which details the performance-based option. The next part consists of Chapter 12 through Chapter 42, which are the 
occupancy chapters. The fourth and last part consists of Annex A and Annex B, which contain useful additional information. 

Athorough understanding of Chapter 1 through Chapter 4 and Chapter 6 through Chapter 11 is necessary to use the Code 
effectively, because these chapters provide the building blocks on which the requirements of the occupancy chapters are 
based. Note that many of the provisions of Chapter 1 through Chapter4and Chapter6 through Chapter 11 are mandatoryfor 
all occupancies. Some provisions are mandated only when referenced by a specific occupancy, while others are exempted for 
specific occupancies. Often, in one of the base chapters, especially in Chapter 7, the term "where permitted by Chapter 12 
through Chapter 42" appears. In this case, that provision can be used only where specifically allowed by an occupancy chapter. 
For example, the provisions of 7.2.1.6.1 on delayed egress locks are allowed only when permitted by Chapter 12 through 

Chapter 42. Permission to use the delayed egress lock is normally found in the " .2.2" subsection of each occupancy 

chapter. For example, 12.2.2.2.5 specifically allows the use of delayed egress locks in new assembly occupancies. If this 
permission is not found in an occupancy chapter, the delayed egress lock cannot be used. Similar types of restricted permis- 
sion are found for such items as security grilles, double cylinder locks, revolving doors, and so forth. In other locations in the 
base chapters, the term "unless prohibited by Chapter 12 through Chapter 42" is used. In this case, the provision is allowed in 
all occupancies unless specifically prohibited by an occupancy chapter. 

Metric units of measurement in this Code are in accordance with the modernized metric system known as the International 
System of Units (SI). The unit liter, which is outside of but recognized by SI, is commonly used and is therefore used in this 
Code. In this Code, SI values for measurements are followed by an equivalent in inch-pound units, as noted in 1.5.2. The SI 
value and the inch-pound value are each acceptable for use as primary units for satisfying the requirements of this Code. 



2003 Edition 



COMMITTEE PERSONNEL 



101-3 



Technical Comrelatibng Committee (SAF-AAC) 



James R. Quiter, Chair 
Arup Fire, CA [SE] 



Ron Cote, Nonvoting Secretary 
NFPA, MA 



John L. Bryan, Frederick, MD [SE] 

Richard W. Bukowski, U.S. National Institute of 

Standards & Technology, MD [RT] 

Rep. National Fire Alarm Code Committee 
Kenneth E. Bush, Maryland State Fire Marshals Office, 
MD [E] 

Rep. International Fire Marshals Association 
Lee J. Dosedlo, Underwriters Laboratories Inc., IL [RT] 
Gene B. Endthoff, National Fire Sprinkler Association, 
IL[M] 
Jackie T. Gibbs, Marietta Fire Department, GA [U] 

Rep. International Association of Fire Chiefs 
J. Edmund Kalie, Jr., Prince George's County 
Government MD [E] 



Ronald K. Mengel, System Sensor, IL [M] 

Rep. National Electrical Manufacturers Association 

Jake Pauls, Jake Pauls Consulting Services in Building 

Use & Safety, MD [C] 

Rep. American Public Health Association 

Kirby W. Perry, Kirby W. Perry Architects & Associates 

Inc, TX [SE] 

Rep. American Institute of Architects 

Lawrence G. Perry, Building Owners & Managers Assn. 

Int'l, MD [U] 

David L. Wismer, Philadelphia Department of Licenses 

& Inspections, PA [E] 



Alternates 



Andrew Brian Bowman, Gage-Babcock & Associates, Inc., 
IL[U] 

(Alt. toAHCARep.) 
Howard Hopper, Underwriters Laboratories Inc., CA [RT] 

(Alt. to L.J. Dosedlo) 
Ronald H. Mnter, Thomas & Betts, TN [M] 

(Alt. to R. K. Mengel) 



Martin H. Reiss, The RJA Group, Inc., MA [SE] 

(Alt. toj. R. Quiter) 
Michael D. Tommy, Heery International Inc., GA [SE] 

(Alt. to K. W. Perry) 
Robert B. Treiber, National Fire Sprinkler Association, 
Inc., OH [M] 

(Alt. to G. B. Endthoff) 



Nonvoting 



William E. Fitch, Chair SAF-FUR, Omega Point 

Laboratories Inc., TX 

Ralph Gerdes, Chair SAF-AXM, Ralph Gerdes 

Consultants, LLC, IN 

Wayne D. Holmes, Chair SAF-IND, HSB Professional Loss 

Control, CT 

Morgan J. Hurley, Chair SAF-FUN, Society of Fire 

Protection Engineers, MD 

Thomas W. Jaeger, Chair SAF-DET, Gage-Babcock 

& Associates Inc., VA 

Philip R. Jose, Chair SAF-BCF, U.S. Department of 

Veterans Affairs, NY 

Richard L. Klinker, Chair SAF-BSF, Klinker & Associates, 

Inc., MD 

Ron Cote, NFPA Staff Liaison 



William E. Koffel, Chair SAF-MEA, Koffel Associates, 

Inc., MD 

James K. Lathrop, Chair SAF-RES, Koffel Associates, Inc., 

CT 

John W. McCormick, Chair SAF-FIR, Code Consultants, 

Inc., MO 

Harold E. Nelson, Hughes Associates, Inc., VA 

(Member Emeritus) 
Daniel J. O'Connor, Chair SAF-HEA, Schirmer 
Engineering Corporation, IL 

Ed Scfaultz, Chair SAF-MER, Code Consultants, Inc., MO 
Catherine L. Stashak, Chair SAF-END, Schirmer 
Engineering Corporation, IL 

David W. Stroup, Chair SAF-ALS, U.S. National Institute 
of Standards and Technology, MD 



Committee Scope: This Committee shall have primary responsibility for documents on the protection of 
human life from fire and other circumstances capable of producing similar consequences and for the non- 
emergency and emergency movement of people. 



2003 Edition 



101-4 



LIFE SAFETY CODE 



Technical Committee on Assembly Occupancies and Membrane Structures (SAF-AXM) 

Ralph Gerdes, Chair 
Ralph Gerdes Consultants, LLC, IN [SE] 



Ron Cote, Nonvoting Secretary 
NFPA, MA 



Stanton M. Alexander, North American Testing 
Company, FL [M] 

Weston E. Bacon, Jr., Bacon Hedland Management, Inc., 
IL [U] 

Rep. International Association of Exposition 

Management 
Scott R. Bartlett, Simplex Time Recorder Co., MA [M] 

Rep. National Electrical Manufacturers Association 
George D. Bushey, Rosser International, GA [SE] 
William Conner, Schuler & Shook Inc., IL [SE] 

Rep. American Society of Theater Consultants 
Bhola Dhume, City of New Orleans, LA [E] 
Robert D. Fiedler, City of Lincoln, NE [E] 
William E. Fitch, Omega Point Laboratories Inc., TX [RT] 
Vern L. Martindale, Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day 
Saints, UT [U] 

Daniel M. McGee, American Iron and Steel Institute, NJ 
[M] 

Joseph J. Messersmith,Jr., Portland Cement Association, 
VA[M] 



Gregory R. Miller, Code Consultants Inc., MO [U] 

Rep. National Association of Theatre Owners 
Keith C. Nagelski, Soft Play, L.L.C., NC [M] 

Rep. International Play Equipment Manufacturers 

Association 
Jake Pauls, Jake Pauls Consulting Services in Building 
Use & Safety, MD [SE] 

John William Pritchett, Athens-Clarke County Fire 
Department, GA [E] 
Joseph Psuik, III, San Diego Convention Center, CA [U] 

Rep. International Association of Assembly Managers, 

Inc. 
Ed Roether, HOK Sport, MO [U] 

Karl G. Ruling, Entertainment Services and Technology 
Assn., NY [U] 

Rep. U.S. Institute for Theatre Technology 
Philip R. Sherman, P. R. Sherman Incorporated, NH [SE] 
Jeffrey S. Tubbs, Arup Fire, MA [SE] 
Daniel R. Victor, Interkal, Incorporated, MI [M] 

Rep. National School Supply & Equipment Assn. 
Paul L. Wertheimer, Crowd Management Strategies, IL [SE] 



Alternates 



Gene Boecker, Code Consultants, Inc., MO [U] 

(Alt. to G. R. Miller) 
David Cook, Ralph Gerdes Consultants, IN [SE] 

(Alt. to R. Gerdes) 
Mike Hayward, Little Tikes Commercial Play Systems 
Inc., MO [M] 

(Alt. to K. C. Nagelski) 
Jonathan Humble, American Iron and Steel Institute, CT 
[M] 

(Alt. to D. M. McGee) 



Vern T. Lewis, Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day 
Saints, UT [U] 

(Alt. to V. L. Martindale) 
Stephen V. Skalko, Portland Cement Association, GA [M] 

(Alt. to J. J. Messersmith.Jr.) 



Ron Cote, NFPA Staff Liaison 



Committee Scope: This Committee shall have primary responsibility for documents on protection of human life 
and property from fire and other circumstances capable of producing similar consequences, and on the non- 
emergency and emergency movement of people in assembly occupancies, tents, and membrane structures. 



2003 Edition 



COMMITTEE PERSONNEL 



101-5 



Technical Comnunnittee on Board and Care Facilities (SAF-BCF) 



Philip R. Jose, Chair 
U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs, NY [U] 



Gregory E. Harrington, Nonvoting Secretary 
NFPA, MA 



Gregory J. Austin, Gentex Corporation, MI [M] 

Rep. National Electrical Manufacturers Association 
James R. Bell, Marriott International, Inc., DC [U] 

Rep. American Hotel & Lodging Association 
Warren D. Bonisch, Schirmer Engineering Corporation, 
TX [SE] 

Harry L. Bradley, Maryland State Fire Marshals Office, 
MD [E] 

Rep. International Fire Marshals Association 
Philip C. Favro, Philip C. Favro & Associates, CA [SE] 
Thomas W. Gardner, Gage-Babcock & Associates, VA [U] 

Rep. American Health Care Assnociation 



Laura A. Hoffman, Nashville Tennessee Fire 

Department, TN [E] 

Kenneth E. Isman, National Fire Sprinkler Association, 

NY[M] 

David Ray Kiely, Sullivan County ARC, NY [U] 

Rep. American Network of Community Options and 

Resources 
Jannes K. Lathrop, Koffel Associates, Inc., CT [SE] 
Bernard M. Levin, Rockville, MD [SE] 
Paul E. Patty, Underwriters Laboratories Inc., IL [RT] 
Francis G. Reuer, U.S. Department of Health & Human 
Services, CO [E] 



Alternates 



Kerry M. Bell, Underwriters Laboratories Inc., IL [RT] 

(Alt. to P. E. Patty) 
Gene B. Endthoff, National Fire Sprinkler Association, 
IL [M] 

(Alt. to K. E. Isman) 
Harold E. Nelson, Hughes Associates, Inc., VA [SE] 

(Alt. to B. M. Levin) 
Daniel J. Schoeps, U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs, 
DC [U] 

(Alt. to P. R. Jose) 



James F. Woodford, Simplex Time Recorder Co., MA [M] 

(Alt. to G. Austin) 
Mayer D. Zimmerman, U.S. Dept. of Health and Human 
Services, MD [E] 

(Alt. to F. G. Reuer) 



Gregory E. Harrington, NFPA Staff Liaison 

Committee Scope: This Committee shall have primary responsibility for documents on protection of human 
life and property from fire and other circumstances capable of producing similar consequences, and on the 
emergency movement of people, in residential board and care facilities. 



2003 Edition 



101-6 



LIFE SAFETY CODE 



Technical Committee on Building Service and Fire Protection Equipment (SAF-BSF) 

Richard L. Klinker, Chair 
Klinker & Associates, Inc, MD [SE] 



Gregory E. Harrington, Nonvoting Secretary 
NFPA, MA 



Keith A. Ball, SimplexGrinnell, FL [M] 

Rep. National Electrical Manufacturers Association 
Harry L. Bradley, Maryland State Fire Marshals Office, 
MD [E] 

Rep. International Fire Marshals Association 
Pat D. Brock, Oklahoma State University, OK [SE] 
Phillip A. Brown, American Fire Sprinkler Association, 
Inc., TX [IM] 

Paul M. Donga, Boston Fire Department, MA [E] 
Edward A. Donoghue, Edward A. Donoghue Associates, 
Inc., NY [M] 

Rep. National Elevator Industry Inc 
Dale A. Harshbarger, Hebron Fire Protection District, KY 
[E] 

Kenneth E. Isman, National Fire Sprinkler Association, 
NY[M] 
Joseph M. Jardin, New York City Fire Dept., NY [C] 

Rep. NFPA Fire Service Section 



Ignacy A. Kapalczynski, Connecticut Department of 

Public Safety, CT [E] 

David P. Klein, U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs, MD 

[U] 

Dennis A. Lockard, Newport Beach Fire Department, CA 

[E] 

Roger L. McDaniel, Florida Department of Corrections, 

FL[U] 

L. L. (Larry) Neibauer, Automatic Fire Alarm Association, 

FL [M] 

Richard R. Osman, Schirmer Engineering Corporation, 

IL [I] 

Dinesh K. Patel, U.S. Department of the Navy, CA [U] 

Martin H. Reiss, The RJA Group, Inc., MA [SE] 

James Tizzano, Township of Old Bridge, NJ [E] 

William A. Webb, Performance Technology Consulting, 

Ltd., IL [SE] 

Carl Dewayne Wren, Austin Fire Department, TX [E] 



Alternates 



Ronald S. Berger, Low Voltage Systems Technology [M] 

(Alt. to L. L. Neibauer) 
Lisa Marie Bossert, Schirmer Engineering Corporation, 
NC[I] 

(Alt. to R. R. Osman) 
James D. Brown, Oklahoma State University, OK [SE] 

(Alt. to P. D. Brock) 
Davie J. Camp, Thyssen Krupp Elevator, TN [M] 

(Alt. to E. A. Donoghue) 
Greg Gottlieb, Hauppauge Fire District, NY [C] 

(Alt. to J. M. Jardin) 



Claudia Hagood, Klinker and Associates, Inc., MD [SE] 

(Alt. to R. L. Klinker) 
Kevin Kelly, National Fire Sprinkler Association, NY [M] 

(Alt. to K. E. Isman) 
Peter A. Larrimer, U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs, 
PA [U] 

(Alt. to D. P. Klein) 
Randolph W. Tucker, The RJA Group, Inc., TX [SE] 

(Alt. to M. H. Reiss) 



Gregory E. Harrington, NFPA Staff Liaison 

Committee Scope: This Committee shall have primary responsibility for documents on the application of fire 
protection systems including detection, alarm, and suppression, and the life safety impact of various building 
systems. 



2003 Edition 



COMMITTEE PERSONNEL 



1-7 



Tedbimical Committee oh Betemtioin amd C Directional Occupancies (SAF-DET) 

Thomas W. Jaeger, Chair 
Gage-Babcock & Associates Inc., VA [SE] 



Ron Cote, Nonvoting Secretary 
NFPA, MA 



James R. Ambrose, Code Consultants Inc., MO [SE] 
Kevin Bailey, Folger Adam Security Inc., IL [M] 

Rep. Builders Hardware Manufacturers Association 
Bavid L. Bondor, St. Paul Fire and Marine, TX [I] 

Rep. American Society of Safety Engineers 
Peter J. Collins, U.S. Department of Justice, DC [U] 
Michael DiMascio, Solutions Engineering Inc., MA [SE] 
Randy Gaw, Correctional Service of Canada, ON [E] 
Patrick G. Gordon, Philadelphia Prison System, PA [U] 
Larry Harrison, Office of the Illinois State Fire Marshal, 
IL[E] 

Kenneth E. Isman, National Fire Sprinkler Association, 
NY[M] 
William E. Koffel, Koffel Associates, Inc., MD [SE] 



Roger L. McDaniel, Florida Department of Corrections, 

FL [U] 

E. Eugene Miller, Washington, DC [SE] 

Jerry Nealy, Cumulus Fibres, Inc., NC [M] 

Rep. Institutional Bedding Manufacturers Association 
Robert R. Perry, Robert Perry Associates Inc., IL [M] 

Rep. Door & Hardware Institute 
Kenneth J. Schwartz, Schirmer Engineering Corporation, 
IL[SE] 
Wayne S. Smith, Texas State Fire Marshal, TX [E] 

Rep. International Fire Marshals Association 
David W. Spence, Corrections Corporation of America, 
TN [U] 



Alternates 



A. Larry Iseminger, Jr., Maryland State Fire Marshals 
Office [E] 

(Alt. to W.S.Smith) 
Kevin Kelly, National Fire Sprinkler Association, NY [M] 

(Alt. to K. E. Isman) 
Fred G. Kerley, Office of the Illinois State Fire Marshal, 
IL[E] 

(Alt. to L. E. Harrison) 



Michael Tienmey, Builders Hardware Manufacturers 
Association, CT [M] 

(Alt. to K. Bailey) 
Ralph R. Winter, Code Consultants, Inc., MO [SE] 

(Alt. to J. R. Ambrose) 



Ron Cote, NFPA Staff Liaison 



Committee Scope: This Committee shall have primary responsibility for documents on protection of human 
life and property from fire and other circumstances capable of producing similar consequences, and on the 
emergency movement of people in detention and correctional occupancies. 



2003 Edition 



101-8 



LIFE SAFETY CODE 



Technical Committee on Educational and Day-Care Occupancies (SAF-END) 

Catherine L. Stashak, Chair 
Schirmer Engineering Corporation, IL [SE] 



Ron Cote, Nonvoting Secretary 
NFPA, MA 



Scott R. Bartlett, Simplex Time Recorder Co., MA [M] 

Samuel S. Dannaway, S. S. Dannaway Associates, Inc., HI 

[SE] 

Victor L. Dubrowski, Code Consultants Inc., MO [SE] 

Gene B. Endthoff, National Fire Sprinkler Association, 

IL[M] 

Douglas R. Freels, Performance Design Technologies, 

TN [SE] 

Vern L. Martindale, Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day 

Saints, UT [U] 



U.S. Air Force, AE [U] 
Windsor Locks Fire Department, 



Erin A. M. Oneisom, 

Michael L. Sinsigalli, 

CT [E] 

Aleksy L. Szachnowicz, Anne Arundel County Public 

Schools, MD [U] 

Robert T. Trotter, Franklin Fire Department, TN [E] 

Ralph J. Warburton, University of Miami, FL [SE] 

Kenneth Wood, Office of the Illinois State Fire Marshal, 

IL[E] 



Kevin Kelly, National Fire Sprinkler Association, NY [M] 

(Alt. to G. B. Endthoff) 
Amy J. McGarry, Code Consultants, Inc., MO [SE] 

(Alt. to V. L. Dubrowski) 
Roger B. Rudy, Performance Design Technologies, LLC, 
TN [SE] 

(Alt. to D. R. Freels) 



Alternates 



Fred K. Walker, U.S. Air Force, FL [U] 
(Alt. to E. A. M. Oneisom) 



Ron Cote, NFPA Staff Liaison 



Committee Scope: This Committee shall have primary responsibility for documents on protection of human 
life and property from fire and other circumstances capable of producing similar consequences, and on the 
emergency movement of people in educational occupancies and day-care occupancies. 



2003 Edition 



COMMITTEE PERSONNEL 



101-9 



Technical Coimmittee on Fire Protection Features (SAF-FIR) 



John W. McCormick, Chair 
Code Consultants Inc., MO [SE] 



Walter P. Sterling, Nonvoting Secretary 
NFPA, MA 



Carl F. Baldassarra, Schirmer Engineering Corporation, 

IL[I] 

John F. Bender, Maryland Office of State Fire Marshal, 

MD [E] 

Rep. International Fire Marshals Association 
Robert M. Berhinig, Underwriters Laboratories Inc., IL 
[RT] 

Edward K. Budnick, Hughes Associates Inc., MD [SE] 
Gregory J. Cahanin, St. Petersburg, FL [U] 

Rep. Louisiana State Fireman's Association 
Eric H. Cote, The RJA Group, Inc., MA [SE] 
Paul L. Dove, City of Coldwater Fire Department, MI [E] 
Brian L. Eklow, Aon Risk Consultants, IL [I] 
Gene B. Endthoff, National Fire Sprinkler Association, 
IL[M] 

Sam W. Francis, American Forest & Paper Association, PA 
[M] 

Ralph Gerdes, Ralph Gerdes Consultants, LLC, IN [SE] 
Donald Murray Goff, Hillsborough County Fire Rescue, 
FL [E] 

Rep. Florida Fire Marshals & Inspectors Assn. 
Miles J. Haber, Monument Construction, Inc., MD [U] 

Rep. National Association of Home Builders 



Wayne D. Holmes, HSB Professional Loss Control, CT [I] 
Jonathan Humble, American Iron and Steel Institute, CT 
[M] 

Ignacy A. Kapalczynski, Connecticut Department of 
Public Safety, CT [E] 

Waseem A. Khan, Brick Industry Association, VA [M] 
Marshall A. Klein, MarshallA. Klein &Associates, Inc., 
MD [SE] 
William E. Koffel, Koffel Associates, Inc., MD [M] 

Rep. Glazing Industry Code Committee 
Vickie Lovell, Intecode Incorporated (ICI), FL [M] 

Rep. Air Movement and Control Assn/Int'l FireStop 

Council 
Joseph J. Messersmith, Jr., Portland CementAssociation, 
VA [M] 

Kurt A. Roeper, Ingersoll Rand Security and Safety, OH 
[M] 

Rep. Steel Door Institute 
Kathleen Taraba, Rolling Plains Construction, Inc., CO 
[IM] 

Rep. Firestop Contractors International Association 
Kenneth Wood, Office of the Illinois State Fire Marshal, 
IL[E] 



Alternates 



Donald W. Belles, Koffel Associates, Inc., TN [M] 

(Alt. toW. E. Koffel) 
Joseph A. Brooks, Air Movement and Control Association 
International, Inc., IL [M] 

(Alt. to V. Lovell) 
David Cook, Ralph Gerdes Consultants, IN [SE] 

(Alt. to R. Gerdes) 
John F. Devlin, Schirmer Engineering Corporation, VA [SE] 

(Alt. to C. F. Baldassarra) 
Jack Gump, HSB Professional Loss Control, TN [I] 

(Alt. to W. D. Holmes) 
David M. Hammerman, Marshall A. Klein & Associates, 
Inc., MD [SE] 

(Alt. to M. A. Klein) 



Thomas R. Janicak, Ceco Door Products, TN [M] 

(Alt. to K. A. Roeper) 
Mark Kluver, Portland CementAssociation, CA [M] 

(Alt. toJ.J. Messersmith, Jr.) 
David A. Lewis, Code Consultants Inc., MO [SE] 

(Alt. to J. W. McCormick) 
Jeffrey A Maddox, The RJA Group, Inc., CA [SE] 

(Alt. to E. H. Cote) 
Eric Rosenbaum, Hughes Associates, Inc., MD [SE] 

(Alt. to E. K. Budnick) 
David P. Tyree, American Forest & Paper Association, CO 
[M] 

(Alt. to S. W. Francis) 
Robert J. Wills, American Iron and Steel Institute, AL [M] 

(Alt. to J. Humble) 



Nonvoting 

Michael Earl Dillon, Dillon Consulting Engineers, Inc., CA 
Rep. TC on Air Conditioning 

Walter P. Sterling, NFPA Staff Liaison 

Committee Scope: of This Committee shall have primary responsibility for documents on construction 
compartmentation, including the performance of assemblies, openings, and penetrations, as related to the 
protection of life and property from fire and other circumstances capable of producing similar conse- 
quences. 



2003 Edition 



101-10 



LIFE SAFETY CODE 



Technical Committee on Fundamentals (SAJF-FUN) 



Morgan J. Hurley, Chair 
Society of Fire Protection Engineers, MD [U] 

Ron Cote, Nonvoting Secretary 
NFPA, MA 



Thomas H. Allen, Smoke Guard Corporation, ID [U] 

Rep. American Institute of Architects 
■Wayne G. Carson, Carson Associates, Inc., VA [SE] 
James E. Churchill, Schirmer Engineering Corporation, 
CA [SE] 
Barbara Ebstein, Vinick Associates, Inc., CT [U] 

Rep. American Society of Interior Designers 
Ben Greene, City of Englewood, CO [E] 
Norman E. Groner, Santa Cruz, CA [SE] 
Howard Hopper, Underwriters Laboratories Inc., CA 
[RT] 

David P. Klein, U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs, MD 
[U] 
James A. Landmesser, U.S. Department of Energy, TN [E] 



James K. Lathrop, Koffel Associates, CT [SE] 
David H. MacKinnon, Canadian Steel Construction 
Council, ON [M] 

Rep. American Iron and Steel Institute 
Richard A. Morris, National Association of Home 
Builders, DC [U] 

Jake Pauls, Jake Pauls Consulting Services in Building 
Use & Safety, MD [C] 

Rep. American Public Health Association 
Milosh T. Puchovsky, Arup Fire, MA [SE] 
Stephen V. Skalko, Portland Cement Association, GA [M] 
Jeffrey B. Stone, American Forest & Paper Association, 
FL [M] 

Amal Tamim, W. R. Grace & Company-Conn, MA [M] 
John M. Watts, Jr., Fire Safety Institute, VT [SE] 



Alternates 



Eugene A. Cable, U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs, NY 
[U] 

(Alt. to D. P. Klein) 
Robert M. Carasitti, Schirmer Engineering Corporation, 
MA [SE] 

(Alt. to J. E. Churchill) 
Robert J. Eugene, Underwriters Laboratories Inc., WA [RT] 

(Alt. to H. Hopper) 
Mark Kluver, Portland Cement Association, CA [M] 

(Alt. to S.V. Skalko) 



Kimberh/A. Marks, The Marks Design Group, Inc., TX [U] 

(Alt. to B. Ebstein) 
Eric N. Mayl, Koffel Associates, Inc., MD 

(Alt. to J. K. Lathrop) 
Rodney A. McPhee, Canadian Wood Council, ON [M] 

(Alt. to J. B. Stone) 
Richard P. Thomberry, The Code Consortium, Inc. CA [M] 

(Alt. to A. Tamim) 
Robert J. Wills, American Iron and Steel Institute, AL [M] 

(Alt. to D. H. MacKinnon) 



Nonvoting 



Carol A. Caldwell, 
Zealand 



Caldwell Consulting, Ltd, New 



Pichaya Chantranuwat, Fusion Consultants Co. Ltd., 
Thailand 



Ron Cote, NFPA Staff Liaison 



Committee Scope: This Committee shall have primary responsibility for documents on the basic goals, 
objectives, performance requirements, and definitions for protection of human life and property from fire, 
earthquake, flood, wind, and other circumstances capable of producing similar consequences and on the 
nonemergency and emergency movement of people. 



2003 Edition 



COMMITTEE PERSONNEL 



1-11 



Technical Commniittee on Fiarmlsliiings and Contents (SAF-FUR) 

William E. Fitch, Chair 
Omega Point Laboratories Inc., TX [RT] 



Steven E. Younis, Nonvoting Secretary 
NFPA, MA 



Patty K. Adair, American Textile Manufacturers Institute, 

DC[M] 

Alastair J. M. Aikman, National Research Council of 

Canada, ON [RT] 

Vytenis (Vyto) Babrauskas, Fire Science and Technology 

Inc., WA [SE] 

Lisa Bonneville, Bonneville Design, MA [U] 

Rep. American Society of Interior Designers 
Eugene A. Cable, U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs, NY 
[U] 



Frederic B. Clarke, Benjamin Clarke Associates, Inc., VA 

[SE] 

Paul Dillon, Southern Polytechnic State University, GA [M] 

Pravinray D. Gandhi, Underwriters Laboratories Inc., IL 

[RT] 

Marcelo M. Hirschler, GBH International, GA [SE] 

E. Ken Mcintosh, Carpet and Rug Institute, GA [M] 

T. Hugh Tafley, Hugh Talley Company, TN [M] 

Rep. American Furniture Manufacturers Association 



Alternates 



Raman B. Chauhan, National Research Council of 
Canada, ON [RT] 

(Alt. to A. J. M. Aikman) 
James K. Lathrop, Koffel Associates, Inc., CT [M] 

(Alt. to E. K. Mcintosh) 



James V. Ryan, MD [SE] 

(Alt. to F. B. Clarke) 
Shelley Siegel, Accessible Interiors' Network, Inc., FL [U] 

(Alt. to L. Bonneville) 



Nonvoting 

Hammad Malik, U.S. Consumer Product Safety 
Commission, MD 

Ron Cote, NFPA Staff Liaison 

Committee Scope: This Committee shall have primary responsibility for documents on limiting the impact of 
furnishings and building contents effect on protection of human life and property from fire and other 
circumstances capable of producing similar consequences and on the emergency movement of people. 



2003 Edition 



101-12 



LIFE SAFETY CODE 



Technical Committee on Health Care Occupancies (SAF-HEA) 

Daniel J. O'Connor, Chair 
Schirmer Engineering Corporation, IL [SE] 



Ron Cote, Nonvoting Secretary 
NFPA, MA 



James R. Ambrose, Code Consultants, Inc., MO [SE] 
William N. Brooks, Eichleay Engineers, Inc., PA [SE] 
Kenneth E. Bush, Maryland State Fire Marshals Office, 
MD[E] 

Rep. International Fire Marshals Association 
Wayne G. Carson, Carson Associates, Inc., VA [SE] 
Michael Crowley, The RJA Group, Inc., TX [SE] 
Douglas S. Erickson, American Society for Healthcare 
Engineering, VI [U] 

Kenneth S. Faulstich, U.S. Department of Veterans 
Affairs, DC [U] 

John E. Fishbeck, Joint Commission on Accreditation of 
Healthcare Organizations, IL [E] 
Curt Fogel, Vaaler Insurance, Inc., ND [I] 
Antonio Freire, Axa Courtage, France [I] 
Donald W. Harris, California Office of Health Planning 
& Development, CA [E] 

Thomas W. Jaeger, Gage-Babcock & Associates, Inc., VA 
[U] 

Rep. American Health Care Association 



Ronald K. Mengel, System Sensor, IL [M] 

Rep. National Electrical Manufacturers Association 
John I. Mills, Beery, Rio & Associates, VA [SE] 
Kirby W. Perry, Kirby W. Perry Architects & Associates, 
Inc., TX [SE] 

Rep. American Institute of Architects 
Peter P. Petresky, Pennsylvania Department of Health, 
PA [E] 

Rep. Association of Health Facility Survey Agencies 
Brian Prediger, U.S. Department of the Army, MD [U] 
Thomas A. Salamone, Healthcare & Life Safety Concepts, 
NY [I] 

Rep. Kemper Insurance Companies 
David M. Sine, David M. Sine & Associates, TX [U] 

Rep. National Association of Psychiatric Health 

Systems 
Richard D. Strub, Life Care Centers of America, TN [U] 

Rep. NFPA Health Care Section 
Mayer D. Zimmerman, U.S. Department of Health and 
Human Services, MD [E] 



Alternates 



James H. Antell, The RJA Group, Inc., IL [SE] 

(Alt. to M. Crowley) 
John F. Deubler, Schirmer Engineering Corporation, VA 
[SE] 

(Alt. to D.J. O'Connor) 
Lori Drexler, Code Consultants, Inc., MO [SE] 

(Alt. to J. R. Ambrose) 
J. Richard Fruth, Hayes Large Architects, PA [SE] 

(Alt. to K. W. Perry) 



Thomas W. Gardner, Gage-Babcock & Associates, Inc., VA 
[SE] 

(Alt. to T.W.Jaeger) 
Philip R. Jose, U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs, NY [U] 

(Alt. to K. Faulstich) 
William E. Koffel, Koffel Associates, Inc., MD [U] 

(Alt. to D. S. Erickson) 
John S. Taylor, St. Vincent's Hospital, AL [U] 

(Alt. to R. D. Strub) 



Nonvoting 

Pichaya Chantranuwat, Fusion Consultants Co. Ltd., 
Thailand 

Ron Cote, NFPA Staff Liaison 

Committee Scope: This Committee shall have primary responsibility for documents on protection of human 
life and property from fire and other circumstances capable of producing similar consequences, and on the 
emergency movement of people, in health care occupancies. 



2003 Edition 



COMMITTEE PERSONNEL 



101-13 



Technical Committee on Industrial, Storage and Miscellaneous Occupancies (SAF-IND) 

Wayne D. Holmes, Chair 
HSB Professional Loss Control, CT [I] 

Walter P. Sterling, Nonvoting Secretary 
NFPA, MA 



John A. Alderman, RRS Engineering, TX [SE] 

Rep. American Society of Safety Engineers 
Raymond E. Arntson, Rayden Research LLC, Wl [SE] 
Donald C. Bircyer, FP&C Consultants Inc., MO [SE] 
Howard M. Bucci, U.S. Department of Energy, WA [U] 
Timothy T. Galas, Ralph Gerdes Consultants, LLC, IN [SE] 
John F. Farney, Jr., Sargent & Lundy Engineers, IL [SE] 
Larry L. Fluer, Fluer, Incorporated, CA [M] 

Rep. Compressed Gas Association 
Larry N. Garrett, Delphi Automotive Systems Corp., IN [U] 

Rep. NFPA Industrial Fire Protection Section 
James Golinveaux, Tyco Fire Products, RI [M] 

Rep. American Fire Sprinkler Association, Inc. 
Dale A. Harsfabarger, Hebron Fire Protection District, KY 
[E] 
Bruce W. Hisley, Fairfield, PA [E] 

Rep. International Fire Marshals Association 
Jonathan Humble, American Iron and Steel Institute, CT 
[M] 



Ronald Keefer, Menlo Park Fire Protection District, CA 

[E] 

Marshall A. Klein, Marshall A. Klein & Associates, Inc., 

MD [U] 

Rep. Automotive Oil Change Association 
Neal W. Krantz, Siemens Fire Safety, MI [M] 

Rep. National Electrical Manufacturers Association 
Raymond W. Lonabaugh, National Fire Sprinkler 
Association, PA [M] 
Patrick A. McLaughlin, McLaughlin & Associates, CA [U] 

Rep. Semiconductor Industry Association 
Jeffrey M. Shapiro, International Code Consultants, TX 
[M] 

Rep. The Chlorine Institute 
Stephen V. Skalko, Portland Cement Association, GA [M] 
David C. Tabar, The Sherwin-Williams Company, OH [U] 
Gregory W. Thomas, Liberty Mutual Group, CT [I] 

Rep. Alliance of American Insurers 
Carl Dewayne Wren, Austin Fire Department, TX [E] 



Alternates 



Thomas L. Allison, Westinghouse Savannah River 
Company, SC [U] 

(Vot. Alt. to Westinghouse Savannah River Co. Rep.) 
Clarence D. (Dale) Eggen, U.S. Department of Energy, 
WA[U] 

(Alt. to H. M. Bucci) 
Jack Gump, HSB Professional Loss Control, TN [I] 

(Alt. to W. D. Holmes) 
David M. Hammerman, Marshall A. Klein & Associates, 
Inc., MD [U] 

(Alt. to M. A. Klein) 
Roland J. Huggins, American Fire Sprinkler Association, 
Inc., TX [M] 

(Alt. to J. Golinveaux) 



Mark Kluver, Portland Cement Association, CA [M] 

(Alt. to S. V. Skalko) 
William E. Koffel, Koffel Associates, Inc., MD [U] 

(Alt. to P. A. McLaughlin) 
Michael E. Lyden, The Chlorine Institute, Inc., DC [M] 

(Alt. to J. M. Shapiro) 
Roger A Smith, Compressed Gas Association, Inc.,\A [M] 

(Alt. to L. L. Fluer) 
Robert J. Wills, American Iron and Steel Institute, AL [M] 

(Alt. toj. Humble) 



Walter P. Sterling, NFPA Staff Liaison 

Committee Scope: This Committee shall have primary responsibility for documents on protection of human 
life and property from fire and other circumstances capable of producing similar consequences, and on the 
emergency movement of people, in industrial and storage occupancies, special structures, windowless and 
underground buildings, and high-rise buildings. 



2003 Edition 



101-14 



LIFE SAFETY CODE 



Technical Committee on Means of Egress (SAF-MEA) 



William E. Koffel, Jr., Chair 
Koffel Associates, Inc., MD [SE] 



Ron Cote, Nonvoting Secretary 
NFPA, MA 



John L. Barrios, Tampa Department of Business and 
Community Services, FL [E] 

Rep. Southern Building Code Congress Intl 

Inc. /International Code Council, Inc. 
John L. Bryan, Frederick, MD [SE] 
Kenneth E. Bush, Maryland State Fire Marshals Office, 
MD [E] 

Rep. International Fire Marshals Association 
Davie J. Camp, Thyssen Krupp Elevator, TN [M] 

Rep. National Elevator Industry Inc. 
Steven DiPilla, ACE USA/ESIS Risk Control Services, NJ 

[I] 

Rep. American Society of Safety Engineers 
Joshua W. Elvove, U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs, 
CO[U] 

Gene B. Endthoff, National Fire Sprinkler Association, 
IL[M] 

Philip C. Favro, Philip C. Favro & Associates, CA [SE] 
Edward L. Fixen, Schirmer Engineering Corporation, CA 

[I] 

David W. Frable, U.S. General Services Administration, 

IL[U] 

Rita C. Guest, Carson Guest, Inc., GA [U] 

Rep. American Society of Interior Designers 



Billy G. Helton, Lithonia Emergency Systems, GA [M] 

Rep. National Electrical Manufacturers Association 
Lawrence J. McGinty, U.S. Central Intelligence Agency, 
DC [U] 

Wayne Menuz, Underwriters Laboratories Inc., CA [RT] 
Richard A. Morris, National Association of Home 
Builders, DC [U] 

Jake Pauls, Jake Pauls Consulting Services in Building 
Use & Safety, MD [C] 

Rep. American Public Health Association 
Robert R. Perry, Robert Perry Associates Inc., IL [M] 

Rep. Door & Hardware Institute 
Eric Rosenbaum, Hughes Associates, Inc., MD [SE] 
Leslie Strull, The RJA Group, Inc., IL [SE] 
Michael Tierney, Builders Hardware Manufacturers 
Association, CT [M] 
Michael D. Tomy, Heery International Inc., GA [SE] 

Rep. American Institute of Architects 
Joseph H. Versteeg, Versteeg Associates, CT [E] 

Rep. Fairfield CT Fire Marshal's Office 
David L. Wismer, Philadelphia Department of Licenses 
& Inspections, PA [E] 



Alternates 



John R. Battles, Southern Building Code Congress 
International, AL [E] 

(Alt. to J. L. Barrios) 
Charles H. Berry, Baltimore VA Medical Center, MD [U] 

(Alt. to J. W. Elvove) 
Warren D. Bonisch, Schirmer Engineering Corporation, 
TX [SE] 

(Alt. to E. L. Fixen) 
Edward A. Donoghue, Edward A. Donoghue Associates, 
Inc., NY [M] 

(Alt. to D.J. Camp) 
Barbara Ebstein, Vinick Associates, Inc., CT [U] 

(Alt. to R. C. Guest) 
David A. Gild;). Builders Hardware Manufacturers 
Association, CT [M] 

(Alt. to M. Tierney) 
Miles J. Haber, Monument Construction Inc., MD [M] 

(Alt. to R. A. Morris) 



James K. Lathrop, Koffel Associates, Inc., CT [SE] 

(Alt. to W.E. Koffel, Jr.) 
R. T. Leicht, Delaware Fire Marshal's Office, DE [E] 

(Alt. to K. E. Bush) 
James A. Milke, University of Maryland, MD [SE] 

(Alt. to J. L. Bryan) 
Ronald H. Minter, Thomas & Betts, TN [M] 

(Alt. to B. G. Helton) 
Harold E. Nelson, Hughes Associates, Inc., VA [SE] 

(Alt. to E. R. Rosenbaum) 
Roy W. Schwarzenberg, U.S. Central Intelligence Agency, 
DC [U] 

(Alt. to L.J. McGinty) 
Michael S. Shulman, Underwriters Laboratories Inc., CA 
[RT] 

(Alt. to W. Menuz) 



Nonvoting 

Pichaya Chantranuwat, Fusion Consultants Co. Ltd., 
Thailand 

Ron Cote, NFPA Staff Liaison 

Committee Scope: This Committee shall have primary responsibility for documents on the general require- 
ments for safe egress for protection of human life from fire and other circumstances capable of producing 
similar consequences and on the nonemergency and emergency movement of people. 



2003 Edition 



COMMITTEE PERSONNEL 



101-15 



Technical Coimmaittee on Mercantile and Business Occupancies (SAF-MER) 



Ed Scfaultz, Chair 
Code Consultants Inc., MO [SE] 



Walter P. Sterling, Nonvoting Secretary 
NFPA, MA 



David M. Banwarth, David M. Banwarth Associates, LLC, 
MD [SE] 

E. Joseph Bocci, U.S. Department of the Treasury, DC [U] 
Kenneth E. Bush, Maryland State Fire Marshals Office, 
MD [E] 

Rep. International Fire Marshals Association 
David A. Dodge, Safety and Forensic Consulting, ME [SE] 

Rep. American Society of Safety Engineers 
Douglas S. Erickson, American Society for Healthcare 
Engineering, VI [U] 

Sam W. Francis, American Forest & Paper Association, PA 
[M] 

Douglas R. Freels, Performance Design Technologies, 
TN [SE] 
Daniel J. Gauvin, Simplex Time Recorder Co., MA [M] 

Rep. National Electrical Manufacturers Association 
William Hiotaky, The Taubman Company, MI [U] 



Wayne D. Holmes, HSB Professional Loss Control, CT [I] 
Jonathan Humble, American Iron and Steel Institute, CT 
[M] 
Michael J. Laderoute, MJL Associates, Inc., VA [M] 

Rep. Fire Equipment Manufacturers' Association 
Brian L. Marburger, Kemper Insurance Companies, IL [I] 

Rep. American Insurance Services Group 
Richard V. Moon, Insurance Services Office, NJ [I] 
Lawrence G. Perry, Building Owners & Managers Assn. 
International, MD [U] 

Sheldon S. Rucinski, Schirmer Engineering Corporation, 
IL [I] 

David C, Tabar, The Sherwin-Williams Company, OH [U] 
Richard P. Thornberry, The Code Consortium, Inc., CA 
[SE] 
William J. Tomes, TVA Fire and Life Safety, GA [U] 

Rep. The Home Depot 



Alternates 



Tracey D. Bellamy, TVA Fire and Life Safety, GA [U] 

(Alt. to W.J. Tomes) 
Darryl Thomas Brown, Performance Design 
Technologies, TN [SE] 

(Alt. to D. R. Freels) 
Lawrence G. Danielldewicz, The Taubman Company, MI 
[U] 

(Alt. to W. Hiotaky) 
Jack Gump, HSB Professional Loss Control, TN [I] 

(Alt. to W. D. Holmes) 
Patrick A. McLaughlin, McLaughlin & Associates, RI [U] 

(Alt. to D. C. Tabar) 
Richard R. Osman, Schirmer Engineering Corporation, 
IL [SE] 

(Alt. to S. S. Rucinski) 



Dennis L. Pitts, American Forest & Paper Association, TX 
[M] 

(Alt. to S. W. Francis) 
Terry Schultz, Code Consultants, Inc., MO [SE] 

(Alt. to E. Schultz) 
Robert J. Wills, American Iron and Steel Institute, AL [M] 

(Alt. to J. Humble) 
Dale Woodin, American Society for Healthcare 
Engineering, IL [U] 

(Alt. to D. S. Erickson) 



Walter P. Sterling, NFPA Staff Liaison 

Committee Scope: This Committee shall have primary responsibility for documents on protection of human 
life and property from fire and other circumstances capable of producing similar consequences, and for the 
emergency movement of people, in mercantile and business occupancies. 



2003 Edition 



101-16 



LIFE SAFETY CODE 



Technical Committee on Residential Occupancies (SAF-RES) 



James K. Lathrop, 
Koffel Associates, Inc.. 



Chair 
CT [SE] 



Gregory E. Harrington, Nonvoting Secretary 
NFPA, MA 



Warren D. Bonisch, Schirmer Engineering Corporation, 

TX [I] 

H. Wayne Boyd, U.S. Safety & Engineering Corp., CA 

[M] 

Harry L. Bradley, Maryland State Fire Marshals Office, 

MD [E] 

Rep. International Fire Marshals Association 
Phillip A. Brown, American Fire Sprinkler Association, 
Inc., TX [IM] 

James J. Convery, Gage-Babcock & Associates, Inc., VA 
[SE] 
Thomas G. Daly, Hilton Hotels Corporation, CA [U] 

Rep. NFPA Lodging Industry Section 
Matthew D. Dobson, National Association of Home 
Builders, DC [U] 

Sam W. Francis, American Forest & Paper Association, PA 
[M] 
Ralph Gerdes, Ralph Gerdes Consultants, LLC, IN [SE] 



Kenneth E. Isman, National Fire Sprinkler Association, 

NY[M] 

Marshall A. Klein, Marshall A. Klein & Associates, Inc., 

MD [SE] 

Joseph J. Messersmith, Jr., Portland Cement Association, 

VA[M] 

Ronald G. Nickson, National Multi Housing Council, DC 

[U] 

Michael A. O'Hara, The MountainStar Group, MN [SE] 

Erin A. M. Oneisom, U.S. Air Force, Germany [U] 

Jake Pauls, Jake Pauls Consulting Services in Building 

Use & Safety, MD [C] 

Rep. American Public Health Association 
Peter Puhlick, University of Connecticut, CT [U] 
Jim Ray, Marriott International, Inc., DC [U] 

Rep. American Hotel & Lodging Association 
T. Hugh Talley, Hugh Talley Company, TN [M] 

Rep. American Furniture Manufacturers Association 



Alternates 



Carl F. Baldassarra, Schirmer Engineering Corporation, 
IL [I] 

(Alt. to W. Bonisch) 
James R. Bell, Marriott International, Inc., DC [U] 

(Alt. to J. Ray) 
Byron L. Bariese, The RJA Group, Inc., VA [U] 

(Alt. to T. G. Daly) 
David Cook, Ralph Gerdes Consultants, IN [SE] 

(Alt. to R. Gerdes) 
Thomas W. Gardner, Gage-Babcock & Associates, Inc., VA 
[SE] 

(Alt. to J. J. Convery) 
Greg Gottlieb, Hauppauge Fire District, NY [C] 

(Alt. to NFPA/FSS Rep.) 
David M. Hammerman, Marshall A. Klein and Associates, 
Inc., MD [SE] 

(Alt. to M. A. Klein) 



Stanley C. Harbuck, School of Building Inspection, UT [C] 

(Alt. to J. Pauls) 
Robert Howe, Vermont Department of Labor &; Industry, 
VT[E] 

(Alt. to H. L. Bradley) 
Mark Kluver, Portland Cement Association, CA [M] 

(Alt. to J. J. Messersmith, Jr.) 
Dennis L. Pitts, American Forest & Paper Association, TX 
[M] 

(Alt. to S. W. Francis) 
Jeffrey M. Shapiro, International Code Consultants, TX 
[U] 

(Alt. to R. G. Nickson) 
Victoria Valentine, National Fire Sprinkler Association, 
NY[M] 

(Alt. to K E. Isman) 
Fred K. Walker, U.S. Air Force, FL [U] 

(Alt. to E. A. M. Oneisom) 



Gregory E. Harrington, NFPA Staff Liaison 

Committee Scope: This Committee shall have primary responsibility for documents on protection of human 
life and property from fire and other circumstances capable of producing similar consequences, and on the 
emergency movement of people, in hotels, dormitories, apartments, lodging and rooming houses, and one- 
and two-family dwellings. 

NOTE: Membership on a committee shall not in and of itself constitute an endorsementof the Association or 
any document developed by the committee on which the member serves. 

These lists represent the membership at the time the Committees were balloted on the final text of this edition. Since that time, 
changes in the membership may have occurred. A key to classifications is found at the back of the document. 



2003 Edition 



CONTENTS 



101-17 



Chapter 1 Administration! 101— 21 

1.1 Scope 101-21 

1.2 Purpose 101- 21 

1.3 Application 101- 21 

1.4 Equivalency 101- 21 

1.5 Units and Formulas 101-21 

1.6 Enforcement 101- 21 

Chapter 2 Referenced Publications 101-21 

2.1 General 101- 21 

2.2 NFPA Publications 101- 21 

2.3 Other Publications 101-22 

ChapterS Definitions 101- 23 

3.1 General 101- 23 

3.2 NFPA Official Definitions 101- 23 

3.3 General Definitions 101-23 

Chapter4 General 101- 32 

4.1 Goals 101- 32 

4.2 Objectives 101- 32 

4.3 Assumption 101- 32 

4.4 Life Safety Compliance Options 101- 32 

4.5 Fundamental Requirements 101- 32 

4.6 General Requirements 101— 33 

4.7 FireDrills 101- 34 

4.8 Emergency Plan 101- 34 

Chapter5 Performance-Based Option 101— 34 

5.1 General Requirements 101-34 

5.2 Performance Criteria 101-35 

5.3 Retained Prescriptive Requirements .... 101- 35 

5.4 Design Specifications and Other 

Conditions 101- 35 

5.5 Design Fire Scenarios 101- 36 

5.6 Evaluation of Proposed Designs 101- 36 

5.7 Safety Factors 101-37 

5.8 Documentation Requirements 101- 37 

Chapter 6 Classification of Occupancy and 

Hazard of Contents 101- 37 

6.1 Classification of Occupancy 101— 37 

6.2 Hazard of Contents 101-39 

Chapter? Means of Egress 101- 41 

7.1 General 101- 41 

7.2 Means of Egress Components 101- 43 

7.3 Capacity of Means of Egress 101- 61 

7.4 Number of Means of Egress 101- 63 

7.5 Arrangement of Means of Egress 101— 63 

7.6 Measurement of Travel Distance to 

Exits 101- 65 

7.7 Discharge from Exits 101- 65 

7.8 Illumination of Means of Egress 101- 66 



7.9 Emergency Lighting 101- 67 

7.10 Marking of Means of Egress 101- 68 

7.11 Special Provisions for Occupancies 

with High Harzard Contents 101- 69 

7.12 Mechanical Equipment Rooms, Boiler 

Rooms, and Furnace Rooms 101— 70 

Chapters Features of Fire Protection 101— 70 

8.1 General ....: 101- 70 

8.2 Construction and Com partmentation ... 101— 70 

8.3 Fire Barriers 101- 71 

8.4 Smoke Partitions 101- 73 

8.5 Smoke Barriers 101- 74 

8.6 Vertical Openings 101- 75 

8.7 Special Hazard Protection 101- 78 

Chapter 9 Building Service and Fire Protection 

Equipment 101- 78 

9.1 Utilities 101- 78 

9.2 Heating, Ventilating, and 

Air-Conditioning 101- 78 

9.3 Smoke Control 101-79 

9.4 Elevators, Escalators, and Conveyors 101- 79 

9.5 Rubbish Chutes, Incinerators, and 

Laundry Chutes 101- 79 

9.6 Fire Detection, Alarm, and 
Communications Systems 101- 80 

9.7 Automatic Sprinklers and Other 
Extinguishing Equipment 101- 82 

9.8 Special Inspections and Tests 101- 83 

Chapter 10 Interior Finish, Contents, and 

Furnishings 101— 83 

10.1 General 101- 83 

10.2 Interior Finish 1101- 84 

10.3 Contents and Furnishings 101-86 

Chapter 11 Special Structures and High-Rise 

Buildings 101- 86 

11.1 General Requirements 101- 86 

11.2 Open Structures 101-87 

11.3 Towers 101- 87 

11.4 Water-Surrounded Structures 101- 88 

11.5 Piers 101- 89 

11.6 Vehicles and Vessels 101- 89 

11.7 Underground and Limited Access 

Structures 101- 89 

11.8 High-Rise Buildings 101- 90 

11.9 Permanent Membrane Structures 101-90 

11.10 Temporary Membrane Structures 101- 92 

11.11 Tents 101- 93 



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Chapter 12 New Assembly Occupancies 101— 94 

12.1 General Requirements 101- 94 

12.2 Means of Egress Requirements 101— 94 

12.3 Protection 101-101 

12.4 Special Provisions 101-103 

12.5 Building Services 101-110 

12.6 Reserved 101-110 

12.7 Operating Features ; 101-110 

Chapter 13 Existing Assembly Occupancies 101—113 

13.1 General Requirements 101-113 

13.2 Means of Egress Requirements 101-115 

13.3 Protection 101-120 

13.4 Special Provisions 101-122 

13.5 Building Services 101-128 

13.6 Reserved 101-128 

13.7 Operating Features 101-128 

Chapter 14 New Educational Occupancies 101-132 

14.1 General Requirements 101-132 

14.2 Means of Egress Requirements 101—132 

14.3 Protection 101-134 

14.4 Special Provisions 101-135 

14.5 Building Services 101-136 

14.6 Reserved 101-136 

14.7 Operating Features 101-136 

Chapter 15 Existing Educational Occupancies ... 101-136 

15.1 General Requirements 101-136 

15.2 Means of Egress Requirements 101—137 

15.3 Protection 101-139 

15.4 Special Provisions 101-140 

15.5 Building Services 101-141 

15.6 Reserved 101-141 

15.7 Operating Features 101-141 

Chapter 16 New Day-Care Occupancies 101-141 

16.1 General Requirements 101-141 

16.2 Means of Egress Requirements 101—142 

16.3 Protection 101-143 

16.4 Special Provisions 101-145 

16.5 Building Services 101-145 

16.6 Day-Care Homes 101-145 

16.7 Operating Features 101-147 

Chapter 17 Existing Day-Care Occupancies 101—147 

17.1 General Requirements 101-147 

17.2 Means of Egress Requirements 101-148 

17.3 Protection 101-150 

17.4 Special Provisions 101-151 

17.5 Building Services 101-151 

17.6 Day-Care Homes 101-152 

17.7 Operating Features 101-153 



Chapter 18 New Health Care Occupancies 101-154 

18.1 General Requirements 101-154 

18.2 Means of Egress Requirements 101-156 

18.3 Protection 101-159 

18.4 Special Provisions 101-162 

18.5 Building Services 101-164 

18.6 Reserved 101-164 

18.7 Operating Features 101-164 

Chapter 19 Existing Health Care Occupancies ... 101—166 

19.1 General Requirements 101-166 

19.2 Means of Egress Requirements 101-168 

19.3 Protection 101-170 

19.4 Special Provisions 101-175 

19.5 Building Services 101-175 

19.6 Reserved 101-176 

19.7 Operating Features 101-176 

Chapter 20 New Ambulatory Health Care 

Occupancies 101—177 

20.1 General Requirements 101-177 

20.2 Means of Egress Requirements 101—179 

20.3 Protection 101-179 

20.4 Special Provisions 101-181 

20.5 Building Services 101-181 

20.6 Reserved 101-181 

20.7 Operating Features 101-181 

Chapter 21 Existing Ambulatory Health Care 

Occupancies 101-182 

21.1 General Requirements 101-182 

21.2 Means of Egress Requirements 101-184 

21.3 Protection 101-185 

21.4 Special Provisions 101-186 

21.5 Building Services 101-186 

21.6 Reserved 101-186 

21.7 Operating Features 101-186 

Chapter 22 New Detention and Correctional 

Occupancies 101—187 

22.1 General Requirements 101-187 

22.2 Means of Egress Requirements 101-189 

22.3 Protection 101-191 

22.4 Special Provisions 101-193 

22.5 Building Services 101-196 

22.6 Reserved 101-197 

22.7 Operating Features 101-197 

Chapter 23 Existing Detention and Correctional 

Occupancies 101—198 

23.1 General Requirements 101-198 

23.2 Means of Egress Requirements 101-200 

23.3 Protection 101-202 

23.4 Special Provisions 101-205 

23.5 Building Services 101-205 



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101-19 



23.6 (Reserved) 101-206 

23.7 Operating Features 101-206 

Chapter 24 One- and Two-Family Dwellings 101-207 

24.1 General Requirements 101-207 

24.2 Means of Escape Requirements 101-207 

24.3 Protection 101-209 

24.4 Reserved 101-209 

24.5 Building Services 101-209 

Chapter 25 Reserved 101-209 

Chapter 26 Lodging or Rooming Houses 1 1-209 

26.1 General Requirements 101-209 

26.2 Means of Escape Requirements 101-210 

26.3 Protecdon 101-210 

26.4 Reserved 101-211 

26.5 Building Services 101-211 

Chapter27 Reserved 101-211 

Chapter28 New Hotels and Dormitories 101-211 

28.1 General Requirements 101-211 

28.2 Means of Egress Requirements 101-212 

28.3 Protecdon 101-214 

28.4 Special Provisions 101-215 

28.5 Building Services 101-215 

28.6 Reserved 101-215 

28.7 Operating Features 101-216 

Chapter 29 Existing Hotels and Dormitories 101-216 

29.1 General Requirements 101-216 

29.2 Means of Egress Requirements 101-216 

29.3 Protection 101-218 

29.4 Special Provisions 101-220 

29.5 Building Services 101-220 

29.6 Reserved 101-220 

29.7 Operating Features 101-220 

Chapter 30 New Apartment Buildings 101-220 

30.1 General Requirements 101-220 

30.2 Means of Egress Requirements 101-221 

30.3 Protection 101-222 

30.4 Special Provisions 101-224 

30.5 Building Services 101-224 

30.6 Reserved 101-225 

30.7 Operating Features: Emergency 
Instructions for Residents of 

Apartment Buildings 101-225 

Chapter 31 Existing Apartment Buildings 101-225 

31.1 General Requirements 101-225 

31.2 Means of Egress Requirements 101-225 

31.3 Protection 101-227 

31.4 Special Provisions 101-229 

31.5 Building Services 101-229 



31.6 Reserved 101-229 

31.7 Operating Features: Emergency 
Instructions for Residents of 

Apartment Buildings 101-229 

Chapter 32 New Residential Board and Care 

Occupancies 101-229 

32.1 General Requirements 101-229 

32.2 Small Facilities 101-230 

32.3 Large Facilities 101-233 

32.4 Suitability of an Apartment Building to 
House a Board and Care 

Occupancy 101-236 

32.5 Reserved 101-236 

32.6 Reserved 101-236 

32.7 Operating Features 101-236 

Chapter 33 Existing Residential Board and 

Care Occupancies 101—237 

33.1 General Requirements 101-237 

33.2 Small Facilities 101-238 

33.3 Large Facilities 101-242 

33.4 Suitability of an Apartment Building to 
House a Board and Care 

Occupancy 101-246 

33.5 Reserved 101-246 

33.6 Reserved 101-246 

33.7 Operating Features 101-246 

Chapter34 Reserved 101-247 

Chapter35 Reserved 101-247 

Chapter 36 New Mercantile Occupancies 101—247 

36.1 General Requirements 101-247 

36.2 Means of Egress Requirements 101-248 

36.3 Protection 101-250 

36.4 Special Provisions 101-251 

36.5 Building Services 101-254 

36.6 Reserved 101-254 

36.7 Operating Features 101-254 

Chapter37 Existing Mercantile Occupancies 101-254 

37.1 General Requirements 101-254 

37.2 Means of Egress Requirements 101-255 

37.3 Protection 101-257 

37.4 Special Provisions 101-258 

37.5 Building Services 101-260 

37.6 Reserved 101-260 

37.7 Operating Features 101-260 

Chapter 38 New Business Occupancies 101-260 

38.1 General Requirements 101-260 

38.2 Means of Egress Requirements 101-261 

38.3 Protection 101-263 

38.4 Special Provisions 101-263 



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38.5 Building Services 101-264 

38.6 Reserved 101-264 

38.7 Operating Features 101-264 

Chapter 39 Existing Business Occupancies 101-264 

39.1 General Requirements 101-264 

39.2 Means of Egress Requirements 101-264 

39.3 Protection 101-266 

39.4 Special Provisions 101-267 

39.5 Building Services 101-267 

39.6 Reserved 101-267 

39.7 Operating Features 101-267 

Chapter 40 Industrial Occupancies 101—267 

40.1 General Requirements 101-267 

40.2 Means of Egress Requirements 101-268 

40.3 Protection 101-270 

40.4 Special Provisions: High-Rise Buildings ... 101-271 

40.5 Building Services 101-271 

40.6 Special Provisions for Aircraft 

Servicing Hangars 101-271 



Chapter41 Reserved 101-271 

Chapter 42 Storage Occupancies 101—271 

42.1 General Requirements 101-271 

42.2 Means of Egress Requirements 101-271 

42.3 Protection 101-273 

42.4 Special Provisions 101-274 

42.5 Building Services 101-274 

42.6 Special Provisions for Aircraft Storage 

Hangars 101-274 

42.7 Special Provisions for Grain or Other 

Bulk Storage Elevators 101-274 

42.8 Special Provisions for Parking 

Structures 101-274 

AnnexA Explanatory Material 101-276 

Annex B Informational References 101-357 

Index 101-360 



2003 Edition 



REFERENCED PUBLICATIONS 



101-21 



NFPA 101® 
Life Safety Code® 

2003 Edition 

NOTICE: An asterisk (*) following the number or letter designating 
a paragraph indicates that explanatory material on the paragraph 
can be found in Annex A. 

Changes other than editorial are indicated by a vertical 
rule beside the paragraph, table, or figure in which the 
change occurred. These rules are included as an aid to the 
user in identifying changes from the previous edition. Where 
one or more complete paragraphs have been deleted, the de- 
letion is indicated by a bullet (°) between the paragraphs that 
remain. 

A reference in brackets [ ] following a section or paragraph 
indicates material that has been extracted from another NFPA 
document. As an aid to the user, Annex B lists the complete 
title and edition of the source documents for both mandatory 
and nonmandatory extracts. Editorial changes to extracted 
material consist of revising references to an appropriate divi- 
sion in this document or the inclusion of the document num- 
ber with the division number when the reference is to the 
original document. Requests for interpretations or revisions 
of extracted text shall be sent to the technical committee re- 
sponsible for the source document. 

Information on referenced publications can be found in 
Chapter 2 and Annex B. 

Chapter 1 Administration 

1.1* Scope. 

1.1.1 Title. NFPA 101®, Life Safety Code® shall be known as the 
Life Safety Code 9 , is cited as such, and shall be referred to 
herein as "this Code" or "the Code." 

1.1.2* Danger to Life from Fire. The Code addresses those con- 
struction, protection, and occupancy features necessary to mini- 
mize danger to life from fire, including smoke, fumes, or panic. 

1.1.3 Egress Facilities. The Code establishes minimum criteria 
for the design of egress facilities so as to allow prompt escape 
of occupants from buildings or, where desirable, into safe ar- 
eas within buildings. 

1.1.4 Other Fire-Related Considerations. The Code addresses 
other considerations that are essential to life safety in recogni- 
tion of the fact that life safety is more than a matter of egress. 
The Code also addresses protective features and systems, build- 
ing services, operating features, maintenance activities, and 
other provisions in recognition of the fact that achieving an 
acceptable degree of life safety depends on additional safe- 
guards to provide adequate egress time or protection for 
people exposed to fire. 

1.1.5* Considerations Not Related to Fire. The Code also ad- 
dresses other considerations that, while important in fire con- 
ditions, provide an ongoing benefit in other conditions of use, 
including non-fire emergencies. 

1.1.6 Areas Not Addressed. The Code does not address the 
following: 

(l)*General fire prevention or building construction features 
that are normally a function of fire prevention codes and 
building codes 



(2) Prevention of injury incurred by an individual due to that 
individual's failure to use reasonable care 

(3) Preservation of property from loss by fire 

1.2* Purpose. The purpose of this Code is to provide minimum 
requirements, with due regard to function, for the design, op- 
eration, and maintenance of buildings and structures for 
safety to life from fire. Its provisions will also aid life safety in 
similar emergencies. 

1.3* Application. 

1.3.1* New and Existing Buildings and Structures. The Code 
shall apply to both new construction and existing buildings 
and existing structures. 

1.3.2 Vehicles and Vessels. The Code shall apply to vehicles, 
vessels, or other similar conveyances, as specified in Section 
11.6, in which case such vehicles and vessels shall be treated as 
buildings. 

1.4* Equivalency. Nothing in this Code is intended to prevent 
the use of systems, methods, or devices of equivalent or supe- 
rior quality, strength, fire resistance, effectiveness, durability, 
and safety over those prescribed by this Code. 

1.4.1 Technical Documentation. Technical documentation 
shall be submitted to the authority havingjurisdiction to dem- 
onstrate equivalency. 

1.4.2 Approval. The system, method, or device shall be ap- 
proved for the intended purpose by the authority havingjuris- 
diction. 

1.4.3* Equivalent Compliance. Alternative systems, methods, or 
devices approved as equivalent by the authority havingjurisdic- 
tion shall be recognized as being in compliance with this Code. 

1.5 Units and Formulas. 

1.5.1 SI Units. Metric units of measurement in this Coctearein 
accordance with the modernized metric system known as the 
International System of Units (SI). 

1.5.2 Primary Values. The SI value for a measurement, and 
the inch-pound value given in parentheses, shall each be ac- 
ceptable for use as primary units for satisfying the require- 
ments of this Code. 

1.6 Enforcement. This Code shall be administered and en- 
forced by the authority havingjurisdiction designated by the 
governing authority. 



Chapter 2 Referenced Pubhcations 

2.1 General. The documents or portions thereof listed in this 
chapter are referenced within this Code and shall be consid- 
ered part of the requirements of this document. 

2.2 NFPA Publications. National Fire Protection Association, 
1 Batterymarch Park, P.O. Box 9101, Quincy, MA 02269-9101. 

NFPA 10, Standard for Portable Fire Extinguishers, 2002 edition. 

NFPA 13, Standard for the Installation of Sprinkler Systems, 2002 
edition. 

NFPA 13D, Standard for the Installation of Sprinkler Systems in 
One- and Two-Family Dwellings and Manufactured Homes, 2002 
edition. 



2003 Edition 



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LIFE SAFETY CODE 



NFPA 13R, Standard for the Installation of Sprinkler Systems in 
Residential Occupancies up to and Including Four Stories in Height, 
2002 edition. 

NFPA 14, Standard for the Installation of Standpipe and Hose 
Systems, 2003 edition. 

NFPA 25, Standard for the Inspection, Testing, and Maintenance 
of Water-Based Fire Protection Systems, 2002 edition. 

NFPA 30, Flammable and Combustible Liquids Code, 2000 edi- 
tion. 

NFPA 30B, Code for the Manufacture and Storage of Aerosol Prod- 
ucts, 2002 edition. 

NFPA 31, Standard for the Installation of Oil-Burning Equip- 
ment, 2001 edition. 

NFPA 40, Standard for the Storage and Handling of Cellulose 
Nitrate Film, 2001 edition. 

NFPA 45, Standard on Fire Protection for Laboratories Using 
Chemicals, 2000 edition. 

NFPA 54, National Fuel Gas Code, 2002 edition. 

NFPA 58, Liquefied Petroleum Gas Code, 2001 edition. 

NFPA 70, National Electrical Code®, 2002 edition. 

NFPA 72®, National Fire Alarm Code 9 , 2002 edition. 

NFPA 80, Standard for Fire Doors and FireWindows, 1999 edition. 

NFPA 82, Standard on Incinerators and Waste and Linen Han- 
dling Systems and Equipment, 1999 edition. 

NFPA88A, Standard for Parking Structures, 2002 edition. 

NFPA90A, Standard for the Installation of Air-Conditioning and 
Ventilating Systems, 2002 edition. 

NFPA 90B, Standard for the Installation of Warm Air Heating 
and Air-Conditioning Systems, 2002 edition. 

NFPA 91 , Standard for Exhaust Systems for Air Conveying of Vapors, 
Gases, Mists, and Noncombustible Particulate Solids, 1999 edition. 

NFPA 96, Standard for Ventilation Control and Fire Protection of 
Commercial Cooking Operations, 2001 edition. 

NFPA 99, Standard for Health Care Facilities, 2002 edition. 

NFPA101A, Guide on Alternative Approaches to Life Safety, 2001 
edition. 

NFPA 110, Standard for Emergency and Standby Power Systems, 
2002 edition. 

NFPA 111, Standard on Stored Electrical Energy Emergency and 
Standby Power Systems, 2001 edition. 

NFPA 160, Standard for Flame Effects Before an Audience, 2001 
edition. 

NFPA 211, Standard for Chimneys, Fireplaces, Vents, and Solid 
Fuel-Burning Appliances, 2003 edition. 

NFPA 220, Standard on Types of Building Construction, 1999 
edition. 

NFPA 221, Standard for Fire Walls and Fire Barrier Walls, 2000 
edition. 

NFPA 230, Standard for the Fire Protection of Storage, 2003 edi- 
tion. 

NFPA 241, Standard for Safeguarding Construction, Alteration, 
and Demolition Operations, 2000 edition. 

NFPA 251 , Standard Methods of Tests of Fire Endurance of Build- 
ing Construction and Materials, 1999 edition. 

NFPA 252, Standard Methods of Fire Tests of Door Assemblies, 
1999 edition. 

NFPA 253, Standard Method of Test for Critical Radiant Flux of 
Floor Covering Systems Using a Radiant Heat Energy Source, 2000 
edition. 

NFPA 255, Standard Method of Test of Surface Burning Charac- 
teristics of Building Materials, 2000 edition. 

NFPA 256, Standard Methods of Fire Tests of Roof Coverings, 
1998 edition. 

NFPA 257, Standard on Fire Test for Window and Glass Block 
Assemblies, 2000 edition. 



NFPA 259, Standard Test Method for Potential Heat of Building 
Materials, 2003 edition. 

NFPA 260, Standard Methods of Tests and Classification System 
for Cigarette Ignition Resistance of Components of Upholstered Furni- 
ture, 1998 edition. 

NFPA 261, Standard Method of Test for Determining Resistance of 
Mock-Up Upholstered Furniture Material Assemblies to Ignition by 
Smoldering Cigarettes, 1998 edition. 

NFPA 265, Standard Methods of Fire Tests for Evaluating Room 
Fire Growth Contribution of Textile Coverings on Full Height Panels 
and Walls, 2002 edition. 

NFPA 267, Standard Method of Test for Fire Characteristics of 
Mattresses and Bedding Assemblies Exposed to Flaming Ignition 
Source, 1998 edition. 

NFPA 286, Standard Methods of Fire Tests for Evaluating Contri- 
bution of Wall and Ceiling Interior Finish to Room Fire Growth, 2000 
edition. 

NFPA 288, Standard Methods of Fire Tests of Floor Fire Door As- 
semblies Installed Horizontally in Fire Resistance-Rated Floor Sys- 
tems, 2001 edition. 

NFPA 418, Standard for Heliports, 2001 edition. 

NFPA 430, Code for the Storage of Liquid and Solid Oxidizers, 
2000 edition. 

NFPA 432, Code for the Storage of Organic Peroxide Formulations, 
2002 edition. 

NFPA 434, Code for the Storage of Pesticides, 2002 edition. 

NFPA 701, Standard Methods of Fire Tests for Flame Propagation 
of Textiles andFilms, 1999 edition. 

NFPA 703, Standard for Fire Retardant Impregnated Wood and 
Fire Retardant Coatings for Building Materials, 2000 edition. 

NFPA 1126, Standard for the Use of Pyrotechnics before a Proxi- 
mate Audience, 2001 edition. 

NFPA 5000™, Building Construction and Safety Code™, 2003 
edition. 

2.3 Other Publications. 

2.3.1 ACI Publication. American Concrete Institute, P.O. 
Box 9094, Farmington Hills, MI 48333. 

ACI 216.1/TMS 0216.1, Standard Method for Determining Fire 
Resistance of Concrete and Masonry Assemblies. 

2.3.2 ANSI Publications. American National Standards Insti- 
tute, Inc., 11 West 42nd Street, 13th floor, New York, NY10036. 

ANSIA14.3, Safety Requirements for Fixed Ladders, 1992. 

ICC/ANSI All 7.1, American National Standard for Accessible 
and Usable Buildings and Facilities, 1998. 

BHMA/ANSI A156.19, American National Standard for Power 
Assist and Low Energy Power Operated Doors, 1 997. 

ANSI Al 264. 1 , Safety Requirements for Workplace Root and Wall 
Openings, Stairs, and Railing Systems, 1995. 

ANSI/UL 1479, Standard for Fire Tests of Through-Penetration 
Firestops, 1995. 

ANSI/UL 2079, Tests of Fire Resistance of Building foint Sys- 
tems, 1998. Underwriters Laboratories Inc., 333 Pfingsten 
Road., Northbrook, IL 60062. 

2.3.3 ASCE Publication. American Society of Civil Engi- 
neers, 12801 Alexander Bell Drive, Reston, VA 20191. 

ASCE/SFPE 29, Standard Calculation Methods for Structural 
Fire Protection, 1999. 



2003 Edition 



DEFINITIONS 



101-23 



2.3.4 ASME Publications. American Society of Mechanical 
Engineers, Three Park Avenue, New York, NY 10016-5990. 

ASME A17.1, Safety Code for Elevators and Escalators, 2000. 

ASME A17.3, Safety Code for Existing Elevators and Escalators, 
including Addenda Al 7.3a-2000, 1996. 

2.3.5 ASTM Publications. American Society for Testing and 
Materials, 100 Barr Harbor Drive, West Conshohocken, PA 
19428-2959. 

ASTM D 2859, Flammability of Finished Textile Floor Covering 
Materials. 

ASTM D 2898, Standard Test Methods for Accelerated Weather- 
ing of Fire-Retardant-Treated Wood for Fire Testing, 1994 (1999). 

ASTM E 136, Standard Test Method for Behavior of Materials in 
a Vertical Tube Furnace at 750°C, 1999. 

ASTM E 814, Standard Test Method for Fire Tests of Through 
Penetration Fire Stops, 2002. 

ASTM E 1537, Standard Test Method for Fire Testing of Uphol- 
stered Furniture, 2001. 

ASTM E 1590, Standard Test Method for Fire Testing of Mat- 
tresses, 2001. 

ASTM E 1591, Standard Guide for Obtaining Data for Determin- 
istic Fire Models, 2000. 

ASTM F 851, Standard Test Method for Self-Rising Seat Mecha- 
nisms, 1987. 

ASTM G 155, Standard Practice for Operating Xenon Light Ap- 
paratus for Exposure of Non-Metallic Materials, 2000A el. 

2.3.6 UL Publications. Underwriters Laboratories Inc., 333 
Pfingsten Road, Northbrook, IL 60062, 

UL555, Standard for Fire Dampers, 1999. 

UL555S, Standard for Smoke Dampers, 1996. 

UL924, Emergency Lighting and Power Equipment, 1995. 

UL 1784, Standard for Air-Leakage Tests of Door Assemblies, 2001. 

UL 1975, Fire Tests for Foamed Plastics Used for Decorative Pur- 
poses, 1996. 

2.3.7 U.S. Govemmient Publication. U.S. Government Print- 
ing Office, Washington, DC 20402. 

Title 16, Code of Federal Regulations, Part 1632. 



Chapter 3 Definitions 

3.1 General. The definitions contained in this chapter shall 
apply to the terms used in this code. Where terms are not 
included, common usage of the terms shall apply. The follow- 
ing terms, for the purposes of this Code, shall have the mean- 
ings given in this chapter, if not otherwise modified by another 
chapter. Words used in the present tense shall include the 
future; words used in the masculine gender shall include the 
feminine and neuter; the singular number shall include the 
plural, and the plural number shall include the singular. 
Where terms are not defined in this chapter or within another 
chapter, they shall be defined using their ordinarily accepted 
meanings within the context in which they are used. Webster's 



Third New International Dictionary of the English Language, Un- 
abridged, shall be a source for ordinarily accepted meaning. 

3.2 NFPA Official Definitions. 

3.2.1* Approved. Acceptable to the authority havingjurisdic- 
tion. 

3.2.2* Authority Having Jurisdiction (AHJ). The organization, 
office, or individual responsible for approving equipment, ma- 
terials, an installation, or a procedure. 

3.2.3* Code. Astandard that is an extensive compilation of pro- 
visions covering broad subject matter or that is suitable for adop- 
tion into law independendy of other codes and standards. 

3.2.4 Labeled. Equipment or materials to which has been at- 
tached a label, symbol, or other identifying mark of an organiza- 
tion that is acceptable to the authority having jurisdiction and 
concerned with product evaluation, that maintains periodic in- 
spection of production of labeled equipment or materials, and 
by whose labeling the manufacturer indicates compliance with 
appropriate standards or performance in a specified manner. 

3.2.5* listed. Equipment, materials, or services included in a 
list published by an organization that is acceptable to the author- 
ity havingjurisdiction and concerned with evaluation of products 
or services, that maintains periodic inspection of production of 
listed equipment or materials or periodic evaluation of services, 
and whose listing states that either the equipment, material, or 
service meets appropriate designated standards or has been 
tested and found suitable for a specified purpose. 

3.2.6 Shall. Indicates a mandatory requirement. 

3.2.7 Should. Indicates a recommendation or that which is 
advised but not required. 

3.3 General Definitions. 

3.3.1 Accessible Area of Refuge. See 3.3.17.1. 

3.3.2 Accessible Means of Egress. See 3.3.136.1. 

3.3.3 Addition. An increase in the building area, aggregate 
floor area, height or number of stories of a structure. 

[ASCE 7:9.2.1] 

3.3.4 Air-Inflated Structure. See 3.3.217.1. 

3.3.5 Airport Loading Walkway. An aboveground device 
through which passengers move between a point in an airport 
terminal building and an aircraft. Included in this category 
are walkways that are essentially fixed and permanently 
placed, or walkways that are essentially mobile in nature and 
that fold, telescope, or pivot from a fixed point at the airport 
terminal building. [415:1.4] 

3.3.6 Airport Terminal Building. See 3.3.27.1. 

3.3.7* Air-Supported Structure. See 3.3.217.2. 

3.3.8* Aisle Accessway. The initial portion of an exit access 
that leads to an aisle. 

3.3.9 Alarm. 

3.3.9.1 Single Station Alarm. A detector comprising an as- 
sembly that incorporates a sensor, control components, 
and an alarm notification appliance in one unit operated 
from a power source either located in the unit or obtained 
at the point of installation. [72:1.4] 

3.3.9.2 Smoke Alarm. A single- or multiple-station alarm 
responsive to smoke. [72:1.4] 



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LIFE SAFETY CODE 



3.3.10 Alternative Calculation Procedure. A calculation proce- 
dure that differs from the procedure originally employed by 
the design team but that provides predictions for the same 
variables of interest. 

3.3.11 Ambulatory Health Care Occupancy. See 3.3.152.1. 

3.3.12 Analysis. 

3.3.12.1 Sensitivity Analysis. An analysis performed to de- 
termine the degree to which a predicted output will vary 
given a specified change in an input parameter, usually in 
relation to models. 

3.3.12.2 Uncertainty Analysis. An analysis performed to de- 
termine the degree to which a predicted value will vary. 

3.3.13 Anchor Building. See 3.3.27.2. 

3.3.14 Apartment Building. See 3.3.27.3. 

3.3.15 Approved Existing. See 3.3.60.1. 

3.3.16 Area. 

3.3.16.1 Detention and Correctional Residential Housing 
Area. Sleeping areas and any contiguous day room, group 
activity space, or other common space for customary access 
of residents. 

3.3.16.2 Floor Area. 

3.3.16.2.1* Gross Floor Area. The floor area within the in- 
side perimeter of the outside walls of the building under 
consideration with no deduction for hallways, stairs, clos- 
ets, thickness of interior walls, columns, or other features. 

3.3.16.2.2 Net Floor Area. The floor area within the inside 
perimeter of the outside walls, or the outside walls and fire 
walls of the building under consideration with deductions 
for hallways, stairs, closets, thickness of interior walls, col- 
umns, or other features. 

3.3.16.3 Gross Leasable Area. The total floor area designed 
for tenant occupancy and exclusive use. The area of tenant 
occupancy is measured from the centerlines of joint parti- 
dons to the outside of the tenant walls. 

3.3.16.4* Hazardous Area. An area of a structure or build- 
ing that poses a degree of hazard greater than that normal 
to the general occupancy of the building or structure. 

3.3.16.5 Living Area. Any normally occupiable space in a 
residential occupancy, other than sleeping rooms or rooms 
that are intended for combination sleeping/living, bath- 
rooms, toilet compartments, kitchens, closets, halls, stor- 
age or utility spaces, and similar areas. 

3.3.17* Area of Refuge. An area that is either (1) a story in a 
building where the building is protected throughout by an 
approved, supervised automatic sprinkler system and has not 
less than two accessible rooms or spaces separated from each 
other by smoke-resisting partitions; or (2) a space located in a 
path of travel leading to a public way that is protected from the 
effects of fire, either by means of separation from other spaces 
in the same building or by virtue of location, thereby permit- 
ting a delay in egress travel from any level. 

3.3.17.1 Accessible Area of Refuge. An area of refuge that 
complies with the accessible route requirements of ICC/ 
ANSI A117.1, American National Standard for Accessible and 
Usable Buildings and Facilities. 



3.3.18 Assembly. 

3.3.18.1 Fire Door Assembly. Any combination of a fire 
door, a frame, hardware, and other accessories that to- 
gether provide a specific degree of fire protection to the 
opening. [80:1.4] 

3.3.18.1.1 Floor Fire Door Assembly. A combination of a fire 
door, a frame, hardware, and other accessories installed in a 
horizontal plane, which together provide a specific degree of 
fire protection to a through-opening in a fire-rated floor. 

3.3.18.2 Fir,e Window Assembly. A window or glass block 
assembly having a fire protection rating. [80:1.4] 

3.3.19 Assembly Occupancy. See 3.3.152.2. 

3.3.20 Atmosphere. 

i 

3.3.20.1 Common Atmosphere. The atmosphere that exists 

between rooms, spaces, or areas within a building that are 
not separated by an approved smoke barrier. 

3.3.20.2 Separate Atmosphere. The atmosphere that exists 
between rooms, spaces, or areas that are separated by an 
approved smoke barrier. 

3.3.21* Atrium. A large-volume space created by a floor open- 
ing or series of floor openings connecting two or more stories 
that is covered at the top of the series of openings and is used for 
purposes other: than an enclosed stairway; an elevator hoistway; 
an escalator opening; or as a utility shaft used for plumbing, elec- 
trical, air-conditioning, or communications facilities. 

3.3.22 Automatic. That which provides a function without 
the necessity of human intervention. 

3.3.23 Barrier.! 

3.3.23.1* Fire Barrier. Acontinuous membrane or a mem- 
brane with discontinuities created by protected openings 
with a specified fire protection rating, where such mem- 
brane is designed and constructed with a specified fire re- 
sistance rating to limit the spread of fire, that also restricts 
the movement of smoke. 

3.3.23.2* Smoke Barrier. A continuous membrane, or a 
membrane with discontinuities created by protected open- 
ings, where such membrane is designed and constructed to 
restrict the movement of smoke. 

3.3.23.3* Thermal Barrier. A material that limits the aver- 
age temperature rise of an unexposed surface to not more 
than 139°C (250°F) for a specified fire exposure complying 
with the standard time-temperature curve of NFPA 251, 
Standard Methods of Tests of Fire Endurance of Building Con- 
struction and Materials. 

3.3.24* Birth Center. A facility in which low-risk births are 
expected following normal, uncomplicated pregnancies, and 
in which professional midwifery care is provided to women 
during pregnancy, birth, and postpartum. 

3.3.25 Bleachers. A grandstand in which the seats are not 
provided with backrests. 

3.3.26 Board and Care. See 3.3.152.13. 

3.3.27* Building. Any structure used or intended for support- 
ing or sheltering any use or occupancy. 

3.3.27.1 Airport Terminal Building. A structure used prima- 
rily for air passenger enplaning or deplaning, including 
ticket sales, flight information, baggage handling, and 



2003 Edition 



DEFINITIONS 



101-25 



other necessary functions in connection with air transport 
operation. This term includes any extensions and satellite 
buildings used for passenger handling or aircraft service 
functions. Aircraft loading walkways and "mobile lounges" 
are excluded. [415:1.4] 

3.3.27.2 Anchor Building. An exterior perimeter building 
of low or ordinary combustible contents having direct ac- 
cess to a mall building, but having all required means of 
egress independent of the mall. 

3.3.27.3* Apartment Building. A building or portion 
thereof containing three or more dwelling units with inde- 
pendent cooking and bathroom facilities. 

3.3.27.4 Bulk Merchandising Retail Building. A building in 
which the sales area includes the storage of combustible 
materials on pallets, in solid piles, or in racks in excess of 
3660 mm (144 in.) in storage height. 

3.3.27.5* Existing Building. A building erected or officially 
authorized prior to the effective date of the adoption of 
this edition of the Code by the agency or jurisdiction. 

3.3.27.6* Flexible Plan and Open Plan Educational or Day- 
Care Building. A building or portion of a building de- 
signed for multiple teaching stations. 

3.3.27.7* High-Rise Building. A building greater than 23 m 
(75 ft) in height where the building height is measured 
from the lowest level of fire department vehicle access to 
the floor of the highest occupiable story. 

3.3.27.8* Historic Building. A building or facility deemed 
to have historical, architectural, or cultural significance by 
a local, regional, or national jurisdic don. 

3.3.27.9* Mall Building. A building, including the mall, 
enclosing a number of tenants and occupancies wherein 
two or more tenants have a main entrance into the mall. 

3.3.27.10* Special Amusement Building. A building that is 
temporary, permanent, or mobile that contains a device or 
system that conveys passengers or provides a walkway 
along, around, or over a course in any direction as a form 
of amusement arranged so that the egress path is not 
readily apparent due to visual or audio distractions or an 
intentionally confounded egress path; or is not readily 
available due to the mode of conveyance through the 
building or structure. 

3.3.28 Bulk Merchandising Retail Building. See 3.3.27.4. 

3.3.29 Business Occupancy. See 3.3.152.3. 

3.3.30* Cellular or Foamed Plastic. A heterogeneous system 
comprised of not less than two phases, one of which is a con- 
tinuous polymeric organic material, and the second of which 
is deliberately introduced for the purpose of distributing gas 
in voids throughout the material. 

3.3.31 Combustible (Material). See 3.3.135.1. 

3.3.32 Combustion. A chemical process that involves oxida- 
tion sufficient to produce light or heat. 

3.3.33 Common Atmosphere. See 3.3.20.1. 

3.3.34* Connunrion Path of Travel. The portion of exit access 
that must be traversed before two separate and distinct paths 
of travel to two exits are available. 



3.3.35 Compartment. 

3.3.35. 1 * Fire Compartment. A space within a building that 
is enclosed by fire barriers on all sides, including the top 
and bottom. 

3.3.35.2* Smoke Compartment. A space within a building 
enclosed by smoke barriers on all sides, including the top 
and bottom. 

3.3.36 Contents and Furnishings. Objects, goods, or products 
placed inside a structure for functional, operational, or deco- 
rative reasons, excluding parts of the building structure, build- 
ing service equipment, and items meeting the definition of 
interior finish. 

3.3.37 Court. An open, uncovered, unoccupied space, unob- 
structed to the sky, bounded on three or more sides by exte- 
rior building walls. 

3.3.37.1 Enclosed Court. A court bounded on all sides by 
the exterior walls of a building or by the exterior walls and 
lot lines on which walls are permitted. 

3.3.37.2 Food Court. A public seating area located in a 
mall that serves adjacent food preparation tenant spaces. 

3.3.38* Critical Radiant Flux. The level of incident radiant 
heat energy on a floor-covering system at the most distant 
flameout point. 

3.3.39 Data Conversion. The process of developing the input 
data set for the assessment method of choice. 

3.3.40 Day-Care Home. See 3.3.110.1. 

3.3.41 Day-Care Occupancy. See 3.3.152.4. 

3.3.42 Design Fire Scenario. See 3.3.80.1. 

3.3.43 Design Specification. See 3.3.208.1. 

3.3.44 Design Team. A group of stakeholders including, but 
not limited to, representatives of the architect, client, and any 
pertinent engineers and other designers. 

3.3.45 Detention and Correctional Occupancy. See 3.3.152.5. 

3.3.46 Detention and Correctional Residential Housing 
Area. See 3.3.16.1. 

3.3.47 Door. 

3.3.47.1 Elevator Lobby Door. Adoor between an elevator 
lobby and another building space other than the eleva- 
tor shaft. 

3.3.47.2 Fire Door. The door component of a fire door 
assembly. [80:1.4] 

3.3.48* Dormitory. A building or a space in a building in 
which group sleeping accommodations are provided for more 
than 16 persons who are not members of the same family in 
one room, or a series of closely associated rooms, under joint 
occupancy and single management, with or without meals, but 
without individual cooking facilities. 

3.3.49 Draft Stop. A continuous membrane used to subdi- 
vide a concealed space to resist the passage of smoke and heat. 

3.3.50 Dwelling Unit. One or more rooms arranged for the 
use of one or more individuals living together, providing com- 
plete, independent living facilities, including permanent pro- 
visions for living, sleeping, eating, cooking, and sanitation. 



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LIFE SAFETY CODE 



3.3.50.1 One- and Two-Family Dwelling Unit. A building 
that contains not more than two dwelling units with inde- 
pendent cooking and bathroom facilities. 

3.3.50.2 One-Family Dwelling Unit A building that consists 
solely of one dwelling unit with independent cooking and 
bathroom facilities. 

3.3.50.3 Two-Family Dwelling Unit. A building that consists 
solely of two dwelling units with independent cooking and 
bathroom facilities. 

3.3.51 Educational Occupancy. See 3.3.152.6. 

3.3.52* Hectroluniinescent. Refers to a light-emitting capacitor 
in which alternating current excites phosphor atoms placed be- 
tween electrically conductive surfaces and produces light. 

3.3.53 Elevator Evacuation System. See 3.3.218.1. 

3.3.54 Elevator Lobby. A space from which people directly 
enter an elevator car(s) and into which people directly enter 
upon leaving an elevator car(s). 

3.3.55 Elevator Lobby Door. See 3.3.47.1. 

3.3.56 Enclosed Court. See 3.3.37.1. 

3.3.57* Evacuation Capability. The ability of occupants, resi- 
dents, and staff as a group either to evacuate a building or to 
relocate from the point of occupancy to a point of safety. 

3.3.57.1 Impractical Evacuation Capability. The inability of 
a group to reliably move to a point of safety in a timely 
manner. 

3.3.57.2 Prompt Evacuation Capability. The ability of a 
group to move reliably to a point of safety in a timely man- 
ner that is equivalent to the capacity of a household in the 
general population. 

3.3.57.3 Slow Evacuation Capability. The ability of a group 
to move reliably to a point of safety in a timely manner, but 
not as rapidly as members of a household in the general 
population. 

3.3.58 Exhibit. A space or portable structure used for the dis- 
play of products or services. 

3.3.59 Exhibitor. An individual or entity engaged in the dis- 
play of the products or services offered. 

3.3.60* Existing. That which is already in existence on the 
date this edition of the Code goes into effect. 

3.3.60.1 Approved Existing. That which is already in exist- 
ence on the date this edition of the Code goes into effect 
and is acceptable to the authority havingjurisdiction. 

3.3.61 Existing Building. See 3.3.27.5. 

3.3.62* Exit. That portion of a means of egress that is sepa- 
rated from all other spaces of a building or structure by con- 
struction or equipment as required to provide a protected way 
of travel to the exit discharge. 

3.3.62.1* Horizontal Exit. Away of passage from one build- 
ing to an area of refuge in another building on approxi- 
mately the same level, or a way of passage through or 
around a fire barrier to an area of refuge on approximately 
the same level in the same building that affords safety from 
fire and smoke originating from the area of incidence and 
areas communicating therewith. 



3.3.63 Exit Access. That portion of a means of egress that 
leads to an exit. 

3.3.64 Exit Discharge. That portion of a means of egress be- 
tween the termination of an exit and a public way. 

3.3.64.1 Level of Exit Discharge. (1) The lowest story from 
which not less than 50 percent of the required number of 
exits and not less than 50 percent of the required egress 
capacity from such a story discharge directly outside at 
grade; (2) the story with the smallest elevation change 
needed to reach grade where no story has 50 percent or 
more of the required number of exits and 50 percent or 
more of the required egress capacity from such a story dis- 
charge directly outside at grade. 

3.3.65 Exposition. An event in which the display of products 
or services is organized to bring together the provider and 
user of the products or services. 

3.3.66 Exposition Facility. See 3.3.69.1. 

3.3.67* Exposure Fire. A fire that starts at a location that is 
remote from the area being protected and grows to expose 
that which is being protected. 

3.3.68 Externally Dluniinated. See 3.3.114.1. 

3.3.69 Facility.: 

3.3.69.1 Exposition Facility. A convention center, hotel, or 
other building at which exposition events are held. 

3.3.69.2* Limited Care Facility. A building or portion of a 
building used on a 24-hour basis for the housing of four or 
more persons who are incapable of self-preservation be- 
cause of age; physical limitations due to accident or illness; 
or limitations such as mental retardation/developmental 
disability, mental illness, or chemical dependency. 

3.3.70 Festival Seating. See 3.3.188.1. 

3.3.71 Fire Barrier. See 3.3.23.1. 

3.3.72 Fire Barrier Wall. See 3.3.229.1. 

3.3.73 Fire Cornipartrnent. See 3.3.35.1. 

3.3.74 Fire Door. See 3.3.47.2. 

3.3.75 Fire Door Assembly. See 3.3.18.1. 

3.3.76 Fire Exit Hardware. See 3.3.103.1. 

3.3.77* Fire Model. A structured approach to predicting one 
or more effects of a fire. 

3.3.78 Fire Protection Rating. See 3.3.177.1. 

3.3.79 Fire Resistance Rating. See 3.3.177.2. 

3.3.80* Fire Scenario. A set of conditions that defines the de- 
velopment of fire, the spread of combustion products 
throughout a building or portion of a building, the reactions 
of people to fire, and the effects of combustion products. 

3.3.80.1 Design Fire Scenario. A fire scenario used for 
evaluation of a proposed design. 

3.3.81* Fire Watch. A person or persons assigned to an area 
for the purpose of protecting the occupants from fire or simi- 
lar emergencies. 

3.3.82 Fire Window Assembly. See 3.3.18.2. 

3.3.83 Fixed Seating. See 3.3.188.2. 



2003 Edition 



DEFINITIONS 



101-27 



3.3.84* Flaime Spread. The propagation of flame over a surface. 

3.3.85* Flashovec A stage in the development of a contained 
fire in which all exposed surfaces reach ignition temperatures 
more or less simultaneously and fire spreads rapidly through- 
out the space. 

3.3.86 Flexible Plan and Open Plan Educational or Day-Care 
Building. See 3.3.27.6. 

3.3.87 Floor Fine Door Assembly. See 3.3.18.1.1. 

3.3.88 Flow Time. A component of total evacuation time that 
is the time during which there is crowd flow past a point in the 
means of egress system. 

3.3.89 Fly Gallery. A raised floor area above a stage from 
which the movement of scenery and operation of other stage 
effects are controlled. 

3.3.90 Folding and Telescopic Seating. See 3.3. 188.3. 

3.3.91 Food Court. See 3.3.37.2. 

3.3.92 Fuel Load. See 3.3.131.1. 

3.3.93 General Industrial Occupancy. See 3.3.152.8.1. 

3.3.94 Goal. A nonspecific overall outcome to be achieved 
that is measured on a qualitative basis. 

3.3.95* Grandstand. A structure that provides tiered or 
stepped seating. 

3.3.96 Gridiron. The structural framing over a stage support- 
ing equipment for hanging or flying scenery and other stage 

effects. 

3.3.97 Gross Floor Area. See 3.3.16.2.1. 

3.3.98 Gross Leasable Area. See 3.3.16.3. 

3.3.99 Guard. A vertical protective barrier erected along ex- 
posed edges of stairways, balconies, and similar areas. 

3.3.100 Guest Room. An accommodation combining living, 
sleeping, sanitary, and storage facilities within a compartment. 

3.3.101 Guest Suite. An accommodation with two or more 
contiguous rooms comprising a compartment, with or without 
doors between such rooms, that provides living, sleeping, sani- 
tary, and storage facilities. 

3.3.102 Handrail. Abar, pipe, or similar member designed to 
furnish persons with a handhold. 

3.3.103 Hardware. 

3.3.103.1 Fire Exit Hardware. A door-latching assembly in- 
corporating a device that releases the latch upon the applica- 
tion of a force in the direction of egress travel and provides 
fire protection where used as part of a fire door assembly. 

3.3.103.2 Panic Hardware. A door-latching assembly in- 
corporating a device that releases the latch upon the appli- 
cation of a force in the direction of egress travel. 

3.3.104 Hazardous Area. See 3.3.16.4. 

3.3.105 Health Care Occupancy. See 3.3.152.7. 

3.3.106* Heat Release Rate (HRR). The rate at which heat 
energy is generated by burning. 

3.3.107 High Hazard Industrial Occupancy. See 3.3.152.8.2. 

3.3.108 Higfa-Rise Building. See 3.3.27.7. 



3.3.109 Historic Building. See 3.3.27.8. 

3.3.110 Home. 

3.3.110.1* Day-Care Home. A building or portion of a build- 
ing in which more than 3 but not more than 12 clients receive 
care, maintenance, and supervision, by other than their rela- 
tive (s) or legal guardians (s), for less than 24 hours per day. 

3.3.110.2 Nursing Home. A building or portion of a building 
used on a 24-hour basis for the housing and nursing care of 
four or more persons who, because of mental or physical in- 
capacity, might be unable to provide for their own needs and 
safety without the assistance of another person. 

3.3.111 Horizontal Exit. See 3.3.62.1. 

3.3.112 Hospital. A building or portion thereof used on a 
24-hour basis for the medical, psychiatric, obstetrical, or surgi- 
cal care of four or more inpatients. 

3.3.113* Hotel. A building or groups of buildings under the 
same management in which there are sleeping accommoda- 
tions for more than 16 persons and primarily used by tran- 
sients for lodging with or without meals. 

3.3.114 Hluminated. 

3.3.114.1* Externally Hluminated. Refers to an illumination 
source that is contained outside of the device or sign leg- 
end area that is to be illuminated. 

3.3.114.2* Internally Hluminated. Refers to an illumination 
source that is contained inside the device or legend that is 
illuminated. 

3.3.115 Impractical Evacuation Capability. See 3.3.57.1. 

3.3.116 Incapacitation. A condition under which humans do 
not function adequately and become unable to escape unten- 
able conditions. 

3.3.117 Industrial Occupancy. See 3.3.152.8. 

3.3.118 Input Data Specification. See 3.3.208.2. 

3.3.119 Interior Ceiling Finish. See 3.3.120.1. 

3.3.120* Interior Finish. The exposed surfaces of walls, ceil- 
ings, and floors within buildings. 

3.3.120.1 Interior Ceiling Finish. The interior finish of ceil- 
ings. 

3.3. 1 20.2* Interior Floor Finish. The interior finish of floors, 
ramps, stair treads and risers, and other walking surfaces. 

3.3.120.3 Interior Wall Finish. The interior finish of col- 
umns, fixed or movable walls, and fixed or movable partitions. 

3.3.121 Interior Floor Finish. See 3.3.120.2. 

3.3.122 Interior Wall Finish. See 3.3.120.3. 

3.3.123 Internally HuMiimated. See 3.3.114.2. 

3.3.124 Legitimate Stage. See 3.3.210.1. 

3.3.125 Level of Exit Discharge. See 3.3.64.1. 

3.3.126 Life Safely Evaluation. A written review dealing with 
the adequacy of life safety features relative to fire, storm, col- 
lapse, crowd behavior, and other related safety considerations. 

3.3.127 Limited Access Structure. See 3.3.217.3. 

3.3.128 Limited Care Facility. See 3.3.69.2. 



2003 Edition 



101-28 



LIFE SAFETY CODE 



3.3.129 Limited-Combustible (Material). See 3.3.135.2. 

3.3.130 LivingArea. See 3.3.16.5. 

3.3.131 Load. 

3.3.131.1* Fuel Load. The total quantity of combustible 
contents of a building, space, or fire area. 

3.3.131.2 Occupant Load. The total number of persons that 
might occupy a building or portion thereof at any one time. 

3.3.132 Lodging or Rooming House. A building or portion 
thereof that does not qualify as a one- or two-family dwelling, 
that provides sleeping accommodations for a total of 16 or 
fewer people on a transient or permanent basis, without per- 
sonal care services, with or without meals, but without separate 
cooking facilities for individual occupants. 

3.3.133 Mall. A roofed or covered common pedestrian area 
within a mall building that serves as access for two or more ten- 
ants and does not exceed three levels that are open to each other. 

3.3.134 Mall Building. See 3.3.27.9. 

3.3.135 Material. 

3.3.135.1 Combustible (Material). A material that, in the 
form in which it is used and under the conditions antici- 
pated, will ignite and burn; a material that does not meet 
the definition of noncombustible or limited-combustible. 

3.3.135.2* Limited-Combustible (Material). Refers to a build- 
ing construction material not complying with the definition 
of noncombustible (see 3.3. 135.3) that, in the form in which it is 
used, has a potential heat value not exceeding 8140 kj/kg 
(3500 Btu/lb), where tested in accordance with NFPA 259, 
Standard Test Method for Potential Heat of Building Materials, and 
includes ( 1 ) materials having a structural base of noncombus- 
tible material, with a surfacing not exceeding a thickness of 
3.2 mm (Vs in.) that has a flame spread index not greater than 
50; and (2) materials, in the form and thickness used, other 
than as described in (1), having neither a flame spread index 
greater than 25 nor evidence of continued progressive com- 
bustion, and of such composition that surfaces that would be 
exposed by cutting through the material on any plane would 
have neither a flame spread index greater than 25 nor evi- 
dence of continued progressive combustion. [220:2.1] 

3.3.135.3 Noncombustible (Material). Refers to a material 
that, in the form in which it is used and under the condi- 
tions anticipated, does not ignite, burn, support combus- 
tion, or release flammable vapors, when subjected to fire or 
heat. Materials that are reported as passing ASTM E 136, Stan- 
dard Test Method for Behavior of Materials in a Vertical Tube Furnace 
at 750 Degrees C, are considered noncombustible materials. 

3.3.135.4 Weathered-Membrane Material. Membrane mate- 
rial that has been subjected to not less than 3000 hours in a 
weatherometer in accordance with ASTM G 155, Standard 
Practice for Operating Xenon Arc Light Apparatus for Exposure of 
Non-Metallic Materials, or approved equivalent. 

3.3.136* Means of Egress. A continuous and unobstructed 
way of travel from any point in a building or structure to a 
public way consisting of three separate and distinct parts: (1) 
the exit access, (2) the exit, and (3) the exit discharge. 

3.3. 1 36. 1 Accessible Means of Egress. A means of egress that 
provides an accessible route to an area of refuge, a horizon- 
tal exit, or a public way. 



3.3.137 Means ; of Escape. Away out of a building or structure 
that does not conform to the strict definition of means of egress 
but does provide an alternate way out. 

3.3.138 Membrane. For the purposes of membrane structures, 
thin, flexible, water-impervious material capable of being sup- 
ported by an air pressure of 38 mm (\ l A in.) water column. 

3.3.139 Membrane Structure. See 3.3.217.4. 

3.3.140 Mercantile Occupancy. See 3.3.152.9. 

3.3.141 Mezzanine. An intermediate level between the floor 
and the ceiling of any room or space. 

3.3.142 Mixed Occupancy. See 3.3.152.10. 

3.3.143* Modification. The reconfiguration of any space, the 
addition or elimination of any door or window, the reconfigu- 
ration or extension of any system, or the installation of any 
additional equipment. 

3.3.144 Multilevel Play Structure. See 3.3.217.5. 

3.3.145 Multiple Occupancy. See 3.3.152.11. 

3.3.146 Multiple Station Alarm Device. Two or more single- 
station alarm devices that can be interconnected so that actua- 
tion of one causes all integral audible alarms to operate; or 
one single-station alarm device having connections to other 
detectors or to a manual fire alarm box. [72:1.4] 

3.3.147 Multipurpose Assembly Occupancy. See 3.3.152.2.1. 

3.3.148 Net Floor Area. See 3.3.16.2.2. 

3.3.149 Noncombustible (Material). See 3.3.135.3. 

3.3.150 Nursing Home. See 3.3.110.2. 

3.3.151* Objective. A requirement that needs to be met to 
achieve a goal; 

3.3.152 Occupancy. The purpose for which a building or por- 
tion thereof isjused or intended to be used. 

3.3.152.1* Ambulatory Health Care Occupancy. A building 
or portion thereof used to provide services or treatment 
simultaneously to four or more patients that provides, on 
an outpatient basis, one or more of the following: (1) 
Treatment for patients that renders the patients incapable 
of taking action for self-preservation under emergency con- 
ditions without the assistance of others; (2) Anesthesia that 
renders the patients incapable of taking action for self- 
preservation under emergency conditions without the assis- 
tance of others; (3) Emergency or urgent care for patients 
who, due to' the nature of their injury or illness, are incapable 
of taking action for self-preservation under emergency condi- 
tions without the assistance of others. 

3.3.152.2* Assembly Occupancy. An occupancy (1) used for 
a gathering of 50 or more persons for deliberation, wor- 
ship, entertainment, eating, drinking, amusement, await- 
ing transportation, or similar uses; or (2) used as a special 
amusement building, regardless of occupant load. 

3.3.152.2.1 Multipurpose Assembly Occupancy. An assembly 
room designed to accommodate temporarily any of several 
possible assembly uses. 

3.3.152.3* Business Occupancy. An occupancy used for ac- 
count and record keeping or the transaction of business 
other than mercantile. 



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3.3.152.4* Day-Care Occupancy. An occupancy in which 
four or more clients receive care, maintenance, and super- 
vision, by other than their relatives or legal guardians, for 
less than 24 hours per day. 

3.3.152.5* Detention and Correctional Occupancy. An occu- 
pancy used to house four or more persons under varied 
degrees of restraint or security where such occupants are 
mostiy incapable of self-preservation because of security 
measures not under the occupants' control. 

3.3.152.6* Educational Occupancy. An occupancy used for 
educational purposes through the twelfth grade by six or 
more persons for 4 or more hours per day or more than 
1 2 hours per week. 

3.3.152.7* Health Care Occupancy. An occupancy used for 
purposes of medical or other treatment or care of four or 
more persons where such occupants are mostly incapable 
of self-preservation due to age, physical or mental disability, 
or because of security measures not under the occupants' 
control. 

3.3.152.8* Industrial Occupancy. An occupancy in which 
products are manufactured or in which processing, assem- 
bling, mixing, packaging, finishing, decorating, or repair 
operations are conducted. 

3.3.152.8.1* General Industrial Occupancy. An industrial oc- 
cupancy in which ordinary and low hazard industrial opera- 
tions are conducted in buildings of conventional design 
suitable for various types of industrial processes. 

3.3.152.8.2* High Hazard Industrial Occupancy. An indus- 
trial occupancy in which industrial operations that include 
high hazard materials, processes, or contents are conducted. 

3.3.152.8.3 Special-Purpose Industrial Occupancy. An indus- 
trial occupancy in which ordinary and low hazard industrial 
operations are conducted in buildings designed for, and suit- 
able only for, particular types of operations, characterized by a 
relatively low density of employee population, with much of 
the area occupied by machinery or equipment. 

3.3.152.9* Mercantile Occupancy. An occupancy used for 
the display and sale of merchandise. 

3.3.152.10 Mixed Occupancy. A multiple occupancy where 
the occupancies are intermingled. 

3.3.152.11 Multiple Occupancy. A building or structure in 
which two or more classes of occupancy exist. 

3.3.152.12* Residential Occupancy. An occupancy that pro- 
vides sleeping accommodations for purposes other than 
health care or detention and correctional. 

3.3.152.13* Residential Board and Care Occupancy. A build- 
ing or portion thereof that is used for lodging and boarding 
of four or more residents, not related by blood or marriage to 
the owners or operators, for the purpose of providing per- 
sonal care services. 

3.3.152.14 Separated Occupancy. A multiple occupancy 
where the occupancies are separated by fire resistance- 
rated assemblies. 

3.3.152.15* Storage Occupancy. An occupancy used prima- 
rily for the storage or sheltering of goods, merchandise, 
products, vehicles, or animals. 



3.3.153 Occupant Characteristics. The abilities or behaviors 
of people before and during a fire. 

3.3.154 Occupant Load. See 3.3.131.2. 

3.3.155 Occupiable Story. See 3.3.214.1. 

3.3.156 Open-Air Mercantile Operation. An operation con- 
ducted outside of all structures, with the operations area de- 
void of all walls and roofs except for small, individual, weather 
canopies. 

3.3.157 Open Parking Structure. See 3.3.217.7. 

3.3.158 Open Structure. See 3.3.217.6. 

3.3.159* Outside Stair. Astairwith not less than one side open 
to the outer air. 

3.3.160 Panic Hardware. See 3.3.103.2. 

3.3.161* Performance Criteria. Threshold values on measure- 
ment scales that are based on quantified performance objectives. 

3.3.162 Permanent Structure. See 3.3.217.8. 

3.3.163* Personal Care. The care of residents who do not 
require chronic or convalescent medical or nursing care. 

3.3.164* Photolunriinescent. Having the property of emitting 
light that continues for a length of time after excitation by 
visible or invisible light has been removed. 

3.3.165 Pinrail. A rail on or above a stage through which be- 
laying pins are inserted and to which lines are fastened. 

3.3.166* Platform. The raised area within a building used for 
the presentation of music, plays, or other entertainment. 

3.3.166.1 Temporary Platform. A platform erected within 
an area for not more than 30 days. 

3.3.167 Plenum. Acompartment or chamber to which one or 
more air ducts are connected and that forms part of the air- 
distribution system. 

3.3.168 Point of Safety. A location that (a) is exterior to and 
away from a building; or (b) is within a building of any type 
construction protected throughout by an approved automatic 
sprinkler system and that is either (1) within an exit enclosure 
meeting the requirements of this Code, or (2) within another 
portion of the building that is separated by smoke barriers in 
accordance with Section 8.5, with not less than a V4-hour fire 
resistance rating, and that portion of the building has access to 
a means of escape or exit that conforms to the requirements of 
this Code and does not necessitate return to the area of fire 
involvement; or (c) is within a building of Type I, Type 11(222), 
Type 11(111), Type 111(211), Type IV, or Type V(lll) construc- 
tion (see 8.2.1.2) and is either (1) within an exit enclosure 
meeting the requirements of this Code, or (2) within another 
portion of the building that is separated by smoke barriers in 
accordance with Section 8.5, with not less than a Vt-hour fire 
resistance rating, and that portion of the building has access to 
a means of escape or exit that conforms to the requirements of 
this Code and does not necessitate return to the area of fire 
involvement. 

3.3.169 Previously Approved. That which was acceptable to 
the authority having jurisdiction prior to the date this edition 
of the Code went into effect. 

3.3.170 Private Party Tent. See 3.3.222.1. 



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3.3.171 Professional Engineer. A person registered or li- 
censed to practice engineering in a jurisdiction, subject to all 
laws and limitations imposed by the jurisdiction. 

3.3.172 Prompt Evacuation Capability. See 3.3.57.2. 

3.3.173* Proposed Design. A design developed by a design 
team and submitted to the authority having jurisdiction for 
approval. 

3.3.174 Proscenium Wall. See 3.3.229.2. 

3.3.175 Public Way. A street, alley, or other similar parcel of 
land essentially open to the outside air deeded, dedicated, or 
otherwise permanently appropriated to the public for public 
use and having a clear width and height of not less than 
3050 mm (120 in.). 

3.3.176* Ramp. A walking surface that has a slope steeper 
than 1 in 20. 

3.3.177 Rating. 

3.3.177.1 Fire Protection Rating. The designation indicat- 
ing the duration of the fire test exposure to which a fire 
door assembly or fire window assembly was exposed and for 
which it met all the acceptance criteria as determined in 
accordance with NFPA 252, Standard Methods of Fire Tests of 
Door Assemblies, or NFPA 257, Standard on Fire Test for Window 
and Glass Block Assemblies, respectively. 

3.3.177.2 Fire Resistance Rating. The time, in minutes or 
hours, that materials or assemblies have withstood a fire 
exposure as determined by the tests or methods based on 
tests, prescribed by this Code. 

3.3.178 Registered Architect. A person licensed to practice 
architecture in ajurisdiction, subject to all laws and limitations 
imposed by the jurisdiction. 

3.3.179 Registered Design Professional (RDP). An individual 
who is registered or licensed to practice his/her respective 
design profession as defined by the statutory requirements of 
the professional registration laws of the state or jurisdiction in 
which the project is to be constructed. 

3.3.180 Regular Stage. See 3.3.210.2. 

3.3.181 Residential Board and Care Occupancy. See 3.3.152.13. 

3.3.182 Residential Board and Care Resident. A person who 
receives personal care and resides in a residential board and 
care facility. 

3.3.183 Residential Occupancy. See 3.3.152.12. 

3.3.184 Safe Location. A location remote or separated from 
the effects of a fire so that such effects no longer pose a threat. 

3.3.185 Safety Factor. A factor applied to a predicted value to 
ensure that a sufficient safety margin is maintained. 

3.3.186 Safety Margin. The difference between a pre- 
dicted value and the actual value where a fault condition is 
expected. 

3.3.187 Sally Port (Security Vestibule). A compartment pro- 
vided with two or more doors where the intended purpose is 
to prevent continuous and unobstructed passage by allowing 
the release of only one door at a time. 

3.3.188 Seating. 



3.3.188.1* Festival Seating. A form of audience/spectator 
accommodation in which no seating, other than a floor or 
ground surface, is provided for the audience/spectators 
gathered to observe a performance. 

3.3.188.2 Fixed Seating. Seating that is secured to the 
building structure. 

3.3.188.3 Folding and Telescopic Seating. A structure that is 
used for tiered seating of persons and whose overall shape 
and size can be reduced, without being dismantled, for 
purposes of moving or storing. 

3.3.188.4 Sinoke-Protected Assembly Seating. Seating served 
by means of egress that is not subject to smoke accumula- 
tion within or under the structure. 

3.3.189 Self-Closing. Equipped with an approved device that 
ensures closing after opening. 

3.3.190* Self-Luminous. Illuminated by a self-contained power 
source and operated independendy of external power sources. 

3.3.191* Self-Preservation (Day-Care Occupancy). The ability 
of a client to evacuate a day-care occupancy without direct 
intervention by a staff member. 

3.3.192 Sensitivity Analysis. See 3.3.12.1. 

3.3.193 Separate Atmosphere. See 3.3.20.2. 

3.3.194 Separated Occupancy. See 3.3.152.14. 

3.3.195 Severe Mobility Impairment. The ability to move to 
stairs but without the ability to use the stairs. 

3.3.196 Single-Station Alarm. See 3.3.9.1. 

3.3.197 Slow Evacuation Capability. See 3.3.57.3. 

3.3.198 Smoke Alann. See 3.3.9.2. 

3.3.199 Smoke Barrier. See 3.3.23.2. 

3.3.200 Smoke Compartment. See 3.3.35.2. 

3.3.201 Smoke Detector. A device that detects visible or invis- 
ible particles of combustion. [72:1.4] 

3.3.202* Smoke Partition. Acontinuous membrane that is de- 
signed to form a barrier to limit the transfer of smoke. 

3.3.203* Srnokeproof Enclosure. A stair enclosure designed 
to limit the movement of products of combustion produced 
by a fire. 

3.3.204 Smoke-Protected Assembly Seating. See 3.3.188.4. 

3.3.205 Special Amusement Building. See 3.3.27.10. 

3.3.206 Special Inspection. Services provided by a qualified 
person, retained by the owner and approved by the authority 
having jurisdiction, who observes the installation and wit- 
nesses the pretesting and operation of the system or systems. 

3.3.207 Special-Purpose Industrial Occupancy. See 3.3.152.8.3. 

3.3.208 Specification. 

3.3.208.1* Design Specification. A building characteristic 
and other conditions that are under the control of the de- 
sign team. 

3.3.208.2 Input Data Specification. Information required 
by the verification method. 

3.3.209 Staff (Residential Board and Care). Persons who pro- 
vide personal care services, supervision, or assistance. 



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3.3.210 Stage. A space within a building used for entertain- 
ment and utilizing drops or scenery or other stage effects. 

3.3.210.1 Legitimate Stage. A stage with a height greater 
than 15m (50 ft) measured from the lowest point on the stage 
floor to the highest point of the roof or floor deck above. 

3.3.210.2 RegularStage. Astage with a height of 15m (50ft) 
or less measured from the lowest point on the deck above. 

3.3.211 Stakeholder. An individual, or representative of same, 
having an interest in the successful completion of a project. 

3.3.212 Standpipe System. See 3.3.218.2. 

3.3.213 Storage Occupancy. See 3.3.152.15. 

3.3.214 Stony. The portion of a building located between the 
upper surface of a floor and the upper surface of the floor or 
roof next above. 

3.3.214.1* Occupiable Story. Astory occupied by people on 
a regular basis. 

3.3.215 Street. A public thoroughfare that has been dedi- 
cated for vehicular use by the public and can be used for ac- 
cess by fire department vehicles. 

3.3.216* Street floor. Astory or floor level accessible from the 
street or from outside a building at ground level, with the floor 
level at the main entrance located not more than three risers 
above or below ground level and arranged and utilized to 
qualify as the main floor. 

3.3.217* Structure. That which is built or constructed. 

3.3.217.1 Air-Inflated Structure. A structure whose shape is 
maintained by air pressure in cells or tubes forming all or 
part of the enclosure of the usable area and in which the 
occupants are not within the pressurized area used to sup- 
port the structure. 

3.3.217.2* Air-Supported Structure. Astructure whose shape 
is maintained by air pressure and in which occupants are 
within the elevated pressure area. 

3.3.217.3 Limited Access Structure. A structure or portion 
of a structure lacking access openings. 

3.3.217.4 Membrane Structure. A building or portion of a 
building incorporating an air-inflated, air-supported, 
tensioned-membrane structure; a membrane roof; or a 
membrane-covered rigid frame to protect habitable or us- 
able space. 

3.3.217.5 Multilevel Play Structure. A structure that con- 
sists of tubes, slides, crawling areas, and jumping areas that 
is located within a building and is used for climbing and 
entertainment, generally by children. 

3.3.217.6* Open Structure. Astructure that supports equip- 
ment and operations not enclosed within building walls. 

3.3.217.7 Open Parking Structure. A parking structure that, 
at each parking level, has wall openings open to the atmo- 
sphere, for an area of not less than 0.13 m 2 (1.4 ft 2 ) for 
each linear 305 mm (12 in.) of its exterior perimeter. Such 
openings are distributed over at least 40 percent of the 
building perimeter or uniformly over two opposing sides. 
Interior wall lines and column lines are at least 20 percent 
open, with openings distributed to provide ventilation. 



3.3.217.8 Permanent Structure. Abuilding or structure that 
is intended to remain in place for a period of more than 
180 consecutive days. 

3.3.217.9 Temporary Structure. Abuilding or structure not 
meeting the definition of permanent structure. (See also 
3.3.217.8.) 

3.3.217.10 Tensioned-Membrane Structure. A membrane 
structure incorporating a membrane and a structural sup- 
port system such as arches, columns and cables, or beams 
wherein the stresses developed in the tensioned membrane 
interact with those in the structural support so that the 
entire assembly acts together to resist the applied loads. 

3.3.217.11* Underground Structure. A structure or portions 
of a structure in which the floor level is below the level of 
exit discharge. 

3.3.217.12 Water-Surrounded Structure. A structure fully 
surrounded by water. 

3.3.218 System. 

3.3.218.1 Elevator Evacuation System. Asystem, including a 
vertical series of elevator lobbies and associated elevator 
lobby doors, an elevator shaft(s), and a machine room(s), 
that provides protection from fire effects for elevator pas- 
sengers, people waiting to use elevators, and elevator 
equipment so that elevators can be used safely for egress. 

3.3.218.2 Standpipe System. An arrangement of piping, 
valves, hose connections, and allied equipment installed in 
a building or structure, with the hose connections located 
in such a manner that water can be discharged in streams 
or spray patterns through attached hose and nozzles, for 
the purpose of extinguishing a fire, thereby protecting a 
building or structure and its contents in addition to pro- 
tecting the occupants. This is accomplished by means of 
connections to water supply systems or by means of pumps, 
tanks, and other equipment necessary to provide an ad- 
equate supply of water to the hose connections. [14:1.4]. 

3.3.219 Temporary Platform. See 3.3.166.1. 

3.3.220 Temporary Structure. See 3.3.217.9. 

3.3.221 Tensioned-Membrane Structure. See 3.3.217.10. 

3.3.222* Tent. A temporary structure, the covering of which is 
made of pliable material that achieves its support by mechani- 
cal means such as beams, columns, poles, or arches, or by rope 
or cables, or both. 

3.3.222.1 Private Party Tent. A tent erected in the yard of a 
private residence for entertainment, recreation, dining, a 
reception, or similar function. 

3.3.223 Thermal Barrier. See 3.3.23.3. 

3.3.224 Tower. An enclosed independent structure or por- 
tion of a building with elevated levels for support of equip- 
ment or occupied for observation, control, operation, signal- 
ing, or similar limited use. 

3.3.225 Uncertainty Analysis. See 3.3.12.2. 

3.3.226 Underground Structure. See 3.3.217.11. 

3.3.227 Verification Method. A procedure or process used to 
demonstrate or confirm that the proposed design meets the 
specified criteria. 



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3.3.228 Vertical Opening. An opening through a floor or roof. 

3.3.229 Wall. 

3.3.229.1 Fire Barrier Wall. A wall, other than a fire wall, 
that has a fire resistance rating. 

3.3.229.2 Proscenium Wall. The wall that separates the 
stage from the auditorium or house. 

3.3.230 Water-Surrounded Structure See 3.3.217.12. 

3.3.231 Weathered-Membrane Material. See 3.3.135.4. 

3.3.232 Yard. An open, unoccupied space other than a court, 
unobstructed from the ground to the sky on the lot on which a 
building is situated. 



Chapter 4 General 



4.1* Goals. 



4.1.1* Fire and Similar Eniergency. The goal of this Code is to 
provide an environment for the occupants that is reasonably 
safe from fire and similar emergencies by the following means: 

(l)*Protection of occupants not intimate with the initial fire 

development 
(2) Improvement of the survivability of occupants intimate 

with the initial fire development 

4.1.2* Crowd Movement. An additional goal is to provide for 
reasonably safe emergency crowd movement and, where re- 
quired, reasonably safe nonemergency crowd movement. 

4.2 Objectives. 

4.2.1 Occupant Protection. A structure shall be designed, 
constructed, and maintained to protect occupants who are 
not intimate with the initial fire development for the time 
needed to evacuate, relocate, or defend in place. 

4.2.2 Structural Integrity. Structural integrity shall be main- 
tained for the time needed to evacuate, relocate, or defend 
in place occupants who are not intimate with the initial fire 
development. 

4.2.3 Systems Effectiveness. Systems utilized to achieve the 
goals of Section 4.1 shall be effective in mitigating the hazard 
or condition for which they are being used, shall be reliable, 
shall be maintained to the level at which they were designed to 
operate, and shall remain operational. 

4.3* Assumption. The protection methods of this Code assume 
a single fire source. 

4.4 life Safety Compliance Options. 

4.4.1 Options. Life safety meeting the goals and objectives of 
Section 4.1 and Section 4.2 shall be provided in accordance 
with either of the following: 

(1) Prescriptive-based provisions per 4.4.2 

(2) Performance-based provisions per 4.4.3 

4.4.2 Prescriptive-Based Option. 

4.4.2.1 A prescriptive-based life safety design shall be in ac- 
cordance with Chapter 1 through Chapter 4, Chapter 6 
through Chapter 11, and the applicable occupancy chapter, 
Chapter 12 through Chapter 42. 



4.4.2.2 Where specific requirements contained in Chapter 1 1 
through Chapter 42 differ from general requirements con- 
tained in Chapter 1 through Chapter 4, and Chapter 6 
through Chapter 10, the requirements of Chapter 11 through 
Chapter 42 shall govern. 

4.4.3 Performance-Based Option. A performance-based life 
safety design shall be in accordance with Chapter 1 through 
Chapter 5. , 

4.5 Fundamental Requirements. 

4.5.1 Multiple Safeguards. The design of every building or 
structure intended for human occupancy shall be such that 
reliance for safety to life does not depend solely on any single 
safeguard. An additional safeguard (s) shall be provided for 
life safety in case any single safeguard is ineffective due to 
inappropriate human actions or system failure. 

4.5.2 Appropriateness of Safeguards. Every building or 
structure shall be provided with means of egress and other 
safeguards of the kinds, numbers, locations, and capacities 
appropriate to the individual building or structure, with 
due regard to the following: 

(1) Characterof the occupancy 

(2) Capabilities of the occupants 

(3) Number of persons exposed 

(4) Fire protection available 

(5) Height and type of construction of the building or structure 

(6) Other factors necessary to provide occupants with a rea- 
sonable degree of safety 

4.5.3 Means of Egress. 

4.5.3. 1 Number of Means of Egress. Two means of egress, as a 
minimum, shall be provided in every building or structure, 
section, and area where size, occupancy, and arrangement en- 
danger occupants attempting to use a single means of egress 
that is blocked^ by fire or smoke. The two means of egress shall 
be arranged to minimize the possibility that both might be 
rendered impassable by the same emergency condition. 

4.5.3.2 Unobstructed Egress. In every occupied building or 
structure, means of egress from all parts of the building shall 
be maintained free and unobstructed. No lock or fastening 
shall be permitted that prevents free escape from the inside of 
any building other than in health care occupancies and deten- 
tion and correctional occupancies where staff are continually 
on duty and effective provisions are made to remove occu- 
pants in case of fire or other emergency. Means of egress shall 
be accessible ito the extent necessary to ensure reasonable 
safety for occupants having impaired mobility. 

4.5.3.3 Awareness of Egress System. Every exit shall be clearly 
visible, or the route to reach every exit shall be conspicuously 
indicated. Each means of egress, in its entirety, shall be ar- 
ranged or marked so that the way to a place of safety is indi- 
cated in a clear manner. 

4.5.3.4 Lighting. Where artificial illumination is needed in a 
building or structure, egress facilities shall be included in the 
lighting design. 

4.5.4* Occupant Notification. In every building or structure of 
such size, arrangement, or occupancy that a fire itself might 
not provide adequate occupant warning, fire alarm facilities 
shall be provided where necessary to warn occupants of the 
existence of fire. 



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101-33 



4.5.5 Vertical Openings. Every vertical opening between the 
floors of a building shall be suitably enclosed or protected, as 
necessary, to afford reasonable safety to occupants while using 
the means of egress and to prevent the spread of fire, smoke, 
or fumes through vertical openings from floor to floor before 
occupants have entered exits. 

4.5.6 System Design/Installation. Any fire protection system, 
building service equipment, feature of protection, or safe- 
guard provided for life safety shall be designed, installed, and 
approved in accordance with applicable NFPA standards. 

4.5.7 Maintenance. Whenever or wherever any device, equip 
ment, system, condition, arrangement, level of protection, or any 
other feature is required for compliance with the provisions of 
this Code, such device, equipment, system, condition, arrange- 
ment, level of protection, or other feature shall thereafter be 
maintained unless the Code exempts such maintenance. 

4.6 General Requirements. 

4.6.1 Authority Having Jurisdiction. 

4.6.1.1 The authority having jurisdiction shall determine 
whether the provisions of this Code are met. 

4.6.1.2 Any requirements that are essential for the safety of 
building occupants and that are not specifically provided for by 
this Code shall be determined by the authority havingjurisdiction. 

4.6.1.3 Where it is evident that a reasonable degree of safety 
is provided, any requirement shall be permitted to be modi- 
fied if, in the judgment of the authority havingjurisdiction, its 
application would be hazardous under normal occupancy 
conditions. 

4.6.2 Previously Approved Features. Where another provision 
of this Code exempts a previously approved feature from a re- 
quirement, the exemption shall be permitted even where the 
following conditions exist: 

(1) The area is being modernized, renovated, or otherwise 
altered. 

(2) A change of occupancy has occurred, provided that the 
feature's continued use is approved by the authority hav- 
ingjurisdiction. 

4.6.3* Historic Buildings. The provisions of this Code shall be 
permitted to be modified by the authority havingjurisdiction 
for buildings or structures identified and classified as historic 
buildings or structures where it is evident that a reasonable 
degree of safety is provided. 

4.6.4* Modification of Requirements for Existing Buildings. 
Where it is evident that a reasonable degree of safety is pro- 
vided, the requirements for existing buildings shall be permit- 
ted to be modified if their application would be impractical in 
the judgment of the authority havingjurisdiction. 

4.6.5 Time Allowed for Compliance. A limited but reasonable 
time, commensurate with the magnitude of expenditure, dis- 
ruption of services, and degree of hazard, shall be allowed for 
compliance with any part of this Code for existing buildings. 

4.6.6 Referenced Publications. Existing buildings or installa- 
tions that do not comply with the provisions of the standards 
referenced in this document (see Chapter 2) shall be permitted to 
be continued in service, provided that the lack of conformity with 
these standards does not present a serious hazard to the occu- 
pants as determined by the authority havingjurisdiction. 



4.6.7 Additions. Additions shall conform to the provisions for 
new construction. 

4.6.8* Modernization or Renovation. Any alteration or any in- 
stallation of new equipment shall meet, as nearly as practicable, 
the requirements for new construction. Only the altered, reno- 
vated, or modernized portion of an existing building, system, or 
individual component shall be required to meet the provisions of 
this Code that are applicable to new construction. If the alteration, 
renovation, or modernization adversely impacts required life 
safety features, additional upgrading shall be required. Except 
where another provision of this Code exempts a previously ap- 
proved feature from a requirement, the resulting feature shall be 
not less than that required for existing buildings. Existing life 
safety features that do not meet the requirements for new build- 
ings, but that exceed the requirements for existing buildings, 
shall not be further diminished. 

4.6.9 Provisions in Excess of Code Requirements. Nothing in 
this Code shall be construed to prohibit a better type of building 
construction, an additional means of egress, or an otherwise safer 
condition than that specified by the minimum requirements of 
this Code. 

4.6.10 Conditions for Occupancy. 

4.6.10.1 No new construction or existing building shall be 
occupied in whole or in part in violation of the provisions of 
this Code, unless the following conditions exist: 

(1 ) A plan of correction has been approved. 

(2) The occupancy classification remains the same. 

(3) No serious life safety hazard exists as judged by the au- 
thority havingjurisdiction. 

4.6.10.2 Where compliance with this Code is effected by means 
of a performance-based design, the owner shall annually certify 
compliance with the conditions and limitations of the design by 
submitting a warrant of fitness acceptable to the authority having 
jurisdiction. The warrant of fitness shall attest that the building 
features, systems, and use have been inspected and confirmed to 
remain consistent with design specifications outlined in the 
documentation required by Section 5.8 and that such features, 
systems, and use continue to satisfy the goals and objectives speci- 
fied in Section 4.1 and Section 4.2. (See Chapter 5.) 

4.6.11 Construction, Repair, and Improvenient Operations. 

4.6.11.1* Buildings or portions of buildings shall be permitted to 
be occupied during construction, repair, alterations, or additions 
only where required means of egress and required fire protec- 
tion features are in place and continuously maintained for the 
portion occupied or where alternative life safety measures accept- 
able to the authority havingjurisdiction are in place. 

4.6.11.2* In buildings under construction, adequate escape 
facilities shall be maintained at all times for the use of con- 
struction workers. Escape facilities shall consist of doors, walk- 
ways, stairs, ramps, fire escapes, ladders, or other approved 
means or devices arranged in accordance with the general 
principles of the Code insofar as they can reasonably be applied 
to buildings under construction. 

4.6.11.3 Flammable or explosive substances or equipment for 
repairs or alterations shall be permitted in a building while the 
building is occupied if the condition of use and safeguards 
provided do not create any additional danger or impediment 
to egress beyond the normally permissible conditions in the 
building. 



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4.6.12* Changes of Occupancy. In any building or structure, 
whether or not a physical alteration is needed, a change from 
one occupancy classification to another shall be permitted 
only where such a building, structure, or portion thereof con- 
forms with the requirements of this Code that apply to new 
construction for the proposed new use or, where specifically 
permitted elsewhere in the Code, existing construction fea- 
tures shall be permitted to be continued in use in conversions. 

4.6.13 Maintenance and Testing. 

4.6.13.1 Whenever or wherever any device, equipment, system, 
condition, arrangement, level of protection, or any other feature 
is required for compliance with the provisions of this Code, such 
device, equipment, system, condition, arrangement, level of pro- 
tection, or other feature shall thereafter be continuously main- 
tained in accordance with applicable NFPA requirements or as 
directed by the authority having jurisdiction. 

4.6.13.2* Existing life safety features obvious to the public, if not 
required by the Code, shall be either maintained or removed. 

4.6.13.3 Equipment requiring periodic testing or operation 
to ensure its maintenance shall be tested or operated as speci- 
fied elsewhere in this Code or as directed by the authority hav- 
ing jurisdiction. 

4.6.13.4 Maintenance and testing shall be performed under 
the supervision of a responsible person who shall ensure that 
testing and maintenance are made at specified intervals in 
accordance with applicable NFPA standards or as directed by 
the authority having jurisdiction. 

4.7* Fire Drills. 

4.7.1 Where Required. Emergency egress and relocation drills 
conforming to the provisions of this Code shall be conducted as 
specified by the provisions of Chapter 11 through Chapter 42, or 
by appropriate action of the authority having jurisdiction. Drills 
shall be designed in cooperation with the local authorities. 

4.7.2* Drill Frequency. Emergency egress and relocation 
drills, where required by Chapter 11 through Chapter 42 or 
the authority having jurisdiction, shall be held with sufficient 
frequency to familiarize occupants with the drill procedure 
and to establish conduct of the drill as a matter of routine. 
Drills shall include suitable procedures to ensure that all per- 
sons subject to the drill participate. 

4.7.3 Orderly Evacuation. When conducting drills, emphasis 
shall be placed on orderly evacuation rather than on speed. 

4.7.4* Simulated Conditions. Drills shall be held at expected 
and unexpected times and under varying conditions to simulate 
the unusual conditions that can occur in an actual emergency. 

4.7.5 Relocation Area. Drill participants shall relocate to a 
predetermined location and remain at such location until a 
recall or dismissal signal is given. 

4.7.6* A written record of each drill shall be completed by the 
person responsible for conducting the drill and maintained in 
an approved manner. 

4.8 Emergency Plan. 

4.8.1 Where Required. Emergency plans shall be provided as 
follows: 

(1) Where required by the provisions of Chapter 11 through 
Chapter 42 

(2) Where required by action of the authority having juris- 
diction 



4.8.2 Plan Requirements. 

4.8.2.1 Emergency plans shall include the following: 

( 1 ) Procedures, for reporting of emergencies 

(2) Occupant and staff response to emergencies 

(3) Design and conduct of fire drills 

(4) Type and coverage of building fire protection systems 

(5) Other items required by the authority having jurisdiction 

4.8.2.2 Required emergency plans shall be submitted to the 
authority having jurisdiction for review. 

4.8.2.3 Emergency plans shall be reviewed and updated as 
required by the authority havingjurisdiction. 



Chapter 5 Performamce-Based Option 

5.1 General Requirements. 

5.1.1* Application. The requirements of this chapter shall ap- 
ply to life safety systems designed to the performance-based 
option permitted by 4.4.1 and 4.4.3. 

5.1.2 Goals and Objectives. The performance-based design 
shall meet the goals and objectives of this Code'm accordance 
with Section 4.1 and Section 4.2. 

5.1.3 Qualifications. The performance-based design shall be 
prepared by a registered design professional. 



5.1.4* Independent Review. The authority havingjurisdiction 
shall be permitted to require an approved, independent third 
party to review the proposed design and provide an evaluation 
of the design to the authority havingjurisdiction. 

5.1.5 Sources of Data. Data sources shall be identified and 
documented for each input data requirement that must be 
met using a source other than a design fire scenario, an as- 
sumption, or a building design specification. The degree of 
conservatism reflected in such data shall be specified, and a 
justification for the source shall be provided. 

5.1.6 Final Determination. The authority havingjurisdiction 
shall make the final determination as to whether the perfor- 
mance objectives have been met. 

5.1.7* Maintenance of Design Features. The design features 
required for the building to continue to meet the perfor- 
mance goals and objectives of this Code shall be maintained for 
the life of the building. Such performance goals and objec- 
tives shall include complying with all documented assump- 
tions and design specifications. Any variations shall require 
the approval of the authority havingjurisdiction prior to the 
actual change. (See also 4.6.10.2.) 

5.1.8 Definitions. A list of terms used in this chapter follows: 

(1) 
(2) 
(3) 
(4) 
(5) 
(6) 
(V) 
(8) 
(9) 
(10) 

(11) 
(12) 



Alternative Calculation Procedure. See 3.3.10. 

Data Conversion. See 3.3.39. 

Design Fire Scenario. See 3.3.80.1. 

Design Specifications. See 3.3.208.1. 

Design Team. See 3.3.44. 

Exposure Fire. See 3.3.67. 

Fire Model. See 3.3.77. 

Fire Scenario. See 3.3.80. 

Fuel Load. See 3.3.131.1. 

Incapacitation. See 3.3.116. 

Input Data Specification. See 3.3.208.2. 

Occupant Characteristics. See 3.3.153. 



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(13) Performance Criteria. See 3.3.161. 

(14) Proposed Design. See 3.3.173. 

(15) Safe Location. See 3.3.184. 

(16) Safety Factor. See 3.3.185. 

(17) Safety Margin. See 3.3.186. 

(18) Sensitivity Analysis. See 3.3.12.1. 

(19) Stakeholder. See 3.3.211. 

(20) Uncertainty Analysis. See 3.3.12.2. 

(21) Verification Method. See 3.3.227. 

5.2 Performance Criteria. 

5.2.1 General. A design shall meet the objectives specified in 
Section 4.2 if, for each design fire scenario, assumption, and 
design specification, the performance criterion in 5.2.2 is met. 

5.2.2* Performance Criterion. Any occupant who is not inti- 
mate with ignition shall not be exposed to instantaneous or 
cumulative untenable conditions. 

5.3 Retained Prescriptive Requirements. 

5.3.1* Systems and Features. All fire protection systems and 
features of the building shall comply with applicable NFPA 
standards for those systems and features. 

5.3.2 Means of Egress. The design shall comply with the follow- 
ing requirements in addition to the performance criteria of Sec- 
tion 5.2 and the methods of Section 5.4 through Section 5.8: 

(1) Changes in level in means of egress — 7.1.7 

(2) Guards — 7.1.8 

(3) Doors — 7.2.1 

(4) Stairs — 7.2.2, excluding the provisions of 7.2.2.5.1, 
7.2.2.5.2, 7.2.2.6.2, 7.2.2.6.3 and 7.2.2.6.4 

(5) Ramps — 7.2.5, excluding the provisions of 7.2.5.3.1, 
7.2.5.5, and 7.2.5.6.1 

(6) Fire escape ladders — 7.2.9 

(7) Alternating tread devices — 7.2.11 

(8) Capacity of means of egress — Section 7.3, excluding the 
provisions of 7.3.3 and 7.3.4 

(9) Impediments to egress — 7.5.2 

(10) Illumination of means of egress — Section 7.8 

(11) Emergency lighting — Section 7.9 

(12) Marking of means of egress — Section 7.10 

5.3.3 Equivalency. Equivalent designs for the features covered 
in the retained prescriptive requirements mandated by 5.3.2 
shall be addressed in accordance with the equivalency provi- 
sions of Section 1.4. 

5.4 Besigm Specifications and Other Conditions. 

5.4.1* Clear Statement. Design specifications and other condi- 
tions used in the performance-based design shall be clearly 
stated and shown to be realistic and sustainable. 

5.4.2 Assumptions and Design Specifications Data. 

5.4.2.1 Each assumption and design specification used in the 
design shall be accurately translated into input data specifica- 
tions, as appropriate for the calculation method or model. 

5.4.2.2 Any assumption and design specifications that the de- 
sign analyses do not explicidy address or incorporate and that 
are, therefore, omitted from input data specifications shall be 
identified, and a sensitivity analysis of the consequences of 
that omission shall be performed. 

5.4.2.3 Any assumption and design specifications modified 
in the input data specifications, because of limitations in 
test methods or other data-generation procedures, shall be 



identified, and a sensitivity analysis of the consequences of 
the modification shall be performed. 

5.4.3 Building Characteristics. Characteristics of the building 
or its contents, equipment, or operations that are not inher- 
ent in the design specifications, but that affect occupant be- 
havior or the rate of hazard development, shall be explicitly 
identified. 

5.4.4* Operational Status and Effectiveness of Building Fea- 
tures and Systems. The performance of fire protection systems 
and building features shall reflect the documented perfor- 
mance and reliability of the components of those systems or 
features, unless design specifications are incorporated to 
modify the expected performance. 

5.4.5 Occupant Characteristics. 

5.4.5.1* General. The selection of occupant characteristics to 
be used in the design calculations shall be approved by the 
authority having jurisdiction and shall provide an accurate 
reflection of the expected population of building users. Oc- 
cupant characteristics shall represent the normal occupant 
profile, unless design specifications are used to modify the 
expected occupant features. Occupant characteristics shall 
not vary across fire scenarios except as authorized by the 
authority having jurisdiction. 

5.4.5.2* Response Characteristics. The basic response charac- 
teristics of sensibility, reactivity, mobility, and susceptibility 
shall be evaluated. Such evaluation shall include the expected 
distribution of characteristics of a population appropriate to 
the use of the building. The source of data for these character- 
istics shall be documented. 

5.4.5.3 Location. It shall be assumed that, in every normally 
occupied room or area, at least one person shall be located at 
the most remote point from the exits. 

5.4.5.4* Number of Occupants. The design shall be based on 
the maximum number of people that every occupied room or 
area is expected to contain. Where the success or failure of the 
design is contingent on the number of occupants not exceeding 
a specified maximum, operational controls shall be used to en- 
sure that the maximum number of occupants is not exceeded. 

5.4.5.5* Staff Assistance. The inclusion of trained employees 
as part of the fire safety system shall be identified and docu- 
mented. 

5.4.6 Emergency Response Personnel. Design characteristics 
or other conditions related to the availability, speed of re- 
sponse, effectiveness, roles, and other characteristics of emer- 
gency response personnel shall be specified, estimated, or 
characterized sufficiendy for evaluation of the design. 

5.4.7* Post-construction Conditions. Design characteristics or 
other conditions related to activities during the life of a build- 
ing that affect the ability of the building to meet the stated 
goals and objectives shall be specified, estimated, or character- 
ized sufficiently for evaluation of the design. 

5.4.8 Off-Site Conditions. Design characteristics or other con- 
ditions related to resources or conditions outside the property 
being designed that affect the ability of the building to meet the 
stated goals and objectives shall be specified, estimated, or char- 
acterized sufficiendy for evaluation of the design. 

5.4.9* Consistency of Assumptions. The design shall not in- 
clude mutually inconsistent assumptions, specifications, or 
statements of conditions. 



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5.4.10* Special Provisions. Additional provisions that are not 
covered by the design specifications, conditions, estimations, 
and assumptions provided in Section 5.4, but that are re- 
quired for the design to comply with the performance objec- 
tives, shall be documented. 

5.5* Design Fire Scenarios. 

5.5.1 Approval of Parameters. The authority having jurisdic- 
tion shall approve the parameters involved in design fire sce- 
narios. The proposed design shall be considered to meet the 
goals and objectives if it achieves the performance criteria for 
each required design fire scenario. (See 5.5.3.) 

5.5.2* Evaluation. Design fire scenarios shall be evaluated us- 
ing a method acceptable to the authority having jurisdiction 
and appropriate for the conditions. Each design fire scenario 
shall be as challenging as any that could occur in the building, 
but shall be realistic, with respect to at least one of the follow- 
ing scenario specifications: 

(1) Initial fire location 

(2) Early rate of growth in fire severity 

(3) Smoke generation 

5.5.3* Required Design Fire Scenarios. Design fire scenarios 
shall comply with the following: 

(1) Scenarios selected as design fire scenarios shall include, 
but shall not be limited to, those specified in 5.5.3.1 
through 5.5.3.8. 

(2) Design fire scenarios demonstrated by the design team to 
the satisfaction of the authority having jurisdiction as in- 
appropriate for the building use and conditions shall not 
be required to be evaluated fully. 

5.5.3.1* Design Fire Scenario 1. Design fire scenario 1 shall be 
as follows: 

(1) It is an occupancy-specific fire representative of a typical 
fire for the occupancy. 

(2) It explicitly accounts for the following: 

(a) Occupant activities 

(b) Number and location 

(c) Room size 

(d) Furnishings and contents 

(e) Fuel properties and ignition sources 

(f) Ventilation conditions 

(g) Identification of the first item ignited and its location 

5.5.3.2* Design Fire Scenario 2. Design fire scenario 2 shall be 
as follows: 

(1) It is an ultrafast-developing fire, in the primary means of 
egress, with interior doors open at the start of the fire. 

(2) It addresses the concern regarding a reduction in the 
number of available means of egress. 

5.5.3.3* Design Fire Scenario 3. Design fire scenario 3 shall be 
as follows: 

(1) It is a fire that starts in a normally unoccupied room, po- 
tentially endangering a large number of occupants in a 
large room or other area. 

(2) It addresses the concern regarding a fire starting in a nor- 
mally unoccupied room and migrating into the space that 
potentially holds the greatest number of occupants in the 
building. 

5.5.3.4* Design Fire Scenario 4. Design fire scenario 4 shall be 
as follows: 



(1) It is a fire that originates in a concealed wall or ceiling 
space adjacent to a large occupied room. 

(2) It addresses the concern regarding a fire originating in a 
concealed space that does not have either a detection sys- 
tem or a suppression system and then spreading into the 
room withih the building that potentially holds the great- 
est number of occupants. 

5.5.3.5* Design Fire Scenario 5. Design fire scenario 5 shall be 
as follows: ; 

(1 ) It is a slowly developing fire, shielded from fire protection 
systems, in close proximity to a high occupancy area. 

(2) It addresses the concern regarding a relatively small igni- 
tion source, causing a significant fire. 

5.5.3.6* Design Fire Scenario 6. Design fire scenario 6 shall be 
as follows: 

(1) It is the most severe fire resulting from the largest possible 
fuel load characteristic of the normal operation of the 
building. 

(2) It addresses the concern regarding a rapidly developing 
fire with occupants present. 

5.5.3.7* Design Fire Scenario 7. Design fire scenario 7 shall be 
as follows: 

(1) It is an outside exposure fire. 

(2) It addresses the concern regarding a fire starting at a lo- 
cation remote from the area of concern and either 
spreading into the area, blocking escape from the area, or 
developing untenable conditions within the area. 

5.5.3.8* Design Fire Scenario 8. Design fire scenario 8 shall be 
as follows: 

(1) It is a fire originating in ordinary combustibles in a room 
or area with each passive or active fire protection system 
independently rendered ineffective. 

(2) It addresses concerns regarding the unreliability or un- 
availability of each fire protection system or fire protec- 
tion feature, considered individually. 

(3)*It is not required to be applied to fire protection systems 
for which both the level of reliability and the design per- 
formance in the absence of the system are acceptable to 
the authority havingjurisdiction. 

5.5.4 Design Fife Scenarios Data. 

5.5.4.1 Each design fire scenario used in the performance- 
based design proposal shall be translated into input data speci- 
fications, as appropriate for the calculation method or model. 

5.5.4.2 Any design fire scenario specifications that the design 
analyses do not explicitly address or incorporate and that are, 
therefore, omitted from input data specifications shall be 
identified, and \ a sensitivity analysis of the consequences of 
that omission shall be performed. 

5.5.4.3 Any design fire scenario specifications modified in 
input data specifications, because of limitations in test meth- 
ods or other data-generation procedures, shall be identified, 
and a sensitivity analysis of the consequences of the modifica- 
tion shall be performed. 

5.6* Evaluation' of Proposed Designs. 

5.6.1 General. A proposed design's performance shall be as- 
sessed relative to each performance objective in Section 4.2 
and each applicable scenario in 5.5.3, with the assessment con- 
ducted through the use of appropriate calculation methods. 



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The authority having jurisdiction shall approve the choice of 
assessment methods. 

5.6.2 Use. The design professional shall use the assessment 
methods to demonstrate that the proposed design will achieve 
the goals and objectives, as measured by the performance cri- 
teria in light of the safety margins and uncertainty analysis, for 
each scenario, given the assumptions. 

5.6.3 Input Data. 

5.6.3.1 Data. Input data for computer fire models shall be 
obtained in accordance with ASTM E 1591, Standard Guide for 
Data for Fire Models. Data for use in analytical models that are 
not computer-based fire models shall be obtained using ap- 
propriate measurement, recording, and storage techniques to 
ensure the applicability of the data to the analytical method 
being used. 

5.6.3.2 Data Requirements. A complete listing of input data 
requirements for all models, engineering methods, and other 
calculation or verification methods required or proposed as 
part of the performance-based design shall be provided. 

5.6.3.3* Uncertainty and Conservatism of Data. Uncertainty 
in input data shall be analyzed and, as determined appropri- 
ate by the authority having jurisdiction, addressed through 
the use of conservative values. 

5.6.4* Output Data. The assessment methods used shall accu- 
rately and appropriately produce the required output data 
from input data based on the design specifications, assump- 
tions, and scenarios. 

5.6.5 Validity. Evidence shall be provided to confirm that the 
assessment methods are valid and appropriate for the pro- 
posed building, use, and conditions. 

5.7* Safety Factors. Approved safety factors shall be included 
in the design methods and calculations to reflect uncertainty 
in the assumptions, data, and other factors associated with the 
performance-based design. 

5.8 Documentation Requirenieiits. 

5.8.1* General. All aspects of the design, including those de- 
scribed in 5.8.2 through 5.8.14, shall be documented. The for- 
mat and content of the documentation shall be acceptable to 
the authority having jurisdiction. 

5.8.2* Technical References and Resources. The authority 
havingjurisdiction shall be provided with sufficient documen- 
tation to support the validity, accuracy, relevance, and preci- 
sion of the proposed methods. The engineering standards, 
calculation methods, and other forms of scientific informa- 
tion provided shall be appropriate for the particular applica- 
tion and methodologies used. 

5.8.3 Building Design Specifications. All details of the pro- 
posed building design that affect the ability of the building to 
meet the stated goals and objectives shall be documented. 

5.8.4 Performance Criteria. Performance criteria, with sources, 
shall be documented. 

5.8.5 Occupant Characteristics. Assumptions about occupant 
characteristics shall be documented. 

5.8.6 Design Fire Scenarios. Descriptions of design fire sce- 
narios shall be documented. 

5.8.7 Input Data. Input data to models and assessment meth- 
ods, including sensitivity analyses, shall be documented. 



5.8.8 Output Data. Output data from models and assessment 
methods, including sensitivity analyses, shall be documented. 

5.8.9 Safety Factors. The safety factors utilized shall be docu- 
mented. 



Retained prescriptive re- 



5.8.10 Prescriptive Requirements. 
quirements shall be documented. 

5.8.11* Modeling Features. 

5.8.11.1 Assumptions made by the model user, and descrip- 
tions of models and methods used, including known limita- 
tions, shall be documented. 

5.8.11.2 Documentation shall be provided to verify that the as- 
sessment methods have been used validly and appropriately to 
address the design specifications, assumptions, and scenarios. 

5.8.12 Evidence of Modeler Capability. The design team's rel- 
evant experience with the models, test methods, databases, 
and other assessment methods used in the performance-based 
design proposal shall be documented. 

5.8.13 Performance Evaluation. The performance evaluation 
summary shall be documented. 

5.8.14 Use of Performance-Based Design Option. Design 
proposals shall include documentation that provides anyone 
involved in the ownership or management of the building 
with notification of the following: 

( 1 ) Approval of the building as a performance-based design 
with certain specified design criteria and assumptions 

(2) Need for required re-evaluation and reapproval in cases 
of remodeling, modification, renovation, change in use, 
or change in established assumptions 



Chapter 6 Classification of Occupancy and Hazard 
of Contents 

6.1 Classification of Occupancy. 

6.1.1 General. 

6.1.1.1 Occupancy Classification. The occupancy of a build- 
ing or structure, or portion of a building or structure, shall be 
classified in accordance with 6.1.2 through 6.1.13. Occupancy 
classification shall be subject to the ruling of the authority 
havingjurisdiction where there is a question of proper classi- 
fication in any individual case. 

6.1.1.2 Special Structures. Occupancies in special structures 
shall conform to the requirements of the specific occupancy 
chapter, Chapter 12 through Chapter 42, except as modified 
by Chapter 11. 

6.1.2 Assembly. For requirements, see Chapter 12 and Chap- 
ter 13. 

6. 1 .2. 1 * Definition — Assembly Occupancy. An occupancy ( 1 ) 
used for a gathering of 50 or more persons for deliberation, 
worship, entertainment, eating, drinking, amusement, await- 
ing transportation, or similar uses; or (2) used as a special 
amusement building, regardless of occupant load. 

6.1.2.2 Sinall Assembly Uses. Occupancy of any room or 
space for assembly purposes by fewer than 50 persons in an- 
other occupancy and incidental to such other occupancy shall 
be classified as part of the other occupancy and shall be sub- 
ject to the provisions applicable thereto. 



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6.1.3 Educational. For requirements, see Chapter 14 and 
Chapter 15. 

6.1.3.1* Definition — Educational Occupancy. An occupancy 
used for educational purposes through the twelfth grade by 
six or more persons for 4 or more hours per day or more than 
12 hours per week. 

6.1.3.2 Other Occupancies. Other occupancies associated 
with educational institutions shall be in accordance with the 
appropriate parts of this Code. 

6.1.3.3 Incidental Instruction. In cases where instruction is 
incidental to some other occupancy, the section of this Code 
governing such other occupancy shall apply. 

6.1.4 Day Care. For requirements, see Chapter 16 and 
Chapter 17. 

6.1.4.1* Definition — Day-Care Occupancy. An occupancy in 
which four or more clients receive care, maintenance, and 
supervision, by other than their relatives or legal guardians, 
for less than 24 hours per day. 

6.1.4.2 Other. (Reserved) 

6.1.5 Health Care. For requirements, see Chapter 18 and 
Chapter 19. 

6.1.5.1* Definition — Health Care Occupancy. An occupancy 
used for purposes of medical or other treatment or care of four 
or more persons where such occupants are mosdy incapable of 
self-preservation due to age, physical or mental disability, or be- 
cause of security measures not under the occupants' control. 

6.1.5.2 Other. (Reserved) 

6.1.6 Ambulatory Health Care. For requirements, see Chap- 
ter 20 and Chapter 21. 

6.1.6.1* Definition - Ambulatory Health Care Occupancy. A 
building or portion thereof used to provide services or treat- 
ment simultaneously to four or more patients that provides, 
on an outpatient basis, one or more of the following: 

(1) Treatment for patients that renders the patients inca- 
pable of taking action for self-preservation under emer- 
gency conditions without the assistance of others 

(2) Anesthesia that renders the patients incapable of taking 
action for self-preservation under emergency conditions 
without the assistance of others 

(3) Emergency or urgent care for patients who, due to the 
nature of their injury or illness, are incapable of taking 
action for self-preservation under emergency conditions 
without the assistance of others 

6.1.6.2 Other. (Reserved) 

6.1.7 Detention and Correctional. For requirements, see 
Chapter 22 and Chapter 23. 

6.1.7.1* Definition — Detention and Correctional Occupancy. 
An occupancy used to house four or more persons under var- 
ied degrees of restraint or security where such occupants are 
mosdy incapable of self-preservation because of security mea- 
sures not under the occupants' control. 

6.1.7.2* Nonresidential Uses. Within detention and correc- 
tional facilities, uses other than residential housing shall be in 
accordance with the appropriate chapter of the Code. (See 
22.1.2.3 and 23.1.2.3.) 



6.1.8 Residential. For requirements, see Chapter 24 through 
Chapter 31. 

6.1.8.1 Definition — Residential Occupancy. An occupancy 
that provides sleeping accommodations for purposes other 
than health care or detention and correctional. 

6.1.8.1.1* Definition - One- and Two-Famnily Dwelling Unit. A 
building that contains not more than two dwelling units with 
independent cobking and bathroom facilities. 

6. 1 .8. 1 .2 Definition - Lodging or Rooming House. A building 
or portion thereof that does not qualify as a one- or two-family 
dwelling, that provides sleeping accommodations for a total of 
16 or fewer people on a transient or permanent basis, without 
personal care services, with or without meals, but without sepa- 
rate cooking facilities for individual occupants. 

6.1.8.1.3* Definition - Hotel. A building or groups of build- 
ings under the same management in which there are sleeping 
accommodations for more than 16 persons and primarily used 
by transients for lodging with or without meals. 

6.1.8.1.4* Definition - Dormitory. A building or a space in a 
building in which group sleeping accommodations are pro- 
vided for more than 16 persons who are not members of the 
same family in one room, or a series of closely associated 
rooms, under joint occupancy and single management, with 
or without meals, but without individual cooking facilities. 

6. 1 .8. 1 .5 Definition - Apartment Building. A building or por- 
tion thereof containing three or more dwelling units with in- 
dependent cooking and bathroom facilities. 

6.1.8.2 Other. (Reserved) 

6.1.9 Residential Board and Care. For requirements, see 
Chapter 32 and Chapter 33. 

6.1.9.1* Definition — Residential Board and Care Occupancy. 
A building or portion thereof that is used for lodging and 
boarding of four or more residents, not related by blood or 
marriage to the owners or operators, for the purpose of pro- 
viding personal care services. 

6.1.9.2 Other. (Reserved) 

6.1.10 Mercantile. For requirements, see Chapter 36 and 
Chapter 37. 

6.1.10.1* Definition — Mercantile Occupancy. An occupancy 
used for the display and sale of merchandise. 

6.1.10.2 Other. : (Reserved) 

6.1.11 Business. For requirements, see Chapter 38 and Chap- 
ter 39. 

6.1.11.1* Definition — Business Occupancy. An occupancy 
used for account and record keeping or the transaction of 
business other than mercantile. 

6.1.11.2 Other. (Reserved) 

6.1.12 Industrial. For requirements, see Chapter 40. 

6.1.12.1* Definition — Industrial Occupancy. An occupancy 
in which products are manufactured or in which processing, 
assembling, mixing, packaging, finishing, decorating, or re- 
pair operations are conducted. 

6. 1 . 1 2.2 Other. '(Reserved) 

6.1.13 Storage. For requirements, see Chapter 42. 



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6.1.13.1* Definition — Storage Occupancy. An occupancy 
used primarily for the storage or sheltering of goods, mer- 
chandise, products, vehicles, or animals. 

6.1.13.2 Other. (Reserved) 

6.1.14 Multiple Occupancies. 

6.1.14.1 General. 

6.1.14.1.1 Multiple occupancies shall comply with the re- 
quirements of 6.1.14.1 and one of the following: 

( 1 ) Mixed occupancies — 6.1.14.3 

(2) Separated occupancies — 6.1.14.4 

6.1.14.1.2* Where incidental to another occupancy, areas 
used as follows shall be permitted to be considered part of the 
predominant occupancy and shall be subject to the provisions 
of the Code that apply to the predominant occupancy: 

(1) Mercantile, business, industrial, or storage use 
(2)*Nonresidential use with an occupant load fewer than that 
established by Section 6.1 for the occupancy threshold 

6.1.14.1.3 The following accessory occupancies shall not be 
required to be separated from the primary occupancy as re- 
quired in 6.1.14.4: 



(1) 

(2) 
(3) 



An area used solely as a public dining room having an 
occupant load of not more than 300 persons and acces- 
sory to a retail sales area 

An assembly room not over 70 m 2 (750 ft 2 ), where not 
accessory to an occupancy with high hazard contents 
Administrative, clerical, or other office rooms that, in the 
aggregate, are not more than 25 percent of the principal 
occupancy, where not accessory to an occupancy with 
high hazard contents 

6.1.14.2 Definitions. 

6.1.14.2.1 Multiple Occupancy. A building or structure in 
which two or more classes of occupancy exist. 

6.1.14.2.2 Mixed Occupancy. A multiple occupancy where 
the occupancies are intermingled. 



6.1.14.2.3 Separated Occupancy. A multiple occupancy 
where the occupancies are separated by fire resistance-rated 
assemblies. 

6.1.14.3 Mixed Occupancies. 

6.1.14.3.1 Each portion of the building shall be classified as 
to its use in accordance with Section 6.1. 

6.1.14.3.2 The means of egress facilities, type of construction, 
protection, and other safeguards in the building shall comply 
with the most restrictive fire and life safety requirements of the 
occupancies involved. 

6.1.14.4 Separated Occupancies. 

6.1.14.4.1 Where separated occupancies are provided, each 
part of the building comprising a distinct occupancy, as de- 
scribed in this chapter, shall be completely separated from 
other occupancies by fire-resistive assemblies as specified in 
6.1.14.4.2, 6.1.14.4.3, and Table 6.1.14.4.1, unless separation is 
provided by approved existing separations. 

6.1.14.4.2 Occupancy separations shall be classified as 3-hour 
fire resistance-rated, 2-hour fire resistance-rated, or 1-hour 
fire resistance-rated, and shall meet the requirements of 
Chapter 8. 

6.1.14.4.3 The fire resistance rating specified in Table 
6.1.14.4.1 shall be permitted to be reduced by 1 hour, but in 
no case shall it be reduced to less than 1 hour, where the 
building is protected throughout by an approved automatic 
sprinkler system in accordance with Section 9.7. 

6.1.14.4.4 Occupancy separations shall be vertical, horizon- 
tal, or both or, when necessary, of such other form as required 
to provide complete separation between occupancy divisions 
in the building. 

6.2 Hazard of Contents. 

6.2.1 General. 

6.2.1.1 For the purpose of this Code, the hazard of contents 
shall be the relative danger of the start and spread of fire, the 
danger of smoke or gases generated, and the danger of explo- 
sion or other occurrence potentially endangering the lives 
and safety of the occupants of the building or structure. 



Table 6.1.14.4.1 Required Separation of Occupancies (hours)* 













Lodging 






Assembly 


Day-Care 




Ambulatory Detention One- & 


& 




Assembly 


>300 to 


Assembly >12 


Day-Care 


Health Health & Two-Family 


Rooming 


Hotels & 


<300 


<1000 


> 1 000 Educational Clients 


Homes 


Care Care Correctional Dwellings 


Houses 


Dormitories 



Assembly 

<300 
Assembly >300 

to <1000 
Assembly 

>1000 
Educational 
Day-Care 

Homes 
Day-Care >12 
Health Care 
Ambulatory 

Health Care 
Detention 8c 

Correctional 
One- 

& Two-Family 

Dwellings 






2 


2 


1 


2" 


2 


2" 


2 


2 


2 





2 


2 


2 


2 b 


2 


2" 


2 


2 


2 




2 


2 


2 


2 b 


2 


2 h 


2 


2 


2 






2 


2 


2 b 


2 


2 b 


2 


2 


2 










2 b 


2 


2 b 


2 


2 


2 








1 


2 b 


2 


; 2 b 


2 


2 


2 












2 b 


2 b 
2 b 


2 b 
2 

2 b 


2 b 
2 

2 b 

1 


2 1 
2 

2 fc 

1 



(continues) 



2003 Edition 



101-40 



LIFE SAFETY CODE 



Table 6.1.14.4.1 Continued 

























Lodging 








Assembly 






Day-Care 






Ambulatory 


Detention 


One- & 


& 






Assembly 


>300 to 


Assembly 




>12 


Day-Care 


Health 


Health 


& 


Two-Family 


Rooming 


Hotels & 




<300 


<1000 


>1000 


Educational 


Clients 


Homes 


Care 


Care 


Correctional 


Dwellings 


Houses 


Dormitories 


Lodging 8c 
















: 








1 


Rooming Houses 














































Storage, 










Board & 










Industrial, 


Industrial, 


Industrial, 


Low & 


Storage, 




Apartment 


Board & 


Care, 




Mercantile, 


Mercantile, 




General 


Special 


High 


Ordinary 


High 




Buildings 


Care, Small 


Large 


Mercantile 


Mall 


Bulk Retail 


Business 


Purpose 


Purpose 


Hazard 


Hazard 


Hazard 


Assembly 


2 


2 


2 


2 


2 


3 


1 


2 


2 


3 


2 


3 


<300 


























Assembly >300 


2 


2 


2 


2 


2 


3 


2 


1 2 


2 


3 


2 


3 


to <1000 


























Assembly 


2 


2 


2 


2 


2 


3 


2 


! 3 


2 


3 


3 


3 


>1000 


























Educational 


2 


2 


2 


2 


2 


3 


2 


3 


3 


3 


3 


3 


Dare-Care >1 2 


2 


2 


2 


2 


2 


3 


2 


, 3 


3 


3 


3 


3 


Clients 


























Day-Care 


2 


2 


2 


2 


2 


3 


2 


'. 3 


3 


3 


2 


3 


Homes 


























Health Care 


2 b 


2 b 


2 b 


2 b 


2 b 


2 b 


2 b 


2 b 


2 b 


2 b 


2 b 


2 b 


Ambulatory 


2 


2 


2 


2 


2 


2" 


1 


: 2 


2 


2 b 


2 


2 b 


Health Care 


























Detention &: 


2" 


2 b 


2 b 


2 b 


2 b 


2 b 


2 b 


2 b 


2 b 


NP 


2 b 


NP 


Correctional 


























One-& 


1 


1 


2 


2 


2 


3 


2 


2 


2 


3 


2 


3 


Two- Family 


























Dwellings 


























Lodging & 


1 


2 


2 


2 


2 


3 


2 


2 


2 


3 


2 


3 


Rooming 


























Houses 


























Hotels 


1 


2 


2 


2 


2 


3 


2 


2 


2 


3 


2 


3 


& Dormitories 
























Apartment 




2 


2 


2 


2 


3 


2 


2 


2 


3 


2 


3 


Buildings 
















1 










Board & 






1 


2 


2 


3 


2 


3 


3 


3 


3 


3 


Care, Small 


























Board & 








2 


2 


3 


2 


3 


3 


3 


3 


3 


Care, Large 


























Mercantile 













3 


2 


2 


2 


3 


2 


3 


Mercantile, 












3 


2 


3 


3 


3 


2 


3 


Mall 


























Mercantile, 














2 


2 


2 


3 


2 


2 


Bulk Retail 


























Business 
















2 


2 


2 


2 


2 


Industrial, 


















1 


1 


1 


1 


General 


























Purpose 
















' 










Industrial, 




















1 


1 


1 


Special 


























Purpose 


























Industrial, 
















| 






1 


1 


High 
















: 










Hazard 
















1 










Storage, Low 
















; 








1 


& 
















j 










Ordinary 


























Hazard 
















i 










Storage, High 


























Hazard 
















: 











NP = Not permitted ; 

a The fire resistance rating is permitted to be reduced by 1 hour, but in no case to less than 1 hour, where the 
building is protected throughout by an approved automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 9.7;. 
b The 1-hour reduction due to the presence of sprinklers in accordance with footnote a is not permitted. , 



2003 Edition 



MEANS OF EGRESS 



101-41 



6.2.1.2 Hazard of contents shall be determined by the au- 
thority having jurisdiction on the basis of the character of the 
contents and the processes or operations conducted in the 
building or structure. 

6.2.1.3* For the purpose of this Code, where different degrees 
of hazard of contents exist in different parts of a building or 
structure, the most hazardous shall govern the classification, 
unless hazardous areas are separated or protected as specified 
in Section 8.7 and the applicable sections of Chapter 11 
through Chapter 42. 

6.2.2 Classification of Hazard of Contents. 

6.2.2.1* The hazard of contents of any building or structure 
shall be classified as low, ordinary, or high in accordance with 
6.2.2.2, 6.2.2.3, and 6.2.2.4. 

6.2.2.2* Low Hazard. Low hazard contents shall be classified 
as those of such low combustibility that no self-propagating 
fire therein can occur. 

6.2.2.3* Ordinary Hazard. Ordinary hazard contents shall be 
classified as those that are likely to burn with moderate rapid- 
ity or to give off a considerable volume of smoke. 

6.2.2.4* High Hazard. High hazard contents shall be classified 
as those that are likely to burn with extreme rapidity or from 
which explosions are likely. (For means of egress requirements, see 
Section 7.11.) 



Chapter 7 Means of Egress 



7.1 General. 



7.1.1* Application. Means of egress for both new and existing 
buildings shall comply with this chapter. (See also 4.5.3.) 

7.1.2 Definitions. The following is a list of terms used in this 
chapter: 

( 1 ) Accessible Area of Refuge. See 3.3. 1 7. 1 . 

(2) Accessible Means of Egress. See 3.3.136.1. 

(3) Area of Refuge. See 3.3.17. 

(4) Common Path of Travel. See 3.3.34. 

(5) Electroluminescent. See 3.3.52. 

(6) Elevator Evacuation System. See 3.3.218.1. 

(7) Elevator Lobby. See 3.3.54. 

(8) Elevator Lobby Door. See 3.3.47.1. 

(9) Exit. See 3.3.62. 

(10) Exit Access. See 3.3.63. 

(11) Exit Discharge. See 3.3.64. 

(12) Externally IMuniinated. See 3.3.114.1. 

(13) Horizontal Exit. See 3.3.62.1. 

(14) Internally Illuminated. See 3.3.114.2. 

(15) Means of Egress. See 3.3.136. 

(16) Photoluminescent. See 3.3.164. 

(17) Ramp. See 3.3.176. 

(18) Self-Luminous. See 3.3.190. 

(19) Severe Mobility Impairment. See 3.3.195. 

(20) Smokeproof Enclosure. See 3.3.203. 

7.1.3 Separation of Means of Egress. See also Section 8.2. 

7.1.3.1 Exit Access Corridors. Corridors used as exit access and 
serving an area having an occupant load exceeding 30 shall be 
separated from other parts of the building by walls having not less 
than a 1-hour fire resistance rating in accordance with Section 
8.3, unless otherwise permitted by the following: 



(1) This requirement shall not apply to existing buildings, pro- 
vided that the occupancy classification does not change. 

(2) This requirement shall not apply where otherwise pro- 
vided in Chapter 12 through Chapter 42. 

7.1.3.2 Exits. 

7.1.3.2.1 Where this Code requires an exit to be separated 
from other parts of the building, the separating construction 
shall meet the requirements of Section 8.2 and the following: 

(l)*The separation shall have not less than a 1-hour fire resis- 
tance rating where the exit connects three stories or less. 

(2)*The separation shall have not less than a 2-hour fire resis- 
tance rating where the exit connects four or more stories, 
unless one of the following conditions exists: 

(a) In existing non-high-rise buildings, existing exit stair 
enclosures shall have not less than a 1-hour fire resis- 
tance rating. 

(b) In existing buildings protected throughout by an ap- 
proved, supervised automatic sprinkler system in accor- 
dance with Section 9.7, existing exit stair enclosures 
shall have not less than a 1-hour fire resistance rating. 

(c) One-hour enclosures in accordance with 28.2.2.1.2, 
29.2.2.1.2, 30.2.2.1.2, and 31.2.2.1.2 shall be permitted 
as an alternative to the requirement of 7.1.3.2.1(2). 

(3) The 2-hour fire resistance-rated separation required by 
7.1.3.2.1(2) above shall be constructed of an assembly of 
noncombustible or limited-combustible materials and 
shall be supported by construction having not less than a 
2-hour fire resistance rating. 

(4) Openings in the separation shall be protected by fire door 
assemblies equipped with door closers complying with 
7.2.1.8. 

(5) *Openings in exit enclosures shall be limited to doors from 

normally occupied spaces and corridors and doors for 
egress from the enclosure, unless one of the following 
conditions exists: 

(a) Openings in exit passageways in mall buildings as pro- 
vided in Chapter 36 and Chapter 37 shall be permitted. 

(b) In buildings of Type I or Type II construction, exist- 
ing fire protection-rated doors to interstitial spaces 
shall be permitted, provided that such spaces meet all 
of the following criteria: 

i. The space is used solely for distribution of pipes, 
ducts, and conduits. 

ii. The space contains no storage. 

iii. The space is separated from the exit enclosure in ac- 
cordance with Section 8.3. 

(c) Existing openings to mechanical equipment spaces 
protected by approved existing fire protection-rated 
doors shall be permitted, provided that the following 
criteria are met: 

i. The space is used solely for non-fuel-fired mechanical 
equipment. 

ii. The space contains no storage of combustible materials. 

iii. The building is protected throughout by an ap- 
proved, supervised automatic sprinkler system in ac- 
cordance with Section 9.7. 

(6) Penetrations into, and openings through, an exit enclo- 
sure assembly shall be limited to the following: 

(a) Doors permitted by 7.1.3.2.1(5) 

(b) Electrical conduit serving the stairway 

(c) Required exit doors 



2003 Edition 



101-42 



LIFE SAFETY CODE 



(d) Ductwork and equipment necessary for independent 
stair pressurization 

(e) Water or steam piping necessary for the heating or 
cooling of the exit enclosure 

(f) Sprinkler piping 

(g) Standpipes 

(h) Existing penetrations protected in accordance with 

8.3.5 
(i) Penetrations for fire alarm circuits where the circuits 
are installed in metal conduit and the penetrations 
are protected in accordance with 8.3.5. 
(7) Penetrations or communicating openings shall be prohib- 
ited between adjacent exit enclosures. 

7.1.3.2.2 An exit enclosure shall provide a continuous pro- 
tected path of travel to an exit discharge. 

7.1.3.2.3* An exit enclosure shall not be used for any purpose 
that has the potential to interfere with its use as an exit and, if 
so designated, as an area of refuge. (See also 7.2.2.5.3.) 

7.1.4 Interior Finish in Exit Enclosures. 

7.1.4.1* Interior Wall and Ceiling Finish in Exit Enclosures. 
Interior wall and ceiling finish shall be in accordance with Sec- 
tion 10.2. In exit enclosures, interior wall and ceiling Finish mate- 
rials complying with Section 10.2 shall be Class A or Class B. 

7.1.4.2* Interior Floor Finish in Exit Enclosures. New interior 
floor finish in exit enclosures, including stair treads and risers, 
shall be not less than Class II in accordance with Chapter 10. 

7.1.5* Headroom. 

7.1.5.1 Means of egress shall be designed and maintained to 
provide headroom in accordance with other sections of this 
Code, and such headroom shall be not less than 2285 mm 
(90 in.), with projections from the ceiling not less than 
2030 mm (80 in.) nominal above the finished floor, unless 
otherwise specified in 7.1.5.1.1 and 7.1.5.1.2. 

7. 1 .5. 1 . 1 In existing buildings, the ceiling height shall be not 
less than 2135 mm (84 in.) from the floor, with projections 
from the ceiling not less than 2030 mm (80 in.) nominal above 
the floor. 

7.1.5.1.2 Headroom in industrial equipment access areas as 
provided in 40.2.5.2 shall be permitted. 

7.1.5.2 The minimum ceiling height shall be maintained for 
not less than two-thirds of the ceiling area of any room or 
space, provided that the ceiling height of remaining ceiling 
area is not less than 2030 mm (80 in.) . 

7.1.5.3 Headroom on stairs shall be not less than 2030 mm 
(80 in.) and shall be measured vertically above a plane parallel to 
and tangent with the most forward projection of the stair tread. 

7.1.6 Walking Surfaces in the Means of Egress. 

7.1.6.1 General. 

7.1.6.1.1 Walking surfaces in the means of egress shall com- 
ply with 7.1.6.2 through 7.1.6.4. 

7.1.6.1.2 Approved, existing walking surfaces shall be per- 
mitted. 

7.1.6.2 Changes in Elevation. Abrupt changes in elevation of 
walking surfaces shall not exceed 6.3 mm (Vi in.). Changes 
in elevation exceeding 6.3 mm (Vi in.), but not exceeding 
13 mm (V2 in.), shall be beveled 1 to 2. Changes in elevation 



exceeding 13 nim (Vi in.) shall be considered a change in 
level and shall be subject to the requirements of 7.1.7. 

7.1.6.3 Level. Walking surfaces shall be nominally level. The 
slope of a walking surface in the direction of travel shall not 
exceed 1 in 20 unless the ramp requirements of 7.2.5 are met. 
The slope perpendicular to the direction of travel shall not 
exceed 1 in 48. 

7.1.6.4* Slip Resistance. Walking surfaces shall be slip resis- 
tant under foreseeable conditions. The walking surface of 
each element in the means of egress shall be uniformly slip 
resistant along the natural path of travel. 

7.1.7 Changes in Level hi Means of Egress. 

7.1.7.1 Changes in level in means of egress shall be achieved 
by an approved means of egress where the elevation differ- 
ence exceeds 535 mm (21 in.). 

7.1.7.2* Changes in level in means of egress not in excess of 
535 mm (21 in.) shall be achieved either by a ramp complying 
with the requirements of 7.2.5 or by a stair complying with the 
requirements of 7.2.2. 

7.1.7.2.1 Where a ramp is used, the presence and location of 
ramped portions of walkways shall be readily apparent. 

7.1.7.2.2 Where a stair is used, the tread depth of such stair 
shall be not less than 330 mm (13 in.). 

7.1.7.2.3 Tread depth in industrial equipment access areas as 
provided in 40.2.5.2 shall be permitted. 

7.1.7.2.4 The presence and location of each step shall be 
readily apparent. 

7.1.8* Guards. Guards in accordance with 7.2.2.4 shall be pro- 
vided at the open sides of means of egress that exceed 760 mm 
(30 in.) above the floor or grade below. 

7.1.9 Impediments to Egress. Any device or alarm installed to 
restrict the improper use of a means of egress shall be designed 
and installed so that it cannot, even in case of failure, impede or 
prevent emergency use of such means of egress unless otherwise 
provided in 7.2.1.6 and Chapter 18, Chapter 19, Chapter 22, and 
Chapter 23. 

7.1.10 Means of Egress Reliability. 

7.1.10.1* Means of egress shall be continuously maintained 
free of all obstructions or impediments to full instant use in 
the case of fire or other emergency. 

7.1.10.2 Fiirmshings and Decorations in Means of Egress. 

7.1.10.2.1 No furnishings, decorations, or other objects shall 
obstruct exits, access thereto, egress therefrom, or visibility 
thereof. 

7.1.10.2.2 No obstruction by railings, barriers, or gates shall 
divide the means of egress into sections appurtenant to indi- 
vidual rooms, apartments, or other occupied spaces. Where 
the authority having jurisdiction finds the required path of 
travel to be obstructed by furniture or other movable objects, 
the authority shall be permitted to require that such objects be 
secured out of the way or shall be permitted to require that 
railings or other permanent barriers be installed to protect 
the path of travel against encroachment. 

7.1.10.2.3 Mirrors shall not be placed on exit doors. Mirrors 
shall not be placed in or adjacent to any exit in such a manner 
as to confuse the direction of egress. 



2003 Edition 



MEANS OF EGRESS 



101-43 



7.1.11 Sprinkler System Installation. Where another provision 
of this chapter requires an automatic sprinkler system, the sprin- 
kler system shall be installed in accordance with the subparts of 
9.7.1.1 permitted by the applicable occupancy chapters. 

7.2 Means of Egress Components. 

7.2.1 Doors. 

7.2.1.1 General. 

7.2.1.1.1 A door assembly in a means of egress shall conform 
to the general requirements of Section 7.1 and to the special 
requirements of 7.2.1. Such an assembly shall be designated as 
a door. 

7.2.1.1.2 Every door and every principal entrance that is re- 
quired to serve as an exit shall be designed and constructed so 
that the path of egress travel is obvious and direct. Windows 
that, because of their physical configuration or design and the 
materials used in their construction, have the potential to be 
mistaken for doors shall be made inaccessible to the occu- 
pants by barriers or railings. 

7.2.1.1.3* For the purposes of Section 7.2, a building shall be 
considered to be occupied at any time it is open for general 
occupancy, any time it is open to the public, or at any other 
time it is occupied by more than 10 persons. 

7.2.1.2 Width. 

7.2.1.2.1* Egress Capacity Width. For purposes of calculating 
capacity, the width of doors shall be measured as follows: 

( 1 ) For new swinging doors, only the width of the doorway when 
the door is open 90 degrees, as measured in accordance with 
7.2.1.2.1(4) and 7.2.1.2.1 (5), shall be included. 

(2) For other types of new doors, only the width of the door- 
way when the door is in the fully open position, as mea- 
sured in accordance with 7.2.1.2.1(4) and 7.2.1.2.1(5), 
shall be included. 

(3) For any existing door installation, only the width of the door- 
way when the door is in the fully open position, as measured 
in accordance with 7.2.1.2.1 (4) and 7.2.1.2.1 (5), shall be in- 
cluded. 

(4) For all doors, projections not more than 90 mm (3V2 in.) 
at each side of the doorway at a height of not more than 
965 mm (38 in.) shall not be considered a reduction in 
egress capacity width. 

(5) For swinging doors, egress capacity width shall be mea- 
sured between the face of the door and the stop. 

7.2.1.2.2 Clear Width. Clear width shall be measured as follows: 

(1) At the narrowest point in the door opening 

(2) For swinging doors, between the face of the door and the 
stop 

(3) Without subtracting for the obstructions permitted by 
7.2.1.2.3.2 and 7.2.1.2.3.3 

7.2.1.2.3* Measurement. 

7.2.1.2.3.1 For purposes of determining minimum door 
width, the clear width shall be used unless door leaf width is 
specified. 

7.2*1.2.3.2 For swinging doors, projections of not more than 
100 mm (4 in.) into the doorway width on the hinge side shall 
not be considered reductions in width, provided that such 
projections are for purposes of accommodating panic hard- 
ware or fire exit hardware and are located not less than 
865 mm (34 in.) above the floor. 



7.2.1.2.3.3 Projections exceeding 2030 mm (80 in.) above 
the floor shall not be considered reductions in width. 

7.2.1.2.4 Minhmuin Door Width. Door openings in means of 
egress shall be not less than 810 mm (32 in.) in clear width, 
unless one of the following conditions exists: 

( 1 ) Where a pair of doors is provided, not less than one of the 
doors shall provide not less than an 810-mm (32-in.) clear 
width opening. 

(2) Exit access doors serving a room not exceeding 70 ft 2 
(6.5 m 2 ) and not required to be accessible to persons with 
severe mobility impairments shall be not less than 
610 mm (24 in.) in door leaf width. 

(3) Doors serving a building or portion thereof not required 
to be accessible to persons with severe mobility impair- 
ments shall be permitted to be 710 mm (28 in.) in door 
leaf width. 

(4) In existing buildings, the existing door leaf width shall be 
not less than 710 mm (28 in.). 

(5) Doors in detention and correctional occupancies as oth- 
erwise provided in Chapter 22 and Chapter 23 shall not 
be required to comply with 7.2.1.2.4. 

(6) Interior doors in dwelling units as otherwise provided in 
Chapter 24 shall not be required to comply with 7.2.1.2.4. 

(7) A power-operated door leaf located within a two-leaf open- 
ing shall be exempt from the minimum 810-mm (32-in.) 
single-leaf requirement in accordance with 7.2.1.9.1.5. 

(8) Revolving doors as provided in 7.2.1.10 shall be exempt 
from the minimum 810-mm (32-in.) width requirement. 

7.2.1.3 Floor Level. 

7.2.1.3.1 The elevation of the floor surfaces on both sides of a 
door shall not vary by more than 13 mm (V? in.). 

7.2.1.3.2 The elevation of the floor surfaces required by 
7.2.1.3.1 shall be maintained on both sides of the doorway for 
a distance not less than the width of the widest leaf. 

7.2.1.3.3 Thresholds at doorways shall not exceed 13 mm 
(Vk in.) in height. 

7.2.1.3.4 Raised thresholds and floor level changes in excess 
of 6.3 mm (V4 in.) at doorways shall be beveled with a slope not 
steeper than 1 in 2. 

7.2.1.3.5 In existing buildings where the door discharges to 
the outside or to an exterior balcony or exterior exit access, 
the floor level outside the door shall be permitted to be one 
step lower than that of the inside, but shall be not more than 
205 mm (8 in.) lower. 

7.2. 1.3.6 In existing buildings, a door at the top of a stair shall 
be permitted to open directly at a stair, provided that the door 
does not swing over the stair and that the door serves an area 
with an occupant load of fewer than 50 persons. 

7.2.1.4 Swing and Force to Open. 

7.2.1.4.1* Any door in a means of egress shall be of the side- 
hinged or pivoted-swinging type, and shall be installed to be 
capable of swinging from any position to the full required 
width of the opening in which it is installed, unless otherwise 
specified in 7.2.1.4.1.1 through 7.2.1.4.1.8. 

7.2.1.4.1.1 Sliding doors in detention and correctional occu- 
pancies as provided in Chapter 22 and Chapter 23, shall be 
permitted. 



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7.2.1.4.1.2 Doors in dwelling units as provided in Chapter 24 
shall be permitted. 

7.2.1.4.1.3 Doors in residential board and care occupancies 
as provided in Chapter 32 and Chapter 33 shall be permitted. 

7.2.1.4.1.4 Where permitted in Chapter 12 through Chap- 
ter 42, horizontal-sliding or vertical-rolling security grilles or 
doors that are part of the required means of egress shall be 
permitted, provided that they meet the following criteria: 

(1) Such grilles or doors shall remain secured in the fully 
open position during the period of occupancy by the gen- 
eral public. 

(2) On or adjacent to the grille or door, there shall be a 
readily visible, durable sign in letters not less than 25 mm 
(1 in.) high on a contrasting background that reads as 
follows: THIS DOOR TO REMAIN OPEN WHEN THE 
BUILDING IS OCCUPIED. 

(3) Doors or grilles shall not be brought to the closed posi- 
tion when the space is occupied. 

(4) Doors or grilles shall be operable from within the space 
without the use of any special knowledge or effort. 

(5) Where two or more means of egress are required, not 
more than half of the means of egress shall be equipped 
with horizontal-sliding or vertical-rolling grilles or doors. 

7.2.1.4.1.5 Horizontal-sliding doors complying with 7.2.1.14 
shall be permitted. 

7.2.1.4.1.6 Where private garages, business areas, industrial 
areas, and storage areas with an occupant load not exceeding 
10 contain only low or ordinary hazard contents, doors to such 
areas shall be exemptfrom the requirement of 7.2.1.4.1. 

7.2.1.4.1.7 Revolving doors complying with 7.2.1.10 shall be 
permitted. 

7.2.1.4.1.8 Existing fusible link-operated horizontal-sliding 
or vertical-rolling fire doors shall be permitted to be used as 
provided in Chapter 12 through Chapter 42. 

7.2.1.4.2 Doors required to be of the side-hinged or pivoted- 
swinging type shall swing in the direction of egress travel 
where serving a room or area with an occupant load of 50 or 
more, except under the following conditions: 

(1) Doors in horizontal exits shall not be required to swing in 
the direction of egress travel where permitted by 
7.2.4.3.7.1 or 7.2.4.3.7.2. 

(2) Smoke barrier doors shall not be required to swing in the 
direction of egress travel in existing health care occupan- 
cies as provided in Chapter 19. 

7.2.1.4.3 A door shall swing in the direction of egress travel 
under either of the following conditions: 

(1) Where the door is used in an exit enclosure, unless the 
door is the door of an individual living unit that opens 
directly into an exit enclosure 

(2) Where the door serves a high hazard contents area 

7.2.1.4.4* During its swing, any door in a means of egress shall 
leave not less than one-half of the required width of an aisle, a 
corridor, a passageway, or a landing unobstructed and shall 
project not more than 180 mm (7 in.) into the required width 
of an aisle, a corridor, a passageway, or a landing, when fully 
open, unless both of the following conditions are met: 

(1) The door provides access to a stair in an existing building. 



(2) The door meets the requirement that limits projection to 
not more than 180 mm (7 in.) into the required width of a 
stair or landing when the door is fully open. 

7.2.1.4.5 The forces required to fully open any door manually 
in a means of egress shall not exceed 67 N (15 lbf) to release the 
latch, 133 N (30 lbf) to set the door in motion, and 67 N (15 lbf) 
to open the door to the minimum required width, unless other- 
wise specified in 7.2.1.4.5.2 through 7.2.1.4.5.5. 

7.2.1.4.5.1 Thelforces specified in 7.2.1.4.5 shall be applied 
to the latch stile. 1 

7.2.1.4.5.2 Opening forces for interior side-hinged or pivoted- 
swinging doors without closers shall not exceed 22 N (5 lbf) . 

7.2.1.4.5.3 The opening force for existing doors in existing 
buildings shall not exceed 222 N (50 lbf) applied to the 
latch stile. 

7.2. 1 .4.5.4 The opening forces for horizontal sliding doors in 
detention and correctional occupancies shall be as provided 
in Chapter 22 arjd Chapter 23. 

7.2.1.4.5.5 The opening forces for power-operated doors 
shall be as provided in 7.2.1.9. 

7.2.1.4.6 Screen doors and storm doors used in a means of 
egress shall be subject to the requirements for direction of swing 
that are applicable to other doors used in a means of egress. 

7.2.1.5 Locks, Latches, and Alarm Devices. 

7.2.1.5.1 Doors: shall be arranged to be opened readily from 
the egress side whenever the building is occupied. 

7.2.1.5.2 Locks, if provided, shall not require the use of a key, 
a tool, or special knowledge or effort for operation from the 
egress side. 

7.2.1.5.3 The requirements of 7.2.1.5.1 and 7.2.1.5.2 shall 
not apply where otherwise provided in Chapter 18 through 
Chapter 23. 

7.2.1.5.4 Exterior doors shall be permitted to have key- 
operated locks from the egress side, provided that the follow- 
ing criteria are met: 

(1 ) This alternative is permitted in Chapter 12 through Chap- 
ter 42 for the specific occupancy. 

(2) A readily visible, durable sign in letters not less than 
25 mm (1 in.) high on a contrasting background that 
reads as follows is located on or adjacent to the door: 
THIS DOOR TO REMAIN UNLOCKED WHEN THE 
BUILDING ;IS OCCUPIED. 

(3) The locking device is of a type that is readily distinguish- 
able as locked. 

(4) A key is immediately available to any occupant inside the 
building when it is locked. 

7.2.1.5.5 The alternative provisions of 7.2.1.5.4 shall be permit- 
ted to be revoked by the authority having jurisdiction for cause. 

7.2.1.5.6 Where permitted in Chapter 12 through Chapter 
42, key operation shall be permitted, provided that the key 
cannot be removed when the door is locked from the side 
from which egress is to be made. 

7.2.1.5.7* Every door in a stair enclosure serving more than 
four stories, unless permitted by 7.2.1.5.7.2, shall meet one of 
the following: 



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101-45 



(1) Re-entry from the stair enclosure to the interior of the 
building shall be provided. 

(2) An automatic release that is actuated with the initiation of 
the building fire alarm system shall be provided to unlock 
all stair enclosure doors to allow re-entry. 

(3) Selected re-entry shall be provided in accordance with 
7.2.1.5.7.1. 

7.2.1.5.7.1 Doors on stair enclosures shall be permitted to be 
equipped with hardware that prevents re-entry into the interior 
of the building, provided that the following criteria are met: 

(1) There shall be not less than two levels where it is possible 
to leave the stair enclosure to access another exit. 

(2) There shall be not more than four stories intervening be- 
tween stories where it is possible to leave the stair enclo- 
sure to access another exit. 

(3) Re-entry shall be possible on the top story or next-to-top 
story that allows access to another exit. 

(4) Doors allowing re-entry shall be identified as such on the 
stair side of the door. 

(5) Doors not allowing re-entry shall be provided with a sign on 
the stair side indicating the location of the nearest door, in 
each direction of travel, that allows re-entry or exit. 

7.2.1.5.7.2 The requirement of 7.2.1.5.7 shall not apply to 
the following: 

(1) Existing installations as permitted in Chapter 12 through 
Chapter 42 

( 2 ) Stair enclosures serving a building permitted to have a single 
exit in accordance with Chapter 11 through Chapter 42 

(3) Stair enclosures in health care occupancies where other- 
wise provided in Chapter 18 

(4) Stair enclosures in detention and correctional occupan- 
cies where otherwise provided in Chapter 22 

7.2.1.5.8 If a stair enclosure allows access to the roof of the 
building, the door to the roof either shall be kept locked or 
shall allow re-entry from the roof. 

7.2.1.5.9* A latch or other fastening device on a door shall be 
provided with a releasing device that has an obvious method 
of operation and that is readily operated under all lighting 
conditions. 

7.2. 1 .5.9. 1 The releasing mechanism for any latch other than 
existing installations shall be located not less than 865 mm 
(34 in.), and not more than 1220 mm (48 in.), above the fin- 
ished floor. 

7.2.1.5.9.2 The releasing mechanism shall open the door 
with not more than one releasing operation, unless otherwise 
specified in 7.2.1.5.9.3 and 7.2.1.5.9.4. 

7.2.1.5.9.3* Egress doors from individual living units and 
guest rooms of residential occupancies shall be permitted to 
be provided with devices, including automatic latching de- 
vices, that require not more than one additional releasing op- 
eration, provided that such device is operable from the inside 
without the use of a key or tool and is mounted at a height not 
exceeding 1220 mm (48 in.) above the finished floor. 

7.2.1.5.9.4 Existing security devices permitted by 7.2.1.5.9.3 
shall be permitted to have two additional releasing operations. 

7.2.1.5.9.5 Existing security devices permitted by 7.2.1.5.9.3, 
other than automatic latching devices, shall be located not 
more than 1525 mm (60 in.) above the finished floor. 



7.2.1.5.10 Where pairs of doors are required in a means of 
egress, one of the following criteria shall be met: 

(1) Each leaf of the pair shall be provided with a releasing 
device that does not depend on the release of one door 
before the other. 

(2) Approved automatic flush bolts shall be used and ar- 
ranged such that the following criteria are met: 

(a) The door leaf equipped with the automatic flush 
bolts shall have no doorknob or surface-mounted 
hardware. 

(b) Unlatching of any leaf shall not require more than 
one operation. 

7.2.1.5.11* Devices shall not be installed in connection with 
any door on which panic hardware or fire exit hardware is 
required where such devices prevent or are intended to pre- 
vent the free use of the door for purposes of egress, unless 
otherwise provided in 7.2.1.6. 

7.2.1.6 Special Locking Arrangements . 

7.2.1.6.1 Delayed-Egress Locks. Approved, listed, delayed- 
egress locks shall be permitted to be installed on doors serving 
low and ordinary hazard contents in buildings protected 
throughout by an approved, supervised automatic fire detec- 
tion system in accordance with Section 9.6 or an approved, 
supervised automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Sec- 
tion 9.7, and where permitted in Chapter 12 through Chapter 
42, provided that the following criteria are met: 

(1) The doors shall unlock upon actuation of one of the fol- 
lowing: 

(a) An approved, supervised automatic sprinkler system 
in accordance with Section 9.7 

(b) Any heat detector 

(c) Not more than two smoke detectors of an approved, 
supervised automatic fire detection system in accor- 
dance with Section 9.6 

(2) The doors shall unlock upon loss of power controlling the 
lock or locking mechanism. 

(3)*An irreversible process shall release the lock within 15 sec- 
onds, or 30 seconds where approved by the authority having 
jurisdiction, upon application of a force to the release device 
required in 7.2.1.5.9 under the following conditions: 

(a) The force shall not be required to exceed 67 N 
(15 1bf). 

(b) The force shall not be required to be continuously 
applied for more than 3 seconds. 

(c) The initiation of the release process shall activate an 
audible signal in the vicinity of the door. 

(d) Once the door lock has been released by the applica- 
tion of force to the releasing device, relocking shall 
be by manual means only. 

(4)*A readily visible, durable sign in letters not less than 
25 mm (1 in.) high and not less than 3.2 mm (Vs in.) in 
stroke width on a contrasting background that reads as 
follows shall be located on the door adjacent to the re- 
lease device: 

PUSH UNTIL ALARM SOUNDS 

DOOR CAN BE OPENED IN 15 SECONDS 

7.2.1.6.2 Access-Controlled Egress Boors. Where permitted 
in Chapter 11 through Chapter 42, doors in the means of 
egress shall be permitted to be equipped with an approved 



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LIFE SAFETY CODE 



entrance and egress access control system, provided that the 
following criteria are met: 

(1) One of the following shall be provided: 

(a) A sensor on the egress side, arranged to detect an 
occupant approaching doors that are arranged to un- 
lock in the direction of egress upon detection of an 
approaching occupant or loss of power to the sensor 

(b) Listed panic hardware or fire exit hardware that, 
when operated, unlocks the door 

(2) Loss of power to the part of the access control system that 
locks the doors shall automatically unlock the doors in 
the direction of egress. 

(3) The doors shall be arranged to unlock in the direction of 
egress from a manual release device located 1015 mm to 
1220 mm (40 in. to 48 in.) vertically above the floor and 
within 1525 mm (60 in.) of the secured doors. 

(4) The manual release device specified in 7.2.1.6.2(3) shall 
be readily accessible and clearly identified by a sign that 
reads as follows: PUSH TO EXIT. 

(5) When operated, the manual release device shall result in 
direct interruption of power to the lock — independent 
of the access control system electronics — and the doors 
shall remain unlocked for not less than 30 seconds. 

(6) Activation of the building fire-protective signaling system, 
if provided, shall automatically unlock the doors in the 
direction of egress, and the doors shall remain unlocked 
until the fire-protective signaling system has been manu- 
ally reset. 

(7) Activation of the building automatic sprinkler or fire de- 
tection system, if provided, shall automatically unlock the 
doors in the direction of egress, and the doors shall re- 
main unlocked until the fire-protective signaling system 
has been manually reset. 

7.2.1.7 Panic Hardware and Fire Exit Hardware. 

7.2.1.7.1 Where a door is required to be equipped with panic 
or fire exit hardware, such hardware shall meet the following 
criteria: 

(1) It shall consist of a cross bar or a push pad, the actuating 
portion of which extends across not less than one-half of 
the width of the door leaf. 

(2) It shall be mounted as follows: 

(a) New installations shall be not less than 865 mm (34 in.) , 
nor more than 1220 mm (48 in.) , above the floor. 

(b) Existing installations shall be not less than 760 mm 
(30 in.), nor more than 1220 mm (48 in.), above the 
floor. 

(3) It shall be constructed so that a horizontal force not to 
exceed 66 N (15 lbf) actuates the cross bar or push pad 
and latches. 

7.2.1.7.2 Only approved panic hardware shall be used on 
doors that are not fire doors. Only approved fire exit hardware 
shall be used on fire doors. 

7.2.1.7.3 Required panic hardware and fire exit hardware, in 
other than detention and correctional occupancies as other- 
wise provided in Chapter 22 and Chapter 23, shall not be 
equipped with any locking device, set screw, or other arrange- 
ment that prevents the release of the latch when pressure is 
applied to the releasing device. 



7.2.1.7.4 Devices that hold the latch in the retracted position 
shall be prohibited on fire exit hardware, unless such devices 
are listed and approved for such purposes. 

7.2.1.8 Self-Closing Devices. 

7.2. 1 .8. 1 * A door normally required to be kept closed shall not 
be secured in the open position at any time and shall be self- 
closing or automatic-closing in accordance with 7.2.1.8.2. 

7.2.1.8.2 In any building of low or ordinary hazard contents, as 
defined in 6.2.2.2 and 6.2.2.3, or where approved by the authority 
having jurisdiction, doors shall be permitted to be automatic- 
closing, provided that the following criteria are met: 

(1) Upon release of the hold-open mechanism, the door be- 
comes self-closing. 

(2) The release device is designed so that the door instandy 
releases manually and, upon release, becomes self- 
closing, or the door can be readily closed. 

(3) The automatic releasing mechanism or medium is acti- 
vated by the operation of approved smoke detectors in- 
stalled in accordance with the requirements for smoke 
detectors for door release service in NFPA 72®, National 
Fire Alarm Code®. 

(4) Upon loss of power to the hold-open device, the hold-open 
mechanism is released and the door becomes self-closing. 

(5) The release by means of smoke detection of one door in a 
stair enclosure results in closing all doors serving that 
stair. 

7.2.1.9* Powered Doors. 

7.2.1.9.1* General. Where means of egress doors are operated 
by power upon the approach of a person or are provided with 
power-assisted manual operation, the design shall be such 
that, in the event of power failure, the doors open manually to 
allow egress travel or close when necessary to safeguard the 
means of egress. 

7.2.1.9.1.1 The : forces required to manually open the doors 
specified in 7.2.1.9.1 shall not exceed those required in 
7.2.1.4.5, except that the force required to set the door in 
motion shall not exceed 222 N (50 lbf). 

7.2.1.9.1.2 The door shall be designed and installed so that, 
when a force is applied to the door on the side from which 
egress is made, it shall be capable of swinging from any posi- 
tion to provide full use of the required width of the opening in 
which it is installed (see 7.2.1.4). 

7.2.1.9.1.3 A readily visible, durable sign in letters not less 
than 25 mm (1 in.) high on a contrasting background that 
reads as follows shall be located on the egress side of each 
door: 

IN EMERGENCY, PUSH TO OPEN 

7.2.1.9.1.4 Sliding, power-operated doors in exit access serv- 
ing an occupant load of fewer than 50 that manually open in 
the direction of door travel with forces not exceeding those 
required in 7.2.1.4.5 shall not be required to have the swing- 
out feature required by 7.2.1.9.1.2. The required sign shall be 
in letters not less than 25 mm (1 in.) high on a contrasting 
background and shall read as follows: 

IN EMERGENCY SLIDE TO OPEN 



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101-47 



7.2.1.9.1.5* In the emergency breakout mode, a door leaf lo- 
cated within a two-leaf opening shall be exempt from the mini- 
mum 810-mm (32-in.) single-leaf requirement of 7.2.1.2.4, 
provided that the clear width of the single leaf is not less than 
760 mm (30 in.). 

7.2.1.9.1.6 For a biparting sliding door in the emergency 
breakout mode, a door leaf located within a multiple-leaf 
opening shall be exempt from the minimum 810-mm (32-in.) 
single-leaf requirement of 7.2.1.2.4 if a clear opening of not 
less than 810 mm (32 in.) is provided by all leafs broken out. 

7.2.1.9.1.7 Doors complying with 7.2.1.14 shall be permitted 
to be used. 

7.2.1.9.1.8 The requirements of 7.2.1.9.1 through 7.2.1.9.1.7 
shall not apply in detention and correctional occupancies 
where otherwise provided in Chapter 22 and Chapter 23. 

7.2.1.9.2 Doors Required to Be Self-Closing. Where doors are 
required to be self-closing and are operated by power upon 
the approach of a person, or are provided with power-assisted 
manual operation, they shall be permitted in the means of 
egress where they meet the following criteria: 

(1) The doors can be opened manually in accordance with 
7.2.1.9.1 to allow egress travel in the event of power failure. 

(2) New doors remain in the closed position unless actuated 
or opened manually. 

(3) When actuated, new doors remain open for not more 
than 30 seconds. 

(4) Doors held open for any period of time close — and the 
power-assist mechanism ceases to function — upon opera- 
don of approved smoke detectors installed in such a way 
as to detect smoke on either side of the door opening in 
accordance with the provisions of NFPA 72 s , National Fire 
Alarm Code 9 . 

(5) Doors required to be self-latching are either self-latching 
or become self-latching upon operation of approved 
smoke detectors per 7.2.1.9.2(4). 

(6) New power-assisted swinging doors comply with BHMA/ 
ANSI A156.19, American National Standard for Power Assist 
and Low Energy Power Operated Doors. 

7.2.1.10 Revolving Doors. 

7.2.1.10.1 Revolving doors, whether used or not used in the 
means of egress, shall comply with the following: 

(1 ) Revolving doors shall be capable of being collapsed into a 
book-fold position, unless they are existing revolving 
doors approved by the authority havingjurisdicdon. 

(2) When revolving doors are collapsed into the book-fold 
position, the parallel egress paths formed shall provide an 
aggregate width of 915 mm (36 in.), unless they are ap- 
proved, existing revolving doors. 

(3) Revolving doors shall not be used within 3050 mm 
(120 in.) of the foot or the top of stairs or escalators. 

(4) A dispersal area acceptable to the authority havingjuris- 
dicdon shall be located between stairs or escalators and 
the revolving door. 

(5) The revolutions per minute (rpm) of revolving doors 
shall not exceed the values in Table 7.2.1.10.1. 

(6) Each revolving door shall have a conforming side-hinged 
swinging door in the same wall as the revolving door and 
within 3050 mm (120 in.) of the revolving door, unless 
one of the following conditions applies: 



(a) Revolving doors shall be permitted without adjacent 
swinging doors, as required by 7.2.1.10.1(6), in street 
floor elevator lobbies, provided that no stairways or 
doors from other parts of the building discharge 
through the lobby and the lobby has no occupancy 
other than as a means of travel between the elevators 
and street. 

(b) The requirement of 7.2.1.10.1(6) shall not apply to 
existing revolving doors where the number of revolv- 
ing doors does not exceed the number of swinging 
doors within 6100 mm (240 in.) of the revolving door. 



Table 7.2.1.10.1 Revolving Door Maximum Speed 



Inside Diameter 


Power-Driven 


Manual 






Speed 


Speed 






Control 


Control 


IBMl 


in. 


(rpni) 


(rpm) 


1980 


78 


11 


12 


2135 


84 


10 


11 


2285 


90 


9 


11 


2440 


96 


9 


10 


2590 


102 


8 


9 


2745 


108 


8 


9 


2895 


114 


7 


8 


3050 


120 


7 


8 



7.2.1.10.2 Where permitted in Chapter 12 through Chap- 
ter 42, revolving doors shall be permitted as a component in a 
means of egress, provided that the following criteria are met: 

(1) Revolving doors shall not be given credit for more than 
50 percent of the required egress capacity. 

(2) Each revolving door shall not be credited with more than 
a 50-person capacity or, if of not less than a 2745-mm 
(108-in.) diameter, a revolving door shall be permitted 
egress capacity based on the clear opening width pro- 
vided when collapsed into a book-fold position. 

(3) Revolving doors shall be capable of being collapsed into a 
book-fold position when a force not exceeding 580 N 
(130 lbf) is applied to the wings within 75 mm (3 in.) of 
the outer edge. 

7.2.1.10.3 Revolving doors not used as a component of a 
means of egress shall have a collapsing force not exceeding 
800 N (180 lbf). 

7.2.1.10.4 The requirement of 7.2.1.10.3 shall not apply to 
revolving doors, provided that the collapsing force is reduced 
to a force not to exceed 580 N (130 lbf) under the following 
condidons: 

(1) Power failure, or removal of power to the device holding 
the wings in posidon 

(2) Actuation of the automatic sprinkler system, where such a 
system is provided 

(3) Actuation of a smoke detection system that is installed to 
provide coverage in all areas within the building that are 
within 23 m (75 ft) of the revolving doors 

(4) Actuation of a clearly identified manual control switch in 
an approved location that reduces the holding force to a 
force not to exceed 580 N (130 lbf) 



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7.2.1.11 Turnstiles. 

7.2.1.11.1 Turnstiles or similar devices that restrict travel to one 
direction or are used to collect fares or admission charges shall 
not be placed so as to obstruct any required means of egress, 
unless otherwise specified in 7.2.1.11.1.1 and 7.2.1.11.1.2 

7.2.1.11.1.1 Approved turnstiles not exceeding 990 mm 
(39 in.) in height that turn freely in the direction of egress 
travel shall be permitted where revolving doors are permitted 
in Chapter 12 through Chapter 42. 

7.2.1.11.1.2 Where turnstiles are approved by the authority 
having jurisdiction and permitted in Chapter 12 through 
Chapter 42, each turnstile shall be credited for a capacity of 50 
persons, provided that such turnstiles meet the following criteria: 

( 1 ) They freewheel in the egress direction when primary power 
is lost, and freewheel in the direction of egress travel upon 
manual release by an employee assigned in the area. 

(2) They are not given credit for more than 50 percent of the 
required egress width. 

(3) They are not in excess of 990 mm (39 in.) in height and 
have a clear width of not less than 420 mm (16% in.). 

7.2.1.11.2 Turnstiles exceeding 990 mm (39 in.) in height 
shall meet the requirements for revolving doors in 7.2.1.10. 

7.2.1.11.3 Turnstiles located in, or furnishing access to, re- 
quired exits shall provide not less than 420 mm (16V£ in.) clear 
width at and below a height of 990 mm (39 in.) and at least 
560 mm (22 in.) clear width at heights above 990 mm (39 in.). 

7.2.1.12 Doors in Folding Partitions. Where permanently 
mounted folding or movable partitions divide a room into 
smaller spaces, a swinging door or open doorway shall be pro- 
vided as an exit access from each such space, unless otherwise 
specified in 7.2.1.12.1 and 7.2.1.12.2. 

7.2. 1 . 1 2. 1 A door or opening in the folding partition shall not 
be required, provided that all of the following criteria are met: 

( 1 ) The subdivided space is not used by more than 20 persons 
at any time. 

(2) The use of the space is under adult supervision. 

(3) The partitions are arranged so that they do not extend 
across any aisle or corridor used as an exit access to the 
required exits from the story. 

(4) The partitions conform to the interior finish and other 
requirements of this Code. 

(5) The partitions are of an approved type, have a simple 
method of release, and are capable of being opened quickly 
and easily by experienced persons in case of emergency. 

7.2. 1 . 1 2.2 Where a subdivided space is provided with not less 
than two means of egress, the swinging door in the folding 
partition specified in 7.2.1.12 shall not be required, and one 
such means of egress shall be permitted to be equipped with a 
horizontal-sliding door complying with 7.2.1.14. 

7.2.1.13 Balanced Doors. If panic hardware is installed on bal- 
anced doors, the panic hardware shall be of the push-pad type, 
and the pad shall not extend more than approximately one- 
half the width of the door, measured from the latch side. [See 
7.2.1.7.1(1).] 

7.2.1.14 Horizontal-Sliding Doors. Horizontal-sliding doors 
shall be permitted in means of egress, provided that the fol- 
lowing criteria are met: 



(1) The door is readily operable from either side without spe- 
cial knowledge or effort. 

(2) The force that, when applied to the operating device in 
the direction of egress, is required to operate the door is 
not more than 67 N (15 lbf). 

(3) The force required to operate the door in the direction of 
door travel is not more than 133 N (30 lbf) to set the door 
in motion and is not more than 67 N (15 lbf) to close the 
door or open it to the minimum required width. 

(4) The door is operable using a force of not more than 222 N 
(50 lbf) when a force of 1100 N (250 lbf) is applied perpen- 
dicularly to the door adjacent to the operating device, unless 
the door is an existing horizontal-sliding exit access door 
serving an area with an occupant load of fewer than 50. 

(5) The door assembly complies with the fire protection rat- 
ing, if required, and, where rated, is self-closing or 
automatic-closing by means of smoke detection in accor- 
dance with 7.2.1.8 and is installed in accordance with 
NFPA 80, Standard for Fire Doors and Fire Windows. 

7.2.2 Stairs. 

7.2.2.1 General.' 

7.2.2.1.1 Stairs used as a component in the means of egress 
shall conform to the general requirements of Section 7.1 and 
to the special requirements of this 7.2.2 unless otherwise speci- 
fied in 7.2.2.1.2. 

7.2.2.1.2 The requirement of 7.2.2.1.1 shall not apply to the 
following: 

(1) Aisle stairs in assembly occupancies as provided in Chap- 
ter 12 and Chapter 13 

(2) Approved, existing noncomplying stairs 

7.2.2.2 Dimensional Criteria. 

7.2.2.2.1 Standard Stairs. Stairs shall meet the following cri- 
teria: 

(1) New stairs shall be in accordance with Table 7.2.2.2.1(a). 

(2)*Existing stairs shall be permitted to remain in use, pro- 
vided that they meet the requirements for existing stairs 
shown in Table 7.2.2.2.1(b). 

(3) Approved existing stairs shall be permitted to be rebuilt in 
accordance with the following: 

(a) Dimensional criteria of Table 7.2.2.2.1(b) 

(b) Other stair requirements of 7.2.2 

(4) The requirements for new and existing stairs shall not 
apply to stairs located in industrial equipment access ar- 
eas where otherwise provided in 40.2.5.2. 

7.2.2.2.2 Curved Stairs. 

7.2.2.2.2.1 New curved stairs shall be permitted as a compo- 
nent in a means of egress, provided that the depth of tread is 
not less than 280 mm (11 in.) at a point 305 mm (12 in.) from 
the narrower end of the tread and the smallest radius is not 
less than twice the stair width. 

7.2.2.2.2.2 Existing curved stairs shall be permitted as a com- 
ponent in a means of egress, provided that the depth of tread 
is not less than 255 mm (10 in.) at a point 305 mm (12 in.) 
from the narrower end of the tread and the smallest radius is 
not less than twice the stair width. 

7.2.2.2.3 Spiral Stairs. 



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Table 7.2.2.2.1(a) New Stairs 



Feature 



Bimiensional Criteria 



Minimum width clear of all 
obstructions, except 
projections not more than 
114 mm (4^2 in.) at or 
below handrail height on 
each side 
Maximum height of risers 
Minimum height of risers 
Minimum tread depth 
Minimum headroom 
Maximum height between 

landings 
Landing 



1120 mm (44 in.); 915 mm 
(36 in.) where total 
occupant load of all stories 
served by stairways is fewer 
than 50 

180 mm (7 in.) 
100 mm (4 in.) 
280 mm (11 in.) 
2030 mm (80 in.) 
3660 mm (144 in.) 

See 7.2.1.3 and 7.2.1.4.4 



Table 7.2.2.2.1(b) 


Existing Stairs 






Birnemsional Criteria 


Feature 


Class A 


Class B 



Minimum width 

clear of all 

obstructions, 

except 

projections not 

more than 

114 mm (4y2in.) 

at or below 

handrail height 

on each side 
Maximum height 

of risers 
Minimum tread 

depth 
Minimum 

headroom 
Maximum height 

between landings 
Landing 



915 mm (36 in.) 915 mm (36 in.) 



190 mm (7V2 in.) 
255 mm (10 in.) 



205 mm (8 in.) 
230 mm (9 in.) 



2030 mm (80 in.) 2030 mm (80 in.) 
3660 mm (144 in.) 3660 mm (144 in.) 
See 7.2.1.3 and 7.2.1.4.4 



7.2.2.2.3.1 Where specifically permitted for individual occu- 
pancies by Chapter 12 through Chapter 42, spiral stairs shall 
be permitted as a component in a means of egress in accor- 
dance with 7.2.2.2.3.2 through 7.2.2.2.3.4. 

7.2.2.2.3.2 Spiral stairs shall be permitted, provided that the 
following criteria are met: 

(1) Riser heights shall not exceed 180 mm (7 in.). 

(2) The stairway shall have a tread depth of not less than 
280 mm (11 in.) for a portion of the stairway width suffi- 
cient to provide egress capacity for the occupant load 
served in accordance with 7.3.3.1. 

(3) At the outer side of the stairway, an additional 265 mm 
(lO'/a in.) of width shall be provided clear to the other 
handrail, and this width shall not be included as part of 
the required egress capacity. 

(4) Handrails complying with 7.2.2.4 shall be provided on 
both sides of the spiral stairway. 



(5) The inner handrail shall be located within 610 mm 
(24 in.), measured horizontally, of the pointwhere a tread 
depth of not less than 280 mm (11 in.) is provided. 

(6) The turn of the stairway shall be such that the outer hand- 
rail is at the right side of descending users. 

7.2.2.2.3.3 Where the occupant load served does not exceed 
three, spiral stairs shall be permitted, provided that the follow- 
ing criteria are met: 

( 1 ) The clear width of the stairs shall be not less than 660 mm 
(26 in.). 

(2) The height of risers shall not exceed 240 mm (9V2 in.). 

(3) The headroom shall be not less than 1980 mm (78 in.). 

(4) Treads shall have a depth not less than 190 mm (7!/2 in.) 
at a point 305 mm (12 in.) from the narrower edge. 

(5) All treads shall be identical. 

(6) Handrails shall be provided on both sides of the stairway. 

7.2.2.2.3.4 Where the occupant load served does not exceed 
five, existing spiral stairs shall be permitted, provided the re- 
quirements of 7.2.2.2.3.3(1) through 7.2.2.2.3.3(5) are met. 

7.2.2.2.4* Winders. 

7.2.2.2.4.1 Where specified in Chapter 12 through Chap- 
ter 42, winders shall be permitted in stairs, provided that they 
meet the requirements of 7.2.2.2.4.2 and 7.2.2.2.4.3. 

7.2.2.2.4.2 New winders shall have a tread depth of not less than 
150 mm (6 in.) and a tread depth of not less than 280 mm 
(11 in.) at a point 305 mm (12 in.) from the narrowest edge. 

7.2.2.2.4.3 Existing winders shall be permitted to be continued 
in use, provided that they have a tread depth of not less than 
150 mm (6 in.) and a tread depth of not less than 230 mm (9 in.) 
at a point 305 mm (12 in.) from the narrowest edge. 

7.2.2.3 Stair Details. 

7.2.2.3.1 Construction. 

7.2.2.3. 1. 1 All stairs serving as required means of egress shall 
be of permanent fixed construction, unless they are stairs serv- 
ing seating that is designed to be repositioned in accordance 
with Chapter 12 and Chapter 13. 

7.2.2.3.1.2 Each stair, platform, and landing, not including 
handrails and existing stairs, in buildings required in this Code 
to be of Type I or Type II construction shall be of noncombus- 
tible material throughout. 

7.2.2.3.2 Landings. 

7.2.2.3.2.1 Stairs shall have landings at door openings, ex- 
cept as permitted in 7.2.2.3.2.5. 

7.2.2.3.2.2 Stairs and intermediate landings shall continue 
with no decrease in width along the direction of egress travel. 

7.2.2.3.2.3 In new buildings, every landing shall have a di- 
mension, measured in the direction of travel, that is not less 
than the width of the stair. 

7.2.2.3.2.4 Landings shall not be required to exceed 
1220 mm (48 in.) in the direction of travel, provided that the 
stair has a straight run. 

7.2.2.3.2.5 In one- and two-family dwellings and existing 
buildings, a door at the top of a stair shall be permitted to 
open directly to the stair, provided that the door does not 
swing over the stair and the door serves an area with an occu- 
pant load of fewer than 50 persons. 



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7.2.2.3.3 Tread and Landing Surfaces. 

7.2.2.3.3.1 Stair treads and landings shall be solid, without 
perforations, unless otherwise permitted in 7.2.2.3.3.4. 

7.2.2.3.3.2* Stair treads and landings shall be free of projec- 
tions or lips that could trip stair users. 

7.2.2.3.3.3 If not vertical, risers on other than existing stairs 
shall be permitted to slope under the tread at an angle not to 
exceed 30 degrees from vertical, provided that the projection 
of the nosing does not exceed 38 mm (VA in.). 

7.2.2.3.3.4 The requirement of 7.2.2.3.3.1 shall not apply to 
noncombustible grated stair treads and landings in the follow- 
ing occupancies: 

(1) Assembly occupancies as otherwise provided in Chapter 12 
and Chapter 13 

(2) Detention and correctional occupancies as otherwise pro- 
vided in Chapter 22 and Chapter 23 

(3) Industrial occupancies as otherwise provided in Chapter 40 

7.2.2.3.4* Tread Slope. Tread slope shall not exceed 
21 mm/m (Vi in. /ft) (a slope of 1 in 48). 

7.2.2.3.5* Riser Height and Tread Depth. Riser height shall be 
measured as the vertical distance between tread nosings. 
Tread depth shall be measured horizontally between the verti- 
cal planes of the foremost projection of adjacent treads and at 
a right angle to the tread's leading edge but shall not include 
bevelled or rounded tread surfaces that slope more than 
20 degrees (a slope of 1 in 2.75). At tread nosings, such bevel- 
ling or rounding shall not exceed 13 mm ( Vfcin.) in horizontal 
dimension. 

7.2.2.3.6 Dimensional Unifonnity. 

7.2.2.3.6.1 Variation in excess of 4.8 mm (¥i6 in.) in the 
depth of adjacent treads or in the height of adjacent risers 
shall be prohibited unless otherwise permitted in 7.2.2.3.6.3. 

7.2.2.3.6.2 The tolerance between the largest and smallest 
riser or between the largest and smallest tread shall not exceed 
9.5 mm (% in.) in any flight. 

7.2.2.3.6.3 Where the bottom riser adjoins a sloping public 
way, walk, or driveway having an established grade and serving 
as a landing, the bottom riser shall be permitted to have a 
variation in height of not more than 25 mm in every 300 mm 
(1 in. in every 12 in.) of stairway width. 

7.2.2.4 Guards and Handrails. 

7.2.2.4.1 Handrails. 

7.2.2.4.1.1 Stairs and ramps shall have handrails on both 
sides, unless otherwise permitted in 7.2.2.4.1.5 or 7.2.2.4.1.6. 

7.2.2.4.1.2 In addition to the handrails required at the sides 
of stairs by 7.2.2.4.1.1, the following provisions shall apply: 

(1) For new stairs exceeding 1905 mm (75 in.) in width, hand- 
rails shall be provided within 760 mm (30 in.) of all por- 
tions of the required egress width. 

(2) For existing stairs, handrails shall be provided within 
1120 mm (44 in.) of all portions of the required egress 
width. 

7.2.2.4.1.3 Where new intermediate handrails are provided 
in accordance with 7.2.2.4.1.2, the minimum clear width be- 
tween handrails shall be 510 mm (20 in.). 



7.2.2.4.1.4* The required egress width shall be provided along 
the natural path of travel. 

7.2.2.4.1.5 If a single step or a ramp is part of a curb that 
separates a sidewalk from a vehicular way, it shall not be re- 
quired to have a handrail. 

7.2.2.4.1.6 Existing stairs, existing ramps, stairs within dwell- 
ing units and within guest rooms, and ramps within dwelling 
units and guest rooms shall be permitted to have a handrail on 
one side only. 

7.2.2.4.2 Continuity. Required guards and handrails shall 
continue for the full length of each flight of stairs. At turns of 
new stairs, inside handrails shall be continuous between 
flights at landings. 

7.2.2.4.3 Projections. The design of guards and handrails and 
the hardware for attaching handrails to guards, balusters, orwalls 
shall be such that there are no projections that might engage 
loose clothing. Openings in guards shall be designed to prevent 
loose clothing from becoming wedged in such openings. 

7.2.2.4.4* Handrail Details. 

7.2.2.4.4.1 New handrails on stairs shall be not less than 
865 mm (34 in.) and not more than 965 mm (38 in.) above the 
surface of the tread, measured vertically to the top of the rail 
from the leading edge of the tread. 

7.2.2.4.4.2 Existing required handrails shall be not less than 
760 mm (30 in.) and not more than 965 mm (38 in.) above the 
surface of the tread, measured vertically to the top of the rail 
from the leading edge of the tread. 

7.2.2.4.4.3 The height of required handrails that form part of 
a guard shall be permitted to exceed 965 mm (38 in.), but 
shall not exceed 1065 mm (42 in.), measured vertically to the 
top of the rail from the leading edge of the tread. 

7.2.2.4.4.4* Additional handrails that are lower or higher than 
the main handrail shall be permitted. 

7.2.2.4.4.5* New handrails shall be installed to provide a clear- 
ance of not less than 57 mm (2V4 in.) between the handrail 
and the wall to which it is fastened. 

7.2.2.4.4.6 Handrails shall include one of the following fea- 
tures: 

( 1 ) A circular cross section with an outside diameter of not less 
than 32 mm; (PA in.) and not more than 51 mm (2 in.) 

(2)*A shape that is other than circular with a perimeter di- 
mension of not less than 100 mm (4 in.), but not more 
than 160 mm (614 in.), and with the largest cross-sectional 
dimension not more than 57 mm (2Vi in.), provided that 
graspable edges are rounded so as to provide a radius of 
not less than 3.2 mm (Vs in.) 

7.2.2.4.4.7 New handrails shall be condnuously graspable 
along their entire length. 

7.2.2.4.4.8 Handrail brackets or balusters attached to the bot- 
tom surface of the handrail shall not be considered to be ob- 
structions to graspability, provided that the following criteria 
are met: 

(1) They do not project horizontally beyond the sides of the 
handrail within 38 mm (IV2 in.) of the bottom of the 
handrail and provided that, for each additional 13 mm 
(V2 in.) of handrail perimeter dimension greater than 
100 mm (4 in.), the vertical clearance dimension of 
38 mm (W2 in.) is reduced by 3.2 mm (Vs in.). 



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(2) They have edges with a radius of not less than 0.25 mm 
(0.01 in.). 

7.2.2.4.4.9 New handrail ends shall be returned to the wall or 
floor or shall terminate at newel posts. 

7.2.2.4.4.10 In other than dwelling units, new handrails that 
are not continuous between flights shall extend horizontally, 
at the required height, not less than 305 mm (12 in.) beyond 
the top riser and continue to slope for a depth of one tread 
beyond the bottom riser. 

7.2.2.4.4.11 Within dwelling units, handrails shall extend, at 
the required height, to at least those points that are directly 
above the top and bottom risers. 

7.2.2.4.5 Guard Details. 

7.2.2.4.5.1 The height of guards required in 7.1.8 shall be 
measured vertically to the top of the guard from the surface 
adjacent thereto. 

7.2.2.4.5.2 Guards shall be not less than 1065 mm (42 in.) 
high, except as permitted by one of the following: 

(1) Existing guards within dwelling units shall be permitted 
to be not less than 915 mm (36 in.) high. 

(2) The requirement of 7.2.2.4.5.2 shall not apply in assembly 
occupancies where otherwise provided in Chapter 12 and 
Chapter 13. 

(3)*Existing guards on existing stairs shall be permitted to be 
not less than 760 mm (30 in.) high. 

7.2.2.4.5.3* Open guards, other than approved, existing open 
guards, shall have intermediate rails or an ornamental pattern 
such that a sphere 100 mm (4 in.) in diameter is not able to 
pass through any opening up to a height of 865 mm (34 in.), 
and the following also shall apply: 

(1) The triangular openings formed by the riser, tread, and 
bottom element of a guardrail at the open side of a stair 
shall be of such size that a sphere 150 mm (6 in.) in diam- 
eter is not able to pass through the triangular opening. 

(2) In detention and correctional occupancies, in industrial 
occupancies, and in storage occupancies, the clear dis- 
tance between intermediate rails, measured at right 
angles to the rails, shall not exceed 535 mm (21 in.). 

7.2.2.5 Enclosure and Protection of Stairs. 

7.2.2.5.1 Enclosures. 

7.2.2.5.1.1 All inside stairs serving as an exit or exit compo- 
nent shall be enclosed in accordance with 7.1.3.2. 

7.2.2.5.1.2 Inside stairs, other than those serving as an exit or 
exit component, shall be protected in accordance with Sec- 
tion 8.6. 

7.2.2.5.1.3 In existing buildings, where a two-story exit enclo- 
sure connects the story of exit discharge with an adjacent story, 
the exit shall be permitted to be enclosed only on the story of 
exit discharge, provided that not less than 50 percent of the 
number and capacity of exits on the story of exit discharge are 
independent of such enclosures. 

7.2.2.5.2* Exposures. 

7.2.2.5.2.1 Where nonrated walls or unprotected openings 
enclose the exterior of a stairway, other than an existing stair- 
way, and the walls or openings are exposed by other parts of 
the building at an angle of less than 180 degrees, the building 
enclosure walls within 3050 mm (120 in.) horizontally of the 



nonrated wall or unprotected opening shall be constructed as 
required for stairway enclosures, including opening protectives. 

7.2.2.5.2.2 Construction shall extend vertically from the 
ground to a point 3050 mm (120 in.) above the topmost land- 
ing of the stairs or to the roofline, whichever is lower. 

7.2.2.5.2.3 The fire resistance rating of the separation ex- 
tending 3050 mm (120 in.) from the stairs shall not be re- 
quired to exceed 1 hour where openings have not less than a 
%-hour fire protection rating. 

7.2.2.5.3* Usable Space. Enclosed, usable spaces within exit 
enclosures shall be prohibited, including under stairs, unless 
otherwise permitted by 7.2.2.5.3.2. 

7.2.2.5.3.1 Open space within the exit enclosure shall not be 
used for any purpose that has the potential to interfere with 
egress. 

7.2.2.5.3.2 Enclosed, usable space shall be permitted under 
stairs, provided that the following criteria are met: 

(1) The space is separated from the stair enclosure by the 
same fire resistance as the exit enclosure. 

(2) Entrance to the enclosed, usable space shall not be from 
within the stair enclosure. (See also 7.1.3.2.3.) 

7.2.2.5.4* Stairway Marking. 

7.2.2.5.4.1 Stairs serving five or more stories shall be pro- 
vided with special signage within the enclosure at each floor 
landing. The signage shall indicate the floor level, the termi- 
nus of the top and bottom of the stair enclosure, and the iden- 
tification of the stair enclosure. The signage also shall state the 
floor level of, and the direction to, exit discharge. The signage 
shall be located inside the enclosure approximately 1525 mm 
(60 in.) above the floor landing in a position that is visible 
when the door is in the open or closed position. The signage 
shall comply with 7.10.8.1 and 7.10.8.2. The floor level desig- 
nation shall also be tactile in accordance with ICC/ ANSI 
A117.1 American National Standard for Accessible and Usable Build- 
ings and Facilities. 

7.2.2.5.4.2 Wherever an enclosed stair requires travel in an 
upward direction to reach the level of exit discharge, special 
signs with directional indicators showing the direction to the 
level of exit discharge shall be provided at each floor level 
landing from which upward direction of travel is required, 
unless otherwise provided in 7.2.2.5.4.2(A) and 7.2.2.5.4.2(B), 
and the following also shall apply: 

(1) Such signage shall comply with 7.10.8.1 and 7.10.8.2. 

(2) Such signage shall be visible when the door is in the open 
or closed position. 

(A) The requirement of 7.2.2.5.4.2 shall not apply where 
signs required by 7.2.2.5.4.1 are provided. 

(B) The requirement of 7.2.2.5.4.2 shall not apply to stairs 
extending not more than one story below the level of exit 
discharge where the exit discharge is clearly obvious. 

7.2.2.5.4.3 The sign shall be painted or stenciled on the wall 
or on a separate sign securely attached to the wall. 

7.2.2.5.4.4 The stairway identification letter shall be located 
at the top of the sign in minimum 25-mm (Tin.) high lettering 
and shall be in accordance with 7.10.8.2. 



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7.2.2.5.4.5 Roof access or the lack thereof shall be designated 
by a sign that reads ROOF ACCESS or NO ROOF ACCESS and 
located under the stairway identification letter. Lettering shall 
be a minimum of 25 mm (1 in.) high and shall be in accor- 
dance with 7.10.8.2. 

7.2.2.5.4.6 The floor level number shall be located in the 
middle of the sign in minimum 125-mm (5-in.) high numbers 
and shall be in accordance with 7.10.8.2. Mezzanine levels 
shall have the letter "M" or other appropriate identification 
letter preceding the floor number, while basement levels shall 
have the letter "B" or other appropriate identification letter 
preceding the floor level number. 

7.2.2.5.4.7 Identification of the lower and upper terminus of 
the stairway shall be located at the bottom of the sign in mini- 
mum 25-mm (1-in.) high letters or numbers and shall be in 
accordance with 7.10.8.2. 

7.2.2.6 Special Provisions for Outside Stairs. 

7.2.2.6.1 Access. Where approved by the authority havingju- 
risdiction, outside stairs shall be permitted to lead to roofs of 
other sections of a building or an adjoining building where 
the construction is fire resistive and there is a continuous and 
safe means of egress from the roof. (See also 7. 7.6.) 

7.2.2.6.2* Visual Protection. Outside stairs shall be arranged 
to avoid any impediments to the use of the stairs by persons 
having a fear of high places. For stairs more than three stories 
in height, any arrangement intended to meet this require- 
ment shall be not less than 1220 mm (48 in.) in height. 

7.2.2.6.3 Separation and Protection of Outside Stairs. 

7.2.2.6.3.1 Outside stairs shall be separated from the interior 
of the building by construction with the fire resistance rating 
required for enclosed stairs with fixed or self-closing opening 
protectives, except as follows: 

(1) Outside stairs serving an exterior exit access balcony that 
has two remote outside stairways or ramps shall be permit- 
ted to be unprotected. 

(2) Outside stairs serving not in excess of two adjacent stories, 
including the story of exit discharge, shall be permitted to be 
unprotected where there is a remotely located second exit. 

(3) In existing buildings, existing outside stairs serving not in 
excess of three adjacent stories, including the story of exit 
discharge, shall be permitted to be unprotected where 
there is a remotely located second exit. 

(4) The fire resistance rating of a separation extending 
3050 mm (120 in.) from the stairs shall not be required to 
exceed 1 hour where openings have not less than a 
%-hour fire protection rating. 

(5) Outside stairs in existing buildings protected throughout 
by an approved, supervised automatic sprinkler system in 
accordance with Section 9.7 shall be permitted to be 
unprotected. 

7.2.2.6.3.2 Wall construction required by 7.2.2.6.3.1 shall ex- 
tend as follows: 

(1) Vertically from the ground to a point 3050 mm (120 in.) 
above the topmost landing of the stairs or to the roofline, 
whichever is lower 

(2) Horizontally for not less than 3050 mm (120 in.) 

7.2.2.6.3.3 Roof construction required by 7.2.2.6.3.1 shall 
meet the following criteria: 

(1) It shall provide protection beneath the stairs. 

(2) It shall extend horizontally to each side of the stair for not 
less than 3050 mm (120 in.). 



7.2.2.6.4 Protection of Openings. All openings below an out- 
side stair shall be protected with an assembly having not less 
than a %-hour fire protection rating as follows: 

( 1 ) Where located in a court, the smallest dimension of wh ich 
does not exceed one-third its height 

(2) Where located in an alcove having a width that does not 
exceed one-third its height and a depth that does not ex- 
ceed one-fourth its height 

7.2.2.6.5* Water Accumulation. Outside stairs and landings, 
other than existing outside stairs and landings, shall be de- 
signed to minimize water accumulation on their surfaces. 

7.2.2.6.6 Openness. Outside stairs, other than existing outside 
stairs, shall be not less than 50 percent open on one side. Outside 
stairs shall be arranged to restrict the accumulation of smoke. 

7.2.3 Smokeproof Enclosures. 

7.2.3.1 General. Where smokeproof enclosures are required 
in other sections of this Code, they shall comply with 7.2.3, 
unless they are approved, existing smokeproof enclosures. 

7.2.3.2 Perforniance Design. An appropriate design method 
shall be used to'provide a system that meets the definition of 
smokeproof enclosure. The smokeproof enclosure shall be 
permitted to be created by using natural ventilation, by using 
mechanical ventilation incorporating a vestibule, or by pres- 
surizing the stair enclosure. 

7.2.3.3 Enclosure. A smokeproof enclosure shall be enclosed 
from the highest point to the lowest point by barriers having 
2-hour fire resistance ratings. Where a vestibule is used, it shall 
be within the 2-hour-rated enclosure and shall be considered 
part of the smokeproof enclosure. 

7.2.3.4 Vestibule. Where a vestibule is provided, the doorway 
into the vestibule shall be protected with an approved fire door 
assembly having a lV£-hour fire protection rating, and the fire 
door assembly from the vestibule to the smokeproof enclosure 
shall have not less than a 20-minute fire protection rating. Doors 
shall be designed to minimize air leakage and shall be self-closing 
or shall be automatic-closing by actuation of a smoke detector 
within 3050 mm,(120 in.) of the vestibule door. 

7.2.3.5 Discharge. Every smokeproof enclosure shall dis- 
charge into a public way, into a yard or court having direct 
access to a public way, or into an exit passageway. Such exit 
passageways shall be without openings, other than the en- 
trance to the smokeproof enclosure and the door to the out- 
side yard, court, or public way. The exit passageway shall be 
separated from the remainder of the building by a 2-hour fire 
resistance rating. 

7.2.3.6 Access. For smokeproof enclosures other than those 
consisting of a pressurized stair enclosure complying with 
7.2.3.9, access to the smokeproof enclosure stair shall be by 
way of a vestibule or by way of an exterior balcony. 

7.2.3.7 Natural Ventilation. Smokeproof enclosures using 
natural ventilation shall comply with 7.2.3.3 and the following: 

( 1 ) Where access to the stair is by means of an open exterior 
balcony, the door assembly to the stair shall have a 1%-hour 
fire protection rating and shall be self-closing or shall be 
automatic-closing by actuation of a smoke detector. 

(2) Openings adjacent to the exterior balcony specified in 
7.2.3.7(1) shall be protected in accordance with 7.2.2.6.4. 



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(3) Every vestibule shall have a net area of not less than 1.5 
m 2 (16 ft 2 ) of opening in an exterior wall facing an exte- 
rior court, yard, or public space not less than 6100 mm 
(240 in.) in width. 

(4) Every vestibule shall have a minimum dimension of not 
less than the required width of the corridor leading to it 
and a dimension of not less than 1830 mm (72 in.) in the 
direction of travel. 

7.2.3.8 Mechanical Ventilation. Smokeproof enclosures using 
mechanical vendladon shall comply with 7.2.3.3 and the re- 
quirements of 7.2.3.8(A) through 7.2.3.8(D). 

(A) Vestibules shall have a dimension of not less than 
1120 mm (44 in.) in width and not less than 1830 mm (72 in.) 
in direction of travel. 

(B) The vestibule shall be provided with not less than one air 
change per minute, and the exhaust shall be 150 percent of the 
supply. Supply air shall enter and exhaust air shall discharge from 
the vestibule through separate tightly constructed ducts used 
only for such purposes. Supply air shall enter the vestibule within 
150 mm (6 in.) of the floor level. The top of the exhaust register 
shall be located not more than 150 mm (6 in.) below the top of 
the trap and shall be entirely within the smoke trap area. Doors, 
when in the open position, shall not obstruct duct openings. 
Controlling dampers shall be permitted in duct openings if 
needed to meet the design requirements. 

(C) To serve as a smoke and heat trap and to provide an 
upward-moving air column, the vestibule ceiling shall be not 
less than 510 mm (20 in.) higher than the door opening into 
the vestibule. The height shall be permitted to be decreased 
where justified by engineering design and field testing. 

(D) The stair shall be provided with a dampered relief open- 
ing at the top and supplied mechanically with sufficient air to 
discharge at least 70.8 m 3 /min (2500 ft 3 /min) through the 
relief opening while maintaining a positive pressure of not less 
than 25 N/m 2 (0.10 in. water column) in the stair, relative to 
the vestibule with all doors closed. 

7.2.3.9 Stair Pressurization. 

7.2.3.9.1* Smokeproof enclosures using stair pressurization 
shall use an approved engineered system with a design pres- 
sure difference across the barrier of not less than 12.5 N/m 2 
(0.05 in. water column) in sprinldered buildings, or 25 N/m 2 
(0.10 in. water column) in nonsprinklered buildings, and 
shall be capable of maintaining these pressure differences un- 
der likely conditions of stack effect or wind. The pressure dif- 
ference across doors shall not exceed that which allows the 
door to begin to be opened by a force of 133 N (30 lbf) in 
accordance with 7.2.1.4.5. 

7.2.3.9.2 Equipment and ductwork for stair pressurization shall 
be located in accordance with one of the following specifications: 

(1 ) Exterior to the building and direcdy connected to the stair- 
way by ductwork enclosed in noncombustible construction 

(2) Within the stair enclosure with intake and exhaust air 
vented directly to the outside or through ductwork en- 
closed by a 2-hour fire-resistive rating 

(3) Within the building under the following conditions: 

(a) Where the equipment and ductwork are separated 
from the remainder of the building, including other 
mechanical equipment, by a 2-hour fire-resistive rating 



(b) Where the building, including the stairway enclosure, 
is protected throughout by an approved, supervised 
automatic sprinkler system installed in accordance 
with Section 9.7, and the equipment and ductwork 
are separated from the remainder of the building, 
including other mechanical equipment, by not less 
than a 1-hour fire-resistive rating 

7.2.3.9.3 In all cases specified by 7.2.3.9.2(1) through 
7.2.3.9.2(3), openings into the required fire resistance-rated 
construction shall be limited to those needed for maintenance 
and operation and shall be protected by self-closing fire 
protection-rated devices in accordance with 8.3.4. 

7.2.3.10 Activation of Mechanical Ventilation and Pressurized 
Stair Systems. 

7.2.3.10.1 For both mechanical ventilation and pressurized 
stair enclosure systems, the activation of the systems shall be 
initiated by a smoke detector installed in an approved location 
within 3050 mm (120 in.) of the entrance to the smokeproof 
enclosure. 

7.2.3.10.2 The required mechanical system shall operate 
upon the activation of the smoke detectors specified in 
7.2.3.10.1 and by manual controls accessible to the fire depart- 
ment. The required system also shall be initiated by the follow- 
ing, if provided: 

(1) Waterflow signal from a complete automatic sprinkler 
system 

(2) General evacuation alarm signal (see 9.6.3.6) 

7.2.3.11 Boor Closers. The activation of an automatic-closing 
device on any door in the smokeproof enclosure shall activate 
all other automatic-closing devices on doors in the smokeproof 
enclosure. 

7.2.3.12 Standby Power. Standby power for mechanical venti- 
lation equipment shall be provided by an approved, self- 
contained generator that is set to operate whenever there is a 
loss of power in the normal house current. The generator 
shall be located in a room having a minimum 1-hour fire 
resistance-rated separation from the remainder of the build- 
ing. The generator shall have a fuel supply not less than that 
which is adequate to operate the equipment for 2 hours. 

7.2.3.13 Testing. Before the mechanical equipment is ac- 
cepted by the authority havingjurisdiction, it shall be tested to 
confirm that it is operating in compliance with the require- 
ments of 7.2.3. All operating parts of the system shall be tested 
semiannually by approved personnel, and a log shall be kept 
of the results. 

7.2.4 Horizontal Exits. 

7.2.4.1 General. 

7.2.4.1.1 Where horizontal exits are used in the means of 
egress, they shall conform to the general requirements of Sec- 
tion 7.1 and the special requirements of 7.2.4. 

7.2.4.1.2* Horizontal exits shall be permitted to be substi- 
tuted for other exits where the total egress capacity of the 
other exits (stairs, ramps, doors leading outside the build- 
ing) is not less than half that required for the entire area of 
the building or connected buildings and provided that 
none of the other exits, is a horizontal exit, unless otherwise 
provided in 7.2.4.1.3. 



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7.2.4.1.3 The requirement of 7.2.4.1.2 shall not apply to the 

following: 

(1) Health care occupancies as otherwise provided in Chap- 
ter 18 and Chapter 19 

(2) Detention and correctional occupancies as otherwise pro- 
vided in Chapter 22 and Chapter 23 

7.2.4.2 Fire Compartments. 

7.2.4.2.1 Every fire compartment for which credit is permit- 
ted in connection with a horizontal exit(s) also shall have at 
least one additional exit, but not less than 50 percent of the 
required number and capacity of exits, that is not a horizontal 
exit, unless otherwise provided in 7.2.4.2.1.2. 

7.2.4.2.1.1 Any fire compartment not having an exit leading 
outside shall be considered as part of an adjoining compart- 
ment with an exit leading to the outside. 

7.2.4.2.1.2 The requirement of 7.2.4.2.1 shall not apply to 
the following: 

(1) Health care occupancies as otherwise provided in Chap- 
ter 18 and Chapter 19 

(2) Detention and correctional occupancies as otherwise pro- 
vided in Chapter 22 and Chapter 23 

7.2.4.2.2 Every horizontal exit for which credit is permitted 
shall be arranged so that there are continuously available 
paths of travel leading from each side of the exit to stairways or 
other means of egress leading to outside the building. 

7.2.4.2.3 Wherever either side of a horizontal exit is occu- 
pied, the doors used in connection with the horizontal exit 
shall be unlocked from the egress side, unless otherwise per- 
mitted for the following: 

(1) Health care occupancies as otherwise provided in Chap- 
ter 18 and Chapter 19 

(2) Detention and correctional occupancies as otherwise pro- 
vided in Chapter 22 and Chapter 23 

7.2.4.2.4 The floor area on either side of a horizontal exit 
shall be sufficient to hold the occupants of both floor areas 
and shall provide at least 0.28 m 2 (3 ft 2 ) clear floor area per 
person, unless otherwise permitted for the following: 

(1) Health care occupancies as otherwise provided in Chap- 
ter 18 and Chapter 19 

(2) In detention and correctional occupancies as otherwise 
provided in Chapter 22 and Chapter 23 

7.2.4.3 Fire Barriers. 

7.2.4.3.1 Fire barriers separating building areas between 
which there are horizontal exits shall have a 2-hour fire resis- 
tance rating and shall provide a separation that is continuous 
to ground. (See also Section 8.3.) 

7.2.4.3.2 Where a fire barrier provides a horizontal exit in 
any story of a building, such fire barrier shall not be required 
on other stories, provided that the following criteria are met: 

(1) The stories on which the fire barrier is omitted are sepa- 
rated from the story with the horizontal exit by construc- 
tion having a fire resistance rating at least equal to that of 
the horizontal exit fire barrier. 

(2) Vertical openings between the story with the horizontal 
exit and the open fire area story are enclosed with con- 
struction having a fire resistance rating at least equal to 
that of the horizontal exit fire barrier. 



(3) All required exits, other than horizontal exits, discharge 
directly to the outside. 

7.2.4.3.3 Where fire barriers serving horizontal exits, other 
than existing horizontal exits, terminate at outside walls, and 
the outside walls are at an angle of less than 180 degrees for a 
distance of 3050 mm (120 in.) on each side of the horizontal 
exit, the outside walls shall have not less than a 1-hour fire 
resistance rating, with opening protectives of not less than a 
y4-hour fire protection rating, for a distance of 3050 mm 
(120 in.) on each side of the horizontal exit. 

7.2.4.3.4 Fire barriers forming horizontal exits shall not be 
penetrated by ducts, unless one of the following criteria is met: 

(1) The ducts are existing penetrations protected by ap- 
proved and listed fire dampers. 

(2) The building is protected throughout by an approved, 
supervised automatic sprinkler system in accordance with 
Section 9.7. 

(3) The duct penetrations are those permitted in detention 
and correctional occupancies as otherwise provided in 
Chapter 22 and Chapter 23 and are protected by combi- 
nation fire dampers/smoke leakage-rated dampers that 
meet the smoke damper actuation requirements of 8.5.4. 

7.2.4.3.5 Any opening in the fire barriers specified in 
7.2.4.3.4 shall be protected as provided in 8.3.4. 

7.2.4.3.6 Doors in horizontal exits shall comply with 7.2.1.4, 
unless they are sliding doors in industrial or storage occupan- 
cies as otherwise provided in Chapter 40 and Chapter 42. 

7.2.4.3.7 Unless otherwise specified in 7.2.4.3.7.1 and 
7.2.4.3.7.2, swinging fire doors shall be permitted in horizontal 
exits, provided that the criteria of both 7.2.4.3.7(1) and 
7.2.4.3.7(2), or the criteria of both 7.2.4.3.7(1) and 7.2.4.3.7(3), 
are met as follows: 

(1) The doors shall swing in the direction of egress travel. 

(2) In other than sleeping room areas in detention and cor- 
rectional occupancies, where a horizontal exit serves ar- 
eas on both sides of a fire barrier, adjacent openings with 
swinging doors that open in opposite directions shall be 
provided, with signs on each side of the fire barrier iden- 
tifying the door that swings with the travel from that side. 

(3) The doors shall be of any other approved arrangement, 
provided that the doors always swing with any possible 
egress travel. 

7.2.4.3.7.1 The requirements of 7.2.4.3.7 shall not apply to 
horizontal exit door swing as provided in Chapter 19 and 
Chapter 23. 

7.2.4.3.7.2 The requirements of 7.2.4.3.7 shall not apply to 
horizontal exit doors in corridors not more than 1830 (72 in.) 
wide in existing buildings. 

7.2.4.3.8* Doors in horizontal exits shall be designed and in- 
stalled to minimize air leakage. 

7.2.4.3.9* All fire doors in horizontal exits shall be self-closing 
or automatic-closing in accordance with 7.2.1.8. 

7.2.4.3.10 Horizontal exit doors located across a corridor, 
other than approved existing doors, shall be automatic-closing 
in accordance with 7.2.1.8.2. 

7.2.4.4 Bridges and Balconies. 

7.2.4.4.1 Each bridge or balcony used in conjunction with 
horizontal exits shall have guards and handrails in conformity 
with the requirements of 7.2.2.4. 



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7.2.4.4.2 Every bridge or balcony shall be not less than the 
width of the door to which it leads and shall be not less than 
1120 mm (44 in.) wide for new construction. 

7.2.4.4.3 Where the bridge or balcony serves as a horizontal exit 
in one direction, the horizontal exit door shall be required to 
swing only in the direction of egress travel, unless the door com- 
plies with the swing requirements for the following: 

(1) Existing health care occupancies in Chapter 19 

(2) Existing detention and correctional occupancies in Chap- 
ter 23 

7.2.4.4.4 Where the bridge or balcony serves as a horizontal exit 
in both directions, doors shall be provided in pairs that swing in 
opposite directions, with only the door swinging in the direction 
of egress travel included when determining egress capacity, un- 
less otherwise provided in 7.2.4.4.4.1 through 7.2.4.4.4.3. 

7.2.4.4.4. 1 Approved existing doors on both ends of the bridge 
or balcony shall be permitted to swing out from the building. 

7.2.4.4.4.2 The requirement of 7.2.4.4.4 shall not apply if the 
bridge or balcony has sufficient floor area to accommodate 
the occupant load of either connected building or fire area 
based on 0.28 m 2 (3 ft 2 ) per person. 

7.2.4.4.4.3 The requirement of 7.2.4.4.4 shall not apply to 
horizontal exit door swing as provided for the following: 

(1) Existing health care occupancies in Chapter 19 

(2) Existing detention and correctional occupancies in Chap- 
ter 23 

7.2.4.4.5 In climates subject to the accumulation of snow and 
ice, the bridge or balcony floor shall be protected to prevent 
the accumulation of snow and ice. 

7.2.4.4.6 In existing buildings, one step not exceeding 205 mm 
(8 in.) shall be permitted below the level of the inside floor. 

7.2.4.4.7 In both of the connected buildings or fire areas, any 
part of any wall opening that is within 3050 mm (120 in.) of 
any bridge or balcony, as measured horizontally or below, shall 
be protected with fire door assemblies or fixed fire window 
assemblies having a §4-hour fire protection rating, unless oth- 
erwise provided in 7.2.4.4.8. 

7.2.4.4.8 The requirement of 7.2.4.4.7 shall not apply to ap- 
proved existing bridges and balconies. 

7.2.5 Ramps. 

7.2.5.1 General. Every ramp used as a component in a means 
of egress shall conform to the general requirements of Sec- 
tion 7.1 and to the special requirements of 7.2.5. 

7.2.5.2 Dimensional Criteria. The following dimensional cri- 
teria shall apply to ramps: 

(1) New ramps shall be in accordance with Table 7.2.5.2(a), 
unless otherwise permitted by the following: 

(a) Table 7.2.5.2(a) shall not apply to industrial equip- 
ment access areas as otherwise provided in 40.2.5.2 

(b) The maximum slope requirement shall not apply to 
ramps in assembly occupancies as otherwise provided 
in Chapter 12. 

(c) The maximum slope or maximum rise for a single 
ramp run shall not apply to ramps providing access to 
vehicles, vessels, mobile structures, and aircraft. 

(2) Existing ramps shall be permitted to remain in use or be 
rebuilt, provided that they meet the requirements 
shown in Table 7.2.5.2(b), unless otherwise permitted 
by the following: 



(a) The requirements of Table 7.2.5.2(b) shall not apply 
to industrial equipment access areas as otherwise pro- 
vided in 40.2.5.2. 

(b) The maximum slope or maximum height between 
landings for a single ramp run shall not apply to 
ramps providing access to vehicles, vessels, mobile 
structures, and aircraft. 

(c) Approved existing ramps with slopes not steeper than 
1 in 6 shall be permitted to remain in use. 

(d) Existing ramps with slopes not steeper than 1 in 10 
shall not be required to be provided with landings. 



Table 7.2.5.2(a) New Ramps 



Feature 



Dimensional Criteria 



Minimum width clear of all 
obstructions, except 
projections not more than 
114 mm (4% in.) at or 
below handrail height on 
each side 
Maximum slope 
Maximum cross slope 
Maximum rise for a single 
ramp run 



1120 mm (44 in.) 



Iinl2 
lin48 
760 mm (30 in.) 



Table 7.2.5.2(b) Existing Ramps 



Feature 



Dimensional Criteria 



Minimum width 
Maximum slope 
Maximum height between 
landings 



760 mm (30 in.) 

Iin8 

3660 mm (144 in.) 



7.2.5.3 Raimp Details. 

7.2.5.3.1 Construction. Ramp construction shall be as follows: 

(1) All ramps serving as required means of egress shall be of 
permanent fixed construction. 

(2) Each ramp in buildings required by this Code to be of 
Type I or Type II construction shall be noncombustible or 
limited-combustible throughout. 

(3) The ramp floor and landings shall be solid and without 
perforations. 

7.2.5.3.2 Landings. Ramp landings shall be as follows: 

( 1 ) Ramps shall have landings located at the top, at the bot- 
tom, and at doors opening onto the ramp. 
The slope of the landing shall not be steeper than 1 in 48. 
Every landing shall have a width not less than the width of 
the ramp. 

(4) Every landing shall be not less than 1525 mm (60 in.) long 
in the direction of travel, unless the landing is an ap- 
proved existing landing. 

Any changes in travel direction shall be made only at land- 
ings, unless the ramp is an existing ramp. 
Ramps and intermediate landings shall continue with no 
decrease in width along the direction of egress travel. 



(2) 
(3) 



(5) 
(6) 



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LIFE SAFETY CODE 



7.2.5.3.3 Drop-Offs. Ramps and landings with drop-offs shall 
have curbs, walls, railings, or projecting surfaces that prevent 
people from traveling off the edge of the ramp. Curbs or bar- 
riers shall be not less than 100 mm (4 in.) in height. 

7.2.5.4 Guards and Handrails. 

7.2.5.4.1 Guards complying with 7.2.2.4 shall be provided for 
ramps, unless otherwise provided in 7.2.5.4.4. 

7.2.5.4.2 Handrails complying with 7.2.2.4 shall be provided 
along both sides of a ramp run with a rise greater than 150 mm 
(6 in.), unless otherwise provided in 7.2.5.4.4. 

7.2.5.4.3 The height of handrails and guards shall be mea- 
sured vertically to the top of the guard or rail from the walking 
surface adjacent thereto. 

7.2.5.4.4 The requirements of 7.2.5.4.1 and 7.2.5.4.2 shall 
not apply to guards and handrails provided for ramped aisles 
in assembly occupancies as otherwise provided in Chapter 12 
and Chapter 13. 

7.2.5.5 Enclosure and Protection of Ramps. Ramps in a re- 
quired means of egress shall be enclosed or protected as a stair 
in accordance with 7.2.2.5 and 7.2.2.6. 

7.2.5.6 Special Provisions for Outside Ramps. 

7.2.5.6.1* Visual Protection. Outside ramps shall be arranged 
to avoid any impediments to their use by persons having a fear 
of high places. For ramps more than three stories in height, 
any arrangement intended to meet this requirement shall be 
at least 1220 mm (48 in.) in height. 

7.2.5.6.2* Water Accumulation. Outside ramps and landings 
shall be designed to minimize water accumulation on their 
surfaces. 

7.2.6* Exit Passageways. 

7.2.6.1* General. Exit passageways used as exit components 
shall conform to the general requirements of Section 7.1 and 
to the special requirements of 7.2.6. 

7.2.6.2 Enclosure. An exit passageway shall be separated from 
other parts of the building as specified in 7.1.3.2, and the fol- 
lowing alternatives shall be permitted: 

(1) Fire windows in accordance with 8.3.3 shall be permitted 
to be installed in the separation in a building protected 
throughout by an approved, supervised automatic sprin- 
kler system in accordance with Section 9.7. 

(2) Existing fixed wired glass panels in steel sash shall be per- 
mitted to be continued in use in the separation in build- 
ings protected throughout by an approved, supervised au- 
tomatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 9.7. 

7.2.6.3 Stair Discharge. An exit passageway that serves as a 
discharge from a stair enclosure shall have not less than the 
same fire resistance rating and opening protective fire protec- 
tion rating as those required for the stair enclosure. 

7.2.6.4 Width. The width of an exit passageway shall be ad- 
equate to accommodate the aggregate required capacity of all 
exits that discharge through it, unless one of the following 
conditions applies: 

(l)*Where an exit passageway serves occupants of the level of 
exit discharge as well as other stories, the capacity shall 
not be required to be aggregated. 

(2) As provided in Chapter 36 and Chapter 37, an exit pas- 
sageway in a mall building shall be permitted to accom- 
modate occupant loads independently from the mall and 
the tenant spaces. (See 36.2.2. 7.2 and 37.2.2. 7.2.) 



7.2.6.5 Floor. The floor shall be solid and without perforations. 

7.2.7 Escalators and Moving Walks. Escalators and moving 
walks shall not constitute a part of the required means of 
egress, unless they are previously approved existing escalators 
and moving walks. 

7.2.8 Fire Escape Stairs. 

7.2.8.1 General. 

7.2.8.1.1 Fire escape stairs shall comply with the provisions of 
7.2.8, unless they are approved, existing fire escape stairs. 

7.2.8.1.2 Fire escape stairs shall not constitute any of the re- 
quired means of egress, unless otherwise provided in 7.2.8.1.2.1 
and 7.2.8.1.2.2. 

7.2.8.1.2.1 Fire escape stairs shall be permitted on existing 
buildings as provided in Chapter 11 through Chapter 42 but 
shall not constitute more than 50 percent of the required 
means of egress. 

7.2.8.1.2.2 New fire escape stairs shall be permitted to be 
erected on existing buildings only where the authority having 
jurisdiction has determined that outside stairs are impractical. 

(See 7.2.2.) 

7.2.8.1.2.3 New fire escape stairs permitted by 7.2.8.1.2.2 
shall not incorporate ladders or access windows, regardless of 
occupancy classification or occupant load served. 

7.2.8.1.3 Fire escape stairs of the return-platform type with 
superimposed runs, or of the straight-run type with a platform 
that continues in the same direction, shall be permitted. Ei- 
ther type shall be permitted to be parallel to, or at right angles 
to, buildings. Either type shall be permitted to be attached to 
buildings or erected independently of buildings and con- 
nected by walkways. 

7.2.8.2 Protection of Openings. Fire escape stairs shall be ex- 
posed to the smallest possible number of window and door 
openings, and each opening shall be protected with approved 
fire door or fire window assemblies where the opening or any 
portion of the opening is located as follows: 

(1) Horizontally, within 4570 mm (180 in.) of any balcony, 
platform, or stairway constituting a component of the fire 
escape stair 

(2) Below, within three stories or 10.7 m (35 ft) of any bal- 
cony, platform, walkway, or stairway constituting a compo- 
nent of the fire escape stair, or within two stories or 
6100 mm (240 in.) of a platform or walkway leading from 
any story to the fire escape stair 

(3) Above, within 3050 mm (120 in.) of any balcony, platform, 
or walkway, as measured vertically, or within 3050 mm 
(120 in.) of any stair tread surface, as measured vertically 

(4) Facing a court served by a fire escape stair where the least 
dimension of the court does not exceed one-third of the 
height to the uppermost platform of the fire escape stair, 
measured from the ground 

(5) Facing an alcove served by a fire escape stair where the 
width of the alcove does not exceed one-third, or the 
depth of the alcove does not exceed one-fourth, of the 
height to the uppermost platform of the fire escape stair, 
measured from the ground 

7.2.8.2.1 The requirements of 7.2.8.2 shall not apply to open- 
ings located on the top story where stairs do not lead to the roof. 



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7.2.8.2.2 The requirements of 7.2.8.2 shall be permitted to 
be modified by the authority having jurisdiction where auto- 
matic sprinkler protection is provided, where the occupancies 
is limited to low hazard contents, or where other special con- 
ditions exist. 

7.2.8.2.3 The requirements of 7.2.8.2 for the protection of 
window openings shall not apply where such window openings 
are necessary for access to existing fire escape stairs. 

7.2.8.3 Access. 

7.2.8.3.1 Access to fire escape stairs shall be in accordance 
with 7.2.8.4 and 7.5.1.1.1 through 7.5.1.1.3. 

7.2.8.3.2 Where access is permitted by way of windows, the 
windows shall be arranged and maintained so as to be easily 
opened. Screening or storm windows that restrict free access 
to the fire escape stair shall be prohibited. 

7.2.8.3.3 Fire escape stairs shall extend to the roof in all cases 
where the roof is subject to occupancy or provides an area of 
safe refuge, unless otherwise provided in 7.2.8.3.4. 

7.2.8.3.4 If the roof has a pitch that does not exceed 1 to 6, 
fire escape ladders in accordance with 7.2.9 or alternating 
tread devices in accordance with 7.2.11 shall be provided for 
access to the roof. 

7.2.8.3.5 Access to a fire escape stair shall be directly to a bal- 
cony, landing, or platform; shall not exceed the floor or window- 
sill level; and shall not be more than 205 mm (8 in.) below the 
floor level or 455 mm (18 in.) below the windowsill level. 

7.2.8.4 Stair Details. 

7.2.8.4.1 General. Fire escape stairs shall comply with the re- 
quirements of Table 7.2.8.4.1(a). Replacement of fire escape 
stairs shall comply with the requirements of Table 7.2.8.4.1(b). 

7.2.8.4.2 Slip Resistance. Stair treads and landings of new or 
replacement fire escape stairs shall have slip-resistant surfaces. 

7.2.8.5 Guards, Handrails, and Visual Enclosures. 

7.2.8.5.1 All fire escape stairs shall have walls or guards and 
handrails on both sides in accordance with 7.2.2.4. 

7.2.8.5.2 Replacement fire escape stairs in occupancies serv- 
ing more than 10 occupants shall have visual enclosures to 
avoid any impediments to stair use by persons having a fear of 
high places. For stairs more than three stories in height, any 
arrangement intended to meet this requirement shall be at 
least 1065 mm (42 in.) in height. 

7.2.8.6 Materials and Strength. 

7.2.8.6. 1 Noncombustible materials shall be used for the con- 
struction of all components of fire escape stairs. 

7.2.8.6.2 The authority havingjurisdiction shall be permitted to 
approve any existing fire escape stair that has been shown by load 
test or other satisfactory evidence to have adequate strength. 

7.2.8.7* Swinging Stairs. 

7.2.8.7.1 A single swinging stair section shall be permitted to 
terminate fire escape stairs over sidewalks, alleys, or driveways 
where it is impractical to make the termination with fire es- 
cape stairs. 

7.2.8.7.2 Swinging stair sections shall not be located over 
doors, over the path of travel from any other exit, or in any 
locations where there are likely to be obstructions. 



7.2.8.7.3 The width of swinging stair sections shall be at least 
that of the fire escape stairs above. 

7.2.8.7.4 The pitch of swinging stair sections shall not exceed 
the pitch of the fire escape stairs above. 

7.2.8.7.5 Guards and handrails shall be provided in accor- 
dance with 7.2.2.4 and shall be similar in height and construc- 
tion to those used with the fire escape stairs above. Guards and 
handrails shall be designed to prevent any possibility of injury 
to persons where stairs swing downward. The clearance be- 
tween moving sections and any other portion of the stair sys- 
tem where hands have the potential to be caught shall be not 
less than 100 mm (4 in.). 

7.2.8.7.6 If the distance from the lowest platform to ground is 
not less than 3660 mm (144 in.), an intermediate balcony not 
more than 3660 mm (144 in.) from the ground and not less 
than 2135 mm (84 in.) in the clear underneath shall be pro- 
vided, with width not less than that of the stairs and length not 
less than 1220 mm (48 in.). 

7.2.8.7.7 Swinging stairs shall be counterbalanced about a 
pivot, and cables shall not be used. A weight of 68 kg (150 lb) 
located one step from the pivot shall not cause the stairs to 
swing downward, and a weight of 68 kg (150 lb) located one- 
quarter of the length of the swinging stairs from the pivot shall 
cause the stairs to swing down. 

7.2.8.7.8 The pivot for swinging stairs shall be of a corrosion- 
resistant assembly or shall have clearances to prevent sticking 
due to corrosion. 

7.2.8.7.9* Devices shall not be installed to lock a swinging stair 
section in the up position. 

7.2.8.8 Intervening Spaces. 

7.2.8.8.1 Where approved by the authority havingjurisdiction, 
fire escape stairs shall be permitted to lead to an adjoining roof 
that is crossed before continuing downward travel. The direction 
of travel shall be clearly marked, and walkways with guards and 
handrails complying with 7.2.2.4 shall be provided. 

7.2.8.8.2 Where approved by the authority havingjurisdic- 
tion, fire escape stairs shall be permitted to be used in combi- 
nation with inside or outside stairs complying with 7.2.2, pro- 
vided that a continuous safe path of travel is maintained. 

7.2.9 Fire Escape Ladders. 

7.2.9.1 General. Fire escape ladders complying with 7.2.9.2 
and 7.2.9.3 shall be permitted in the means of egress only 
where providing one of the following: 

(1) Access to unoccupied roof spaces as permitted in 7.2.8.3.4 

(2) A second means of egress from storage elevators as per- 
mitted in Chapter 42 

(3) A means of egress from towers and elevated platforms 
around machinery or similar spaces subject to occupancy 
not to exceed three persons who are all capable of using 
the ladder 

(4) A secondary means of egress from boiler rooms or similar 
spaces subject to occupancy not to exceed three persons 
who are all capable of using the ladder 

(5) Access to the ground from the lowest balcony or landing of a 
fire escape stair for small buildings as permitted in 7.2.8.4 
where approved by the authority havingjurisdiction 



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LIFE SAFETY CODE 




Table 7.2.8.4.1(a) Fire Escape Stairs 


Feature 


Serving More than 10 Occupants 


Serving 10 or Fewer Occupants 



Minimum widths 

Minimum horizontal dimension of any 

landing or platform 
Maximum riser height 
Minimum tread, exclusive of nosing 
Minimum nosing or projection 
Tread construction 



Winders 

Risers 

Spiral 

Maximum height between landings 

Headroom, minimum 



Access to escape 

Level of access opening 
Discharge to ground 

Capacity 



560 mm (22 in.) clear between rails 
560 mm (22 in.) clear 

230 mm (9 in.) 
230 mm (9 in.) 
25 mm (1 in.) 

Solid 13-mm (Vi-in.) diameter 
perforations permitted 

None 

None 

None 

3660 mm (144 in.) 

2030 mm (80 in.) 

Door or casement windows, 610 mm 
x 1980 mm (24 in. x 78 in.); or 
double-hung windows, 760 mm 
x 915 mm (30 in. x 36 in.) clear 
opening 

Not over 305 mm (12 in.) above floor; 
steps if higher 

Swinging stair section permitted if 
approved by authority having 
jurisdiction 

13 mm (0.5 in.) per person, if access by 
door; 25 mm (1 in.) per person, if 
access by climbing over windowsill 



455 mm (18 in.) clear between rails 
455 mm (18 in.) clear 

305 mm (12 in.) 

150 mm (6 in.) 

No requirement 

Flat metal bars on edge or square bars 
secured against turning, spaced 32 mm 
(1V4 in.) maximum on centers 

Permitted subject to capacity penalty 

No requirement 

Permitted subject to capacity penalty 

No requirement 

2030 mm (80 in.) 

Windows providing a clear opening of 
at least 510 mm (20 in.) in width, 
610 mm (24 in.) in height, and 0.53 m 2 
(5.7 ft 2 ) in area 

Not over 305 mm (12 in.) above floor; 

steps if higher 
Swinging stair, or ladder if approved by 

authority having jurisdiction 

10 persons; if winders or ladder from 
bottom balcony, 5 persons; if both, 
1 person 



Table 7.2.8.4.1(b) Replacement Fire Escape Stairs 



Feature 



Serving More than 10 Occupants 



Serving 10 or Fewer Occupants 



Minimum widths 

Minimum horizontal dimension of 

any landing or platform 
Maximum riser height 
Minimum tread, exclusive of nosing 
Tread construction 

Winders 

Spiral 

Risers 

Maximum height between landings 

Headroom, minimum 

Access to escape 



Level of access opening 
Discharge to ground 



Capacity 



560 mm (22 in.) clear between rails 
560 mm (22 in.) 

230 mm (9 in.) 

255 mm (10 in.) 

Solid, 13-mm (Win.) diameter 

perforations permitted 
None 
None 
None 

3660 mm (144 in.) 
2030 mm (80 in.) 
Door or casement windows, 610 mm 

x 1980 mm (24 in. x 78 in.); or 

double-hung windows, 760 mm 

x 915 mm (30 in. x 36 in.) clear 

opening 
Not over 305 mm (12 in.) above floor; 

steps if higher 
Swinging stair section permitted if 

approved by authority having 

jurisdiction 
13 mm (0.5 in.) per person, if access by 

door; 25 mm (1 in.) per person, if 

access by climbing over windowsill 



560 mm (22 in.) clear between rails 
560 mm (22 in.) 

230 mm (9 in.) 

255 mm (10 in.) 

Solid, 13-mm (Vfc-in.) diameter perforations 

permitted 
Permitted subject to 7.2.2.2.4 
Permitted subject to 7.2.2.2.3 
None 

3660 mm (144 in.) 
2030 mm (80 in.) 
Windows providing a clear opening of 

at least 510 mm (20 in.) in width, 610 mm 

(24 in.) in height, and 0.53 m 2 (5.7 ft 2 ) 

in area 

Not over 305 mm (12 in.) above floor; steps 

if higher 
Swinging stair section permitted if approved 

by authority having jurisdiction 

10 persons 



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101-59 



7.2.9.2 Construction and Installation. 

7.2.9.2.1 Fire escape ladders shall comply with ANSI A14.3, 
Safety Code for Fixed Ladders, unless one of the following criteria 
is met: 

(1) Approved existing ladders complying with the edition of 
this Code that was in effect when the ladders were installed 
shall be permitted. 

(2) Industrial stairs complying with the minimum require- 
ments for fixed stairs of ANSI Al 264.1, Safety Requirements 
for Workplace Floor and Wall Openings, Stairs and Railing Sys- 
tems, shall be permitted where fire escape ladders are per- 
mitted in accordance with Chapter 40. 

7.2.9.2.2 Ladders shall be installed with a pitch that exceeds 
75 degrees. 

7.2.9.3 Access. The lowest rung of any ladder shall not be 
more than 305 mm (12 in.) above the level of the surface 
beneath it. 

7.2.10 Slide Escapes. 

7.2.10.1 General. 

7.2.10.1.1 A slide escape shall be permitted as a component 
in a means of egress where permitted in Chapter 12 through 
Chapter 42. 

7.2.10.1.2 Each slide escape shall be of an approved type. 

7.2.10.2 Capacity. 

7.2.10.2.1 Slide escapes, where permitted as a required 
means of egress, shall have a capacity of 60 persons. 

7.2.10.2.2 Slide escapes shall not constitute more than 
25 percent of the required egress capacity from any building 
or structure or any individual story thereof, unless otherwise 
provided for industrial occupancies in Chapter 40. 

7.2.11* Alternating Tread Devices. 

7.2.11.1 Alternating tread devices complying with 7.2.11.2 
shall be permitted in the means of egress only where provid- 
ing one of the following: 

(1) Access to unoccupied roof spaces as permitted in 7.2.8.3.4 

(2) A second means of egress from storage elevators as per- 
mitted in Chapter 42 

(3) A means of egress from towers and elevated platforms 
around machinery or similar spaces subject to occupancy 
not to exceed three persons who are all capable of using 
the alternating tread device 

(4) A secondary means of egress from boiler rooms or similar 
spaces subject to occupancy not to exceed three persons 
who are all capable of using the alternating tread device 

7.2.11.2 Alternating tread devices shall comply with the fol- 
lowing: 

Handrails shall be provided on both sides of alternating 

tread devices in accordance with 7.2.2.4.4. 

The clear width between handrails shall be not less than 

430 mm (17 in.) and not more than 610 mm (24 in.). 

Headroom shall be not less than 2030 mm (80 in.). 

The angle of the device shall be between 50 degrees and 

68 degrees to horizontal. 

The height of the riser shall not exceed 240 mm 

(9.5 in.). 



(1) 
(2) 

(3) 

(4) 

(5) 



(6) Treads shall have a projected tread depth of not less than 
145 mm (5.8 in.), measured in accordance with 7.2.2, 
with each tread providing 240 mm (9.5 in.) of depth, 
including tread overlap. 

(7) A distance of not less than 150 mm (6 in.) shall be pro- 
vided between the stair handrail and any other object. 

(8) The initial tread of the stair shall begin at the same eleva- 
tion as the platform, landing, or floor surface. 

(9) The alternating treads shall not be laterally separated by 
a distance of more than 51 mm (2 in.). 

(10) The occupant load served shall not exceed three. 

7.2.12 Areas of Refuge. 

7.2.12.1 General. 

7.2.12.1.1 Unless otherwise provided in 7.2.12.1.2, an area of 
refuge used as part of a required accessible means of egress in 
accordance with 7.5.4, or used as a part of any required means 
of egress, shall conform to the following: 

(1) General requirements of Section 7.1 

(2) Requirements of 7.2.12.2 and 7.2.12.3 

7.2.12.1.2 The requirements of 7.2.12.1. 1(2) shall not apply 
to areas of refuge consisting of stories of buildings protected 
throughout by an approved, supervised automatic sprinkler 
system in accordance with Section 9.7. 

7.2.12.2 Accessibility. 

7.2.12.2.1 Required portions of an area of refuge shall be 
accessible from the space they serve by an accessible means of 
egress. 

7.2.12.2.2 Required portions of an area of refuge shall have 
access to a public way via an exit or an elevator without requir- 
ing return to the building spaces through which travel to the 
area of refuge occurred. 

7.2.12.2.3* Where the exit providing egress from an area of 
refuge to a public way that is in accordance with 7.2.12.2.2 
includes stairs, the clear width of landings and stair flights, 
measured between handrails and at all points below handrail 
height, shall be not less than 1220 mm (48 in.), unless other- 
wise permitted by the following: 

(1) The minimum 1220-mm (48-in.) clear width shall not be 
required where the area of refuge is separated from the 
remainder of the story by a horizontal exit meeting the 
requirements of 7.2.4. (See also 7.2.12.3.4.) 

(2) For stairs where egress is in the descending direction, a 
clear width of not less than 940 mm (37 in.) , measured at 
and below handrail height, shall be permitted if approved 
alternative measures are provided that do not necessitate 
carrying occupied wheelchairs on the stairs. 

(3) Existing stairs and landings that provide a clear width of 
not less than 940 mm (37 in.), measured at and below 
handrail height, shall be permitted. 

7.2.12.2.4* Where an elevator provides access from an area of 
refuge to a public way that is in accordance with 7.2.12.2.2, the 
following criteria shall be met: 

(1) The elevator shall be approved for fire fighter service as 
provided in ASME A17.1, Safety Code for Elevators and Esca- 
lators. 

(2) The power supply shall be protected against interruption 
from fire occurring within the building but outside the 
area of refuge. 



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LIFE SAFETY CODE 



(3) The elevator shall be located in a shaft system meeting the 
requirements for smokeproof enclosures in accordance 
with 7.2.3, unless otherwise provided in 7.2.12.2.4.1 and 
7.2.12.2.4.2. 

7.2.12.2.4.1 The smokeproof enclosure specified in 
7.2.12.2.4(3) shall not be required for areas of refuge that are 
more than 93 m 2 (1000 ft 2 ) and that are created by a horizon- 
tal exit meeting the requirements of 7.2.4. 

7.2.12.2.4.2 The smokeproof enclosure specified in 
7.2.12.2.4(3) shall not be required for elevators complying 
with 7.2.13. 

7.2.12.2.5 The area of refuge shall be provided with a two-way 
communication system for communication between the area 
of refuge and a central control point. The door to the stair 
enclosure or the elevator door and the associated portion of 
the area of refuge that the stair enclosure door or elevator 
door serves shall be identified by signage. (See 7.2.12.3.5.) 

7.2.12.2.6* Instructions for summoning assistance, via the two- 
way communication system, and written identification of the 
area of refuge location shall be posted adjacent to the two-way 
communication system. 

7.2.12.3 Details. 

7.2.12.3.1* Each area of refuge shall be sized to accommodate 
one wheelchair space of 760 mm x 1220 mm (30 in. x 48 in.) 
for every 200 occupants, or portion thereof, based on the oc- 
cupant load served by the area of refuge. Such wheelchair 
spaces shall maintain the width of a means of egress to not less 
than that required for the occupant load served and to not less 
than 915 mm (36 in.). 

7.2.12.3.2* For any area of refuge that does not exceed 
93 m 2 (1000 ft 2 ) , it shall be demonstrated by calculation or test 
that tenable conditions are maintained within the area of refuge 
for a period of 15 minutes when the exposing space on the other 
side of the separation creating the area of refuge is subjected to 
the maximum expected fire conditions. 

7.2.12.3.3 Access to any designated wheelchair space in an 
area of refuge shall not pass through more than one adjoining 
wheelchair space. 

7.2.12.3.4* Each area of refuge shall be separated from the re- 
mainder of the story by a barrier with not less than a 1-hour fire 
resistance rating, unless one of the following criteria applies: 

(1) A greater rating is required in other provisions of this 
Code. 

(2) The barrier is an existing barrier with a minimum 30- 
minute fire resistance rating. 

7.2.12.3.4.1 New fire door assemblies serving an area of ref- 
uge shall be positive-pressure rated in accordance with 8.2.2.4. 

7.2.12.3.4.2 The barriers specified in 7.2.12.3.4, and any 
openings in them, shall minimize air leakage and retard the 
passage of smoke. 

7.2.12.3.4.3 Doors in the barriers specified in 7.2.12.3.4 shall 
have not less than a 20-minute fire protection rating, unless a 
greater rating is required in other provisions of this Code, and 
shall be either self-closing or automatic-closing in accordance 
with 7.2.1.8. 

7.2.12.3.4.4 Ducts shall be permitted to penetrate the barrier 
specified in 7.2.12.3.4, unless prohibited in other provisions of 
this Code, and shall be provided with smoke-actuated dampers 



or other approved means to resist the transfer of smoke into 
the area of refuge. 

7.2.12.3.5 Each area of refuge shall be identified by a sign 
that reads as the follows: 

AREA OF REFUGE 

7.2.12.3.5.1 The sign required by 7.2.12.3.5 shall conform to 
the requirements of ICC/ANSIA117.1, American National Stan- 
dard for Accessible and Usable Buildings and Facilities, for such 
signage and shall display the international symbol of accessi- 
bility. Signs also shall be located as follows: 

( 1 ) At each door providing access to the area of refuge 

(2) At all exits not providing an accessible means of egress, as 
defined in 3.3.136.1 

(3) Where necessary to indicate clearly the direction to an 
area of refuge 

7.2.12.3.5.2 Signs required by 7.2.12.3.5 shall be illuminated as 
required for exit signs where exit sign illumination is required. 

7.2.12.3.6 Tactile signage complying with ICC/ANSI A117.1, 
American National Standard for Accessible and Usable Buildings and 
Facilities, shall be located at each door to an area of refuge. 

7.2.13 Elevators. 

7.2.13.1* General. An elevator complying with the require- 
ments of Section 9.4 and 7.2.13 shall be permitted to be used 
as a second means of egress from towers, as defined in 3.3.224, 
provided that the following criteria are met: 

(1) The tower and any attached structure shall be protected 
throughout by an approved, supervised automatic sprin- 
kler system in accordance with Section 9.7. 

(2) The tower shall be subject to occupancy not to exceed 
90 persons. 

(3) Primary egress discharges shall be directly to the outside. 

(4) No high hazard content areas shall exist in the tower or 
attached structure. 

(5) One hundred percent of the egress capacity shall be pro- 
vided independent of the elevators. 

(6) An evacuation plan that specifically includes the elevator 
shall be implemented and staff personnel shall be trained 
in operations and procedures for elevator emergency use 
in normal operating mode prior to fire fighter recall. 

(7) The tower shall not be used by the general public. 

7.2.13.2 Elevator Evacuation System Capacity. 

7.2.13.2.1 The elevator car shall have a capacity of not less 
than eight persons. 

7.2.13.2.2 The elevator lobby shall have a capacity of not less 
than 50 percent of the occupant load of the area served by the 
lobby. The capacity shall be calculated based on 0.28 m 2 (3 ft 2 ) 
per person and shall also include one wheelchair space of 
760 mm x 1220 mm (30 in. x 48 in.) for every 50 persons, or 
portion thereof, of the total occupant load served by that lobby. 

7.2.13.3 Elevator Lobby. Every floor served by the elevator 
shall have an elevator lobby. Barriers forming the elevator 
lobby shall have a fire resistance rating of not less than 1 hour 
and shall be arranged as a smoke barrier in accordance with 
Section 8.5. 

7.2.13.4 Elevator Lobby Doors. Elevator lobby doors shall 
have a fire protection rating of at least 1 hour. The transmitted 
temperature end point shall not exceed 250°C A (450°F A) 



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MEANS OF EGRESS 



101-61 



above ambient at the end of 30 minutes of the fire exposure 
specified in the test method referenced in 8.3.3.2. Elevator 
lobby doors shall be self-closing or automatic-closing in accor- 
dance with 7.2.1.8. 

7.2.13.5 Door Activation. The elevator lobby doors shall close 
in response to a signal from a smoke detector located directly 
outside the elevator lobby adjacent to or on each door open- 
ing. Elevator lobby doors shall be permitted to close in re- 
sponse to a signal from the building fire alarm system. Where 
one elevator lobby door closes by means of a smoke detector 
or a signal from the building fire alarm system, all elevator 
lobby doors serving that elevator evacuation system shall close. 

7.2.13.6* Water Protection. Building elements shall be used to 
restrict water exposure of elevator equipment. 

7.2.13.7* Power and Control Wiring. Elevator equipment, el- 
evator communications, elevator machine room cooling, and 
elevator controller cooling shall be supplied by both normal 
and standby power. Wiring for power and control shall be 
located and properly protected to ensure at least 1 hour of 
operation in the event of a fire. 

7.2.13.8* CoinniiHiications. Two-way communication systems 
shall be provided between elevator lobbies and a central con- 
trol point and between elevator cars and a central control 
point. Communications wiring shall be protected to ensure at 
least 1 hour of operation in the event of fire. 

7.2.13.9* Elevator Operation. Elevators shall be provided with 
fire fighter service in accordance with ASME Al 7.1, Safety Code 
for Elevators and Escalators. 

7.2.13.10 Maintenance. Where an elevator lobby is served by 
only one elevator car, the elevator evacuation system shall 
have a program of scheduled maintenance during times of 
building shutdown or low building activity. Repairs shall be 
performed within 24 hours of breakdown. 

7.2.13.11 Earthquake Protection. Elevators shall have the ca- 
pability of orderly shutdowns during earthquakes at locations 
where such shutdowns are an option of ASME A17.1, Safety 
Code for Elevators and Escalators. 

7.2.13.12 Signage. Signage shall comply with 7.10.8.2. 

7.3 Capacity of Means of Egress. 

7.3.1 Occupant Load. 

7.3.1.1 Sufficient Capacity for Occupant Load. The total ca- 
pacity of the means of egress for any story, balcony, der, or other 
occupied space shall be sufficient for the occupant load thereof. 

7.3.1.2* Occupant Load Factor. The occupant load in any 
building or portion thereof shall be not less than the number 
of persons determined by dividing the floor area assigned to 
that use by the occupant load factor for that use as specified in 
Table 7.3.1.2, Figure 7.3.1.2(a), and Figure 7.3.1.2(b). Where 
both gross and net area figures are given for the same occu- 
pancy, calculations shall be made by applying the gross area 
figure to the gross area of the portion of the building devoted 
to the use for which the gross area figure is specified and by 
applying the net area figure to the net area of the portion of 
the building devoted to the use for which the net area figure is 
specified. 



Table 7.3.1.2 Occupant Load Factor 



Use 


m 2 (per person) 1 


ft 2 (per person) 1 


Assembly Use 






Concentrated use, 


0.65 net 


7 net 


without fixed 






seating 






Less concentrated 


1.4 net 


15 net 


use, without fixed 






seating 






Bench-type seating 


1 person/455 


1 person/18 




linear mm 


linear in. 


Fixed seating 


Number of fixed 


Number of fixed 




seats 


seats 


Waiting spaces 


See 12.1.7.2 and 


See 12.1.7.2 and 




13.1.7.2 


13.1.7.2 


Kitchens 


9.3 


100 


Library stack areas 


9.3 


100 


Library reading 


4.6 net 


50 net 


rooms 






Swimming pools 


4.6 (water 
surface) 


50 (water surface) 


Swimming pool decks 


2.8 


30 


Exercise rooms with 


4.6 


50 


equipment 






Exercise rooms 


1.4 


15 


without equipment 






Stages 


1.4 net 


15 net 


Lighting and access 


9.3 net 


100 net 


catwalks, galleries, 






gridirons 






Casinos and similar 


1 


11 


gaming areas 






Skating rinks 


4.6 


50 


Educational Use 






Classrooms 


1.9 net 


20 net 


Shops, laboratories, 


4.6 net 


50 net 


vocational rooms 






Day-Care Use 


3.3 net 


35 net 


Health Care Use 






Inpatient treatment 


22.3 


240 


departments 






Sleeping departments 


11.1 


120 


Detention and 


11.1 


120 


Correctional Use 






Residential Use 






Hotels and 


18.6 


200 


dormitories 






Apartment buildings 


18.6 . 


200 


Board and care, large 


18.6 


200 


Industrial Use 






General and high 


9.3 


100 


hazard industrial 






Special purpose 


NA 


NA 


industrial 






Business Use 


9.3 


100 


Storage Use (other 


NA 


NA 


than mercantile 






storerooms) 







(continues) 



2003 Edition 



101-62- 



LIFE SAFETY CODE 



Table 7.3.1.2 Continued 



Use 



in (per person) 1 ft 2 (per person) ' 



Mercantile Use 
Sales area on street 

floor 2 ' 3 
Sales area on two or 

more street floors 3 
Sales area on floor 

below street floor 3 
Sales area on floors 

above street floor 3 
Floors or portions of 

floors used only for 

offices 
Floors or portions of 

floors used only for 

storage, receiving, 

and shipping, and 

not open to 

general public 
Mall buildings 4 



2.8 



3.7 



2.8 



5.6 



30 



40 



30 



60 



See business use See business use 



27.9 



300 



Per factors 
applicable to 
use of space 5 



Per factors 
applicable to 
use of space 5 



Note: NA= not applicable. The occupant load is the maximum prob- 
able number of occupants present at any time. 
'All factors are expressed in gross area unless marked "net." 
2 For the purpose of determining occupant load in mercantile occu- 
pancies where, due to differences in grade of streets on different sides, 
two or more floors directly accessible from streets (not including al- 
leys or similar back streets) exist, each such floor is permitted to be 
considered a street floor. The occupant load factor is one person for 
each 3.7 m 2 (40 ft 2 ) of gross floor area of sales space. 
3 For the purpose of determining occupant load in mercantile occu- 
pancies with no street floor, as defined in 3.3.216, but with access 
directly from the street by stairs or escalators, the floor at the point of 
entrance to the mercantile occupancy is considered the street floor. 
4 For any food court or other assembly use areas located in the mall 
that are not included as a portion of the gross leasable area of the mall 
building, the occupant load is calculated based on the occupant load 
factor for that use as specified in Table 7.3.1.2. The remaining mall 
area is not required to be assigned an occupant load. 
5 The portions of the mall that are considered a pedestrian way and 
not used as gross leasable area are not required to be assessed an 
occupant load based on Table 7.3.1.2. However, means of egress from 
a mall pedestrian way are required to be provided for an occupant 
load determined by dividing the gross leasable area of the mall build- 
ing (not including anchor stores) by the appropriate lowest whole 
number occupant load factor from Figure 7.3.1.2(a) or Figure 
7.3.1.2(b). 

Each individual tenant space is required to have means of egress to 
the outside or to the mall based on occupant loads calculated by using 
the appropriate occupant load factor from Table 7.3.1.2. 

Each individual anchor store is required to have means of egress 
independent of the mall. 



Gross leasable area (m 2 x 100) 
93 140 186 232 279 325 372 418 465 



5.1 
4.7 
-4.2 
■3.7 
■3.3 
-2.8 



As 



FIGURE 7.3.1.2(a) Mai Building Occupant Load Factors. 



■M 






s* 












~f rf **** 










<£*" "t_ j 










^ 










> 




50 






" z 










_z 








/ 








/ 






45 




/ 








/ 










/ 










/ 










/ 






n 




/ 






40 




/ 










/ 










/ 










/ 






35 




/ 






















































60 

1 


U^ 






u^ 



100 150 200 250 300 350 400 450 500 
Gross leasable area (ft 2 x 1000) 

FIGURE 7.3.1.2(b) Mall Building Occupant Load Factors. 



7.3.1.3 Occupant Load Increases. 

7.3.1.3.1 The occupant load in any building or portion 
thereof shall be permitted to be increased from the occupant 
load established for the given use in accordance with 7.3.1.2 
where all other requirements of this Code are also met, based 
on such increased occupant load. 



7.3.1.3.2 The authority havingjurisdiction shall be permitted 
to require an approved aisle, seating, or fixed equipment dia- 
gram to substantiate any increase in occupant load and shall 
be permitted to require that such a diagram be posted in an 
approved location. 

7.3.1.4 Exits Serving More than One Story. Where an exit 
serves more than one story, only the occupant load of each 
story considered individually shall be used in compudng the 
required capacity of the exit at that story, provided that the 
required egress capacity of the exit is not decreased in the 
direction of egress travel. 



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7.3.1.5 Capacity from a Point of Convergence. Where means 
of egress from a story above and a story below converge at an 
intermediate story, the capacity of the means of egress from 
the point of convergence shall be not less than the sum of the 
capacity of the two means of egress. 

7.3.1.6 Egress Capacity from Balconies and Mezzanines. Where 
any required egress capacity from a balcony or mezzanine passes 
through the room below, that required capacity shall be added to 
the required egress capacity of the room below. 

7.3.2 Measurement of Means of Egress. 

7.3.2.1 The width of means of egress shall be measured in the 
clear at the narrowest point of the exit component under con- 
sideration, unless otherwise provided in 7.3.2.2. 

7.3.2.2 Projections within the means of egress of not more 
than 114 mm (4V2 in.) on each side shall be permitted at a 
height of 965 mm (38 in.) and below. 

7.3.3 Egress Capacity. 

7.3.3.1 Egress capacity for approved components of means of 
egress shall be based on the capacity factors shown in 
Table 7.3.3.1. 

Table 7.3.3.1 Capacity Factors 





Stairways (width 
per person) 


Level Components 

and Ramps (width 

per person) 


Area 


mum 


in. 


mini 


in. 


Board and care 


10 


0.4 


5 


0.2 


Health care, 


7.6 


0.3 


5 


0.2 


sprinklered 
Health care, 


15 


0.6 


13 


0.5 


nonsprinklered 

High hazard 


18 


0.7 


10 


0.4 


contents 










All others 


7.6 


0.3 


5 


0.2 



7.3.3.2 The required capacity of a corridor shall be the occu- 
pant load that utilizes the corridor for exit access divided by 
the required number of exits to which the corridor connects, 
but the corridor capacity shall be not less than the required 
capacity of the exit to which the corridor leads. 

7.3.4 Mininnum Width. 

7.3.4.1 The width of any means of egress, unless otherwise 
provided in 7.3.4.1.1 through 7.3.4.1.3, shall be as follows: 

(1) Not less than that required for a given egress component 
in this chapter or Chapter 12 through Chapter 42 

(2) Not less than 915 mm (36 in.) 

7.3.4.1.1* The width of exit access that is formed by furniture 
and movable partitions, that serves not more than six people, 
and that has a length not exceeding 15 m (50 ft) shall meet 
both of the following criteria: 

(1) The width shall be not less than 455 mm (18 in.) at and 
below a height of 965 mm (38 in.), and not less than 
710 mm (28 in.) above a height of 965 mm (38 in.). 

(2) A width of not less than 915 mm (36 in.) for new exit 
access, and not less than 710 mm (28 in.) for existing exit 
access, shall be capable of being provided without moving 
permanent walls. 



7.3.4.1.2 In existing buildings, the width of exit access shall 
be permitted to be not less than 710 mm (28 in.). 

7.3.4.1.3 The requirement of 7.3.4.1 shall not apply to the 
following: 

(1) Doors as otherwise provided for in 7.2.1.2 

(2) Aisles and aisle accessways in assembly occupancies as oth- 
erwise provided in Chapter 12 and Chapter 13 

(3) Industrial equipment access as otherwise provided in 
40.2.5.2 

7.3.4.2 Where a single exit access leads to an exit, its capacity 
in terms of width shall be not less than the required capacity of 
the exit to which it leads. 

7.3.4.3 Where more than one exit access leads to an exit, 
each shall have a width adequate for the number of persons it 
accommodates. 

7.4 Number of Means of Egress. 
7.4.1 General. 

7.4.1.1 The number of means of egress from any balcony, 
mezzanine, story, or portion thereof shall be not less than two, 
except under one of the following conditions: 

(1) Where a single means of egress is permitted in Chapter 11 
through Chapter 42. 

(2) Where a single means of egress is permitted for a mezza- 
nine or balcony and the common path of travel limita- 
tions of Chapter 12 through Chapter 42 are met 

7.4.1.2 The number of means of egress from any story or 
portion thereof, other than for existing buildings as permitted 
in Chapter 12 through Chapter 42, shall be as follows: 

(1) Occupant load more than 500 but not more than 1000 — 
not less than 3 

(2) Occupant load more than 1000 — not less than 4 

7.4.1.3 Accessible means of egress in accordance with 7.5.4 
that do not utilize elevators shall be permitted to serve as any 
or all of the required minimum number of means of egress. 

7.4.1.4 The occupant load of each story considered individu- 
ally shall be required to be used in computing the number of 
means of egress at each story, provided that the required num- 
ber of means of egress is not decreased in the direction of 
egress travel. 

7.4.1.5 Doors other than the hoistway door; the elevator car 
door; and doors that are readily openable from the car side 
without a key, a tool, special knowledge, or special effort shall 
be prohibited at the point of access to an elevator car. 

7.4.1.6 Elevator lobbies shall have access to at least one exit. 
Such exit access shall not require the use of a key, a tool, spe- 
cial knowledge, or special effort. 

7.5 Arrangement of Means of Egress. 

7.5.1 General. 

7.5.1.1 Exits shall be located and exit access shall be arranged 
so that exits are readily accessible at all times. 

7.5.1.1.1* Where exits are not immediately accessible from an 
open floor area, continuous passageways, aisles, or corridors 
leading directly to every exit shall be maintained and shall be 
arranged to provide access for each occupant to not less than 
two exits by separate ways of travel, unless otherwise provided 
in 7.5.1.1.3 and 7.5.1.1.4. 



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7.5.1.1.2 Exit access corridors shall provide access to not less 
than two approved exits, unless otherwise provided in 7.5.1.1.3 
and 7.5.1.1.4. 

7.5.1.1.3 The requirements of 7.5.1.1.1 and 7.5.1.1.2 shall 
not apply where a single exit is permitted in Chapter 12 
through Chapter 42. 

7.5.1.1.4 Where common paths of travel are permitted for an 
occupancy in Chapter 12 through Chapter 42, such common 
paths of travel shall be permitted but shall not exceed the limit 
specified. 

7.5.1.2 Corridors shall provide exit access without passing 
through any intervening rooms other than corridors, lobbies, 
and other spaces permitted to be open to the corridor, unless 
otherwise provided in 7.5.1.2.1 and 7.5.1.2.2. 

7.5.1.2.1 Approved existing corridors that require passage 
through a room to access an exit shall be permitted to con- 
tinue to be used, provided that the following criteria are met: 

(1) The path of travel is marked in accordance with Section 
7.10. 

(2) Doors to such rooms comply with 7.2.1. 

(3) Such arrangement is not prohibited by the applicable oc- 
cupancy chapter. 

7.5.1.2.2 Corridors that are not required to be fire resistance 
rated shall be permitted to discharge into open floor plan areas. 

7.5.1.3 Remoteness shall be provided in accordance with 
7.5.1.3.1 through 7.5.1.3.7. 

7.5.1.3.1 Where more than one exit is required from a build- 
ing or portion thereof, such exits shall be remotely located 
from each other and shall be arranged and constructed to 
minimize the possibility that more than one has the potential 
to be blocked by any one fire or other emergency condition. 

7.5.1.3.2* Where two exits or exit access doors are required, they 
shall be located at a distance from one another not less than 
one-half the length of the maximum overall diagonal dimension 
of the building or area to be served, measured in a straight line 
between the nearest edge of the exit doors or exit access doors, 
unless otherwise provided in 7.5.1.3.3 through 7.5.1.3.5. 

7.5.1.3.3 In buildings protected throughout by an approved, 
supervised automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Sec- 
tion 9.7, the minimum separation distance between two exits or 
exit access doors measured in accordance with 7.5.1.3.2 shall be 
not less than one-third the length of the maximum overall diago- 
nal dimension of the building or area to be served. 

7.5.1.3.4 Where exit enclosures are provided as the required 
exits specified in 7.5.1.3.2 and are interconnected by not less 
than a 1-hour fire resistance-rated corridor, exit separation 
shall be permitted to be measured along the line of travel 
within the corridor. 

7.5. 1 .3.5 In existing buildings, where more than one exit or exit 
access door is required, such exits or exit access doors shall be 
permitted to be remotely located in accordance with 7.5.1.3.1. 

7.5.1.3.6 Where more than two exits or exit access doors are 
required, at least two of the required exits or exit access doors 
shall be arranged to comply with the minimum separation dis- 
tance requirement. 

7.5.1.3.7 The balance of the exits or exit access doors speci- 
fied in 7.5.1.3.6 shall be located so that, if one becomes 
blocked, the others shall be available. 



7.5.1.4 Interlocking or scissor stairs shall comply with the 
7.5.1.4.1 and 7.5.1.4.2. 

7.5.1.4.1 New interlocking or scissor stairs shall be permitted 
to be considered only as a single exit. 

7.5.1.4.2* Existing interlocking or scissor stairs shall be per- 
mitted to be considered separate exits if they meet the follow- 
ing criteria: 

(1) They are enclosed in accordance with 7.1.3.2. 

(2) They are separated from each other by 2-hour fire 
resistance-rated noncombustible construction. 

(3) No protected or unprotected penetrations or communi- 
cating openings exist between the stair enclosures. 

7.5.1.5* Exit access shall be arranged so that there are no dead 
ends in corridors, unless permitted by, and limited to the 
lengths specified in, Chapter 12 through Chapter 42. 

7.5. 1 .6 Exit access from rooms or spaces shall be permitted to 
be through adjoining or intervening rooms or areas, provided 
that such rooms or areas are accessory to the area served. Foy- 
ers, lobbies, and reception rooms constructed as required for 
corridors shall not be construed as intervening rooms. Exit 
access shall be arranged so that it is not necessary to pass 
through any area identified under Protection from Hazards in 
Chapter 11 through Chapter 42. 

7.5.2 Impediments to Egress. See also 7.1.9 and 7.2.1.5. 

7.5.2.1 Access to an exit shall not be through kitchens, store- 
rooms other than as provided in Chapter 36 and Chapter 37, 
restrooms, workrooms, closets, bedrooms or similar spaces, or 
other rooms or spaces subject to locking, unless passage 
through such rooms or spaces is permitted for the occupancy 
by Chapter 18, Chapter 19, Chapter 22, and Chapter 23. 

7.5.2.2* Exit access and exit doors shall be designed and ar- 
ranged to be clearly recognizable. 

7.5.2.2.1 Hangings or draperies shall not be placed over exit 
doors or located so that they conceal or obscure any exit, un- 
less otherwise provided in 7.5.2.2.2. 

7.5.2.2.2 Curtains shall be permitted across means of egress 
openings in tent walls if the following criteria are met: 

(1) They are distinctly marked in contrast to the tent wall so 
as to be recognizable as means of egress. 

(2) They are installed across an opening that is at least 
1830 mm (72 in.) in width. 

(3) They are hung from slide rings or equivalent hardware so 
as to be readily moved to the side to create an unob- 
structed opening in the tent wall that is of the minimum 
width required for door openings. 

7.5.2.2.3 Mirrors shall not be placed on exit doors. 

7.5.2.2.4 Mirrors shall not be placed in or adjacent to any exit 
in such a manner as to confuse the direction of exit. 

7.5.3 Exterior Ways of Exit Access. 

7.5.3.1 Exit access shall be permitted to be by means of any 
exterior balcony, porch, gallery, or roof that conforms to the 
requirements of this chapter. 

7.5.3.2 The long side of the balcony, porch, gallery, or similar 
space shall be at least 50 percent open and shall be arranged 
to restrict the accumulation of smoke. 



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7.5.3.3 Exterior exit access balconies shall be separated from 
the interior of the building by walls and opening protectives as 
required for corridors, unless the exterior exit access balcony 
is served by at least two remote stairs that can be accessed 
without any occupant traveling past an unprotected opening 
to reach one of the stairs, or where dead ends on the exterior 
exit access do not exceed 6100 mm (240 in.). 

7.5.3.4 Exterior exit access shall be arranged so that there are 
no dead ends in excess of those permitted for dead-end corri- 
dors in Chapter 11 through Chapter 42. 

7.5.4 Accessible Means of Egress. 

7.5.4.1* Areas accessible to people with severe mobility im- 
pairment, other than in existing buildings, shall have not less 
than two accessible means of egress, unless otherwise provided 
in 7.5.4.1.2 through 7.5.4.1.4. 

7.5.4.1.1 Access within the allowable travel distance shall be 
provided to not less than one accessible area of refuge or one 
accessible exit providing an accessible route to an exit discharge. 

7.5.4.1.2 A single accessible means of egress shall be permit- 
ted from buildings or areas of buildings permitted to have a 
single exit. 

7.5.4.1.3 Accessible means of egress shall not be required in 
health care occupancies protected throughout by an ap- 
proved, supervised automatic sprinkler system in accordance 
with Section 9.7. 

7.5.4.1.4 Exit access travel along the accessible means of 
egress shall be permitted to be common for the distances per- 
mitted as common paths of travel. 

7.5.4.2 Where two accessible means of egress are required, 
the exits serving such means of egress shall be located at a 
distance from one another not less than one-half the length of 
the maximum overall diagonal dimension of the building or 
area to be served, measured in a straight line between the 
nearest edge of the exit doors or exit access doors, unless oth- 
erwise provided in 7.5.4.2.1 through 7.5.4.2.3. 

7.5.4.2.1 Where exit enclosures are provided as the required 
exits specified in 7.5.4.2 and are interconnected by not less 
than a 1-hour fire resistance-rated corridor, exit separation 
shall be permitted to be measured along the line of travel 
within the corridor. 

7.5.4.2.2 The requirement of 7.5.4.2 shall not apply to build- 
ings protected throughout by an approved, supervised auto- 
matic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 9.7. 

7.5.4.2.3 The requirement of 7.5.4.2 shall not apply where 
the physical arrangement of means of egress prevents the pos- 
sibility that access to both accessible means of egress will be 
blocked by any one fire or other emergency condition as ap- 
proved by the authority having jurisdiction. 

7.5.4.3 Each required accessible means of egress shall be con- 
tinuous from each accessible occupied area to a public way or 
area of refuge in accordance with 7.2.12.2.2. 

7.5.4.4 Where an exit stair is used in an accessible means of 
egress, it shall comply with 7.2.12.2.3 and shall either incorpo- 
rate an area of refuge within an enlarged story-level landing or 
shall be accessed from an area of refuge. 

7.5.4.5 To be considered part of an accessible means of 
egress, an elevator shall be in accordance with 7.2.12.2.4. 



7.5.4.6 To be considered part of an accessible means of 
egress, a smoke barrier in accordance with Section 8.5 with 
not less than a 1-hour fire resistance rating, or a horizontal 
exit in accordance with 7.2.4, shall discharge to an area of 
refuge in accordance with 7.2.12. 

7.5.4.7 Accessible stories that are four or more stories above 
or below a story of exit discharge shall have not less than one 
elevator complying with 7.5.4.5. 

7.6* Measurement of Travel Distance to Exits. 

7.6.1* The travel distance to an exit shall be measured on the 
floor or other walking surface as follows: 

(1) Along the centerline of the natural path of travel, starting 
from the most remote point subject to occupancy 

(2) Curving around any corners or obstructions with a 
305-mm (12-in.) clearance therefrom 

(3) Terminating at one of the following: 

(a) Center of the doorway 

(b) Other point at which the exit begins 

(c) Smoke barrier in an existing detention and correc- 
tional occupancy as provided in Chapter 23. 

7.6.2* Where open stairways or ramps are permitted as a path 
of travel to required exits, the distance shall include the travel 
on the stairway or ramp and the travel from the end of the 
stairway or ramp to an outside door or other exit in addition to 
the distance traveled to reach the stairway or ramp. 

7.6.3 Where any part of an exterior exit is within 3050 mm 
(120 in.) of horizontal distance of any unprotected build- 
ing opening, as permitted by 7.2.2-6.3 for outside stairs, the 
travel distance to the exit shall include the length of travel 
to ground level. 

7.6.4 Where measurement includes stairs, the measurement 
shall be taken in the plane of the tread nosing. 

7.6.5 The travel distance in any occupied space to not less than 
one exit, measured in accordance with 7.6.1 through 7.6.4, shall 
not exceed the limits specified in this Code. (See 7.6.6.) 

7.6.6 Travel distance limitations shall be as provided in Chap- 
ter 11 through Chapter 42 and, for high hazard areas, shall be 
in accordance with Section 7.11. 

7.7 Discharge from Exits. 

7.7.1* Exit Termination. Exits shall terminate directly, at a 
public way or at an exterior exit discharge, unless otherwise 
provided in 7.7.1.2 through 7.7.1.4. 

7.7.1.1 Yards, courts, open spaces, or other portions of the 
exit discharge shall be of required width and size to provide all 
occupants with a safe access to a public way. 

7.7.1.2 The requirement of 7.7.1 shall not apply to interior 
exit discharge as otherwise provided in 7.7.2. 

7.7.1.3 The requirement of 7.7.1 shall not apply to rooftop 
exit discharge as otherwise provided in 7.7.6. 

7.7.1.4 Means of egress shall be permitted to terminate in an 
exterior area of refuge for detention and correctional occu- 
pancies as otherwise provided in Chapter 22 and Chapter 23. 

7.7.2 Discharge through Areas on Level of Exit Discharge. 
Not more than 50 percent of the required number of exits, 
and not more than 50 percent of the required egress capac- 
ity, shall be permitted to discharge through areas on the 



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level of exit discharge, unless otherwise permitted in 7.7.2.1 
and 7.7.2.2, provided that the criteria of 7.7.2.3 through 
7.7.2.7 are met. 

7.7.2.1 One hundred percent of the exits shall be permitted 
to discharge through areas on the level of exit discharge in 
detention and correctional occupancies as otherwise provided 
in Chapter 22 and Chapter 23. 

7.7.2.2 In existing buildings, the 50 percent limit on egress 
capacity shall not apply if the 50 percent limit on the required 
number of exits is met. 

7.7.2.3 The discharge specified in 7.7.2 shall lead to a free 
and unobstructed way to the exterior of the building, and such 
way shall be readily visible and identifiable from the point of 
discharge from the exit. 

7.7.2.4 The level of discharge shall be protected throughout 
by an approved, automatic sprinkler system in accordance 
with Section 9.7, or the portion of the level of discharge used 
for discharge shall be protected by an approved, automatic 
sprinkler system in accordance with Section 9.7 and shall be 
separated from the nonsprinklered portion of the floor by a 
fire resistance rating meeting the requirements for the enclo- 
sure of exits. (See 7.1.3.2.1.) 

7.7.2.5 The requirement of 7.7.2.4 shall not apply where the 
discharge area is a vestibule or foyer that meets all of the fol- 
lowing criteria: 

(1) The depth from the exterior of the building shall be not 
more than 3050 mm (120 in.), and the length shall be not 
more than 9140 mm (360 in.). 

(2) The foyer shall be separated from the remainder of the 
level of discharge by construction providing protection 
not less than the equivalent of wired glass in steel frames. 

(3) The foyer shall serve only as means of egress and shall 
include an exit directly to the outside. 

7.7.2.6 The entire area on the level of discharge shall be sepa- 
rated from areas below by construction having a fire resistance 
rating not less than that required for the exit enclosure, unless 
otherwise provided in 7.7.2.7. 

7.7.2.7 Levels below the level of discharge in an atrium shall 
be permitted to be open to the level of discharge where such 
level of discharge is protected in accordance with 8.6.7. 

7.7.3 Arrangement and Marking of Exit Discharge. The exit 
discharge shall be arranged and marked to make clear the 
direction of egress to a public way. Stairs shall be arranged so 
as to make clear the direction of egress to a public way. Stairs 
that continue more than one-half story beyond the level of exit 
discharge shall be interrupted at the level of exit discharge by 
partitions, doors, or other effective means. 

7.7.4 Components of Exit Discharge. Doors, stairs, ramps, 
corridors, exit passageways, bridges, balconies, escalators, 
moving walks, and other components of an exit discharge 
shall comply with the detailed requirements of this chapter for 
such components. 

7.7.5 Signs. See 7.2.2.5.4. 

7.7.6 Discharge to Roofs. Where approved by the authority 
having jurisdiction, exits shall be permitted to discharge to 
roofs or other sections of the building or an adjoining build- 
ing where the following criteria are met: 



( 1 ) The roof/ceiling assembly construction has a fire resistance 
rating not less than that required for the exit enclosure. 

(2) A continuous and safe means of egress from the roof is 
available. 

7.8 Illumination of Means of Egress. 

7.8.1 General. 

7.8.1.1* Illumination of means of egress shall be provided in 
accordance with Section 7.8 for every building and structure 
where required in Chapter 11 through Chapter 42. For the 
purposes of this requirement, exit access shall include only 
designated stairs, aisles, corridors, ramps, escalators, and pas- 
sageways leading to an exit. For the purposes of this require- 
ment, exit discharge shall include only designated stairs, 
aisles, corridors, ramps, escalators, walkways, and exit passage- 
ways leading to a public way. 

7.8.1.2 Illumination of means of egress shall be continuous 
during the time that the conditions of occupancy require that 
the means of egress be available for use, unless otherwise pro- 
vided in 7.8.1.2.2. 

7.8.1.2.1 Artificial lighting shall be employed at such locations 
and for such periods of time as are necessary to maintain the 
illumination to the minimum criteria values herein specified. 

7.8.1.2.2 Automatic, motion sensor-type lighting switches 
shall be permitted within the means of egress, provided that 
the switch controllers are equipped for fail-safe operation, the 
illumination timers are set for a minimum 15-minute dura- 
tion, and the motion sensor is activated by any occupant move- 
ment in the area served by the lighting units. 

7.8.1.3* The floors and other walking surfaces within an exit 
and within the portions of the exit access and exit discharge 
designated in 7.8.1.1 shall be illuminated as follows: 

( 1 ) During conditions of stair use, the minimum illumination 
for new stairs shall be at least 108 lux (10 ft-candle), mea- 
sured at the walking surfaces. 

(2) The minimum illumination for floors and walking sur- 
faces, other than new stairs, shall be to values of at least 
10.8 lux (1 ft-candle), measured at the floor. 

(3) In assembly occupancies, the illumination of the floors of 
exit access shall be at least 2.2 lux (0.2 ft-candle) during 
periods of performances or projections involving directed 
light. 

(4)*The minimum illumination requirements shall not apply 
where operations or processes require low lighting levels. 

7.8.1.4* Required illumination shall be arranged so that the 
failure of any single lighting unit does not result in an illumi- 
nation level of less than 2.2 lux (0.2 ft-candle) in any desig- 
nated area. 

7.8.1.5 The equipment or units installed to meet the require- 
ments of Section 7.10 also shall be permitted to serve the func- 
tion of illumination of means of egress, provided that all re- 
quirements of Section 7.8 for such illumination are met. 

7.8.2 Sources of Illumination. 

7.8.2.1* Illumination of means of egress shall be from a source 
considered reliable by the authority having jurisdiction. 

7.8.2.2 Battery-operated electric lights and other types of por- 
table lamps or lanterns shall not be used for primary illumina- 
tion of means of egress. Battery-operated electric lights shall 



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be permitted to be used as an emergency source to the extent 
permitted under Section 7.9. 

7.9 Emergency Lighting. 

7.9.1 General. 

7.9.1.1* Emergency lighting facilities for means of egress shall 
be provided in accordance with Section 7.9 for the following: 

(1) Buildings or structures where required in Chapter 11 
through Chapter 42 

(2) Underground and limited access structures as addressed 
in Section 11.7 

(3) High-rise buildings as required by other sections of this Code 

(4) Doors equipped with delayed-egress locks 

(5) Stair shaft and vestibule of smokeproof enclosures, for 
which the following also apply: 

(a) The stair shaft and vestibule shall be permitted to in- 
clude a standby generator that is installed for the 
smokeproof enclosure mechanical ventilation equip- 
ment. 

(b) The standby generator shall be permitted to be used 
for the stair shaft and vestibule emergency lighting 
power supply. 

7.9.1.2 For the purposes of 7.9.1.1, exit access shall include 
only designated stairs, aisles, corridors, ramps, escalators, and 
passageways leading to an exit. For the purposes of 7.9.1.1, exit 
discharge shall include only designated stairs, ramps, aisles, 
walkways, and escalators leading to a public way. 

7.9.1.3 Where maintenance of illumination depends on 
changing from one energy source to another, a delay of not 
more than 10 seconds shall be permitted. 

7.9.2 Performance of System. 

7.9.2.1* Emergency illumination shall be provided for not less 
than VA hours in the event of failure of normal lighting. Emer- 
gency lighting facilities shall be arranged to provide initial illumi- 
nation that is not less than an average of 10.8 lux (1 ft-candle) 
and, at any point, not less than 1.1 lux (0.1 ft-candle), measured 
along the path of egress at floor level. Illumination levels shall be 
permitted to decline to not less than an average of 6.5 lux (0.6 ft- 
candle) and, at any point, not less than 6.5 lux (0.06 ft-candle) at 
the end of the VA hours. A maximum-to-minimum illumination 
uniformity ratio of 40 to 1 shall not be exceeded. 

7.9.2.2* The emergency lighting system shall be arranged to pro- 
vide the required illumination automatically in the event of any 
interruption of normal lighting due to any of the following: 

(1) Failure of a public utility or other outside electrical power 
supply 

(2) Opening of a circuit breaker or fuse 

(3) Manual act(s), including accidental opening of a switch 
controlling normal lighting facilities 

7.9.2.3 Emergency generators providing power to emergency 
lighting systems shall be installed, tested, and maintained in 
accordance with NFPA 110, Standard for Emergency and Standby 
Power Systems. Stored electrical energy systems, where required 
in this Code, shall be installed and tested in accordance with 
NFPA 111, Standard on Stored Electrical Energy Emergency and 
Standby Power Systems. 

7.9.2.4* Battery-operated emergency lights shall use only reli- 
able types of rechargeable batteries provided with suitable fa- 
cilities for maintaining them in properly charged condition. 



Batteries used in such lights or units shall be approved for 
their intended use and shall comply with NFPA 70, National 
Electrical Code 9 . 

7.9.2.5 The emergency lighting system shall be either con- 
tinuously in operation or shall be capable of repeated auto- 
matic operation without manual intervention. 

7.9.3 Periodic Testing of Emergency Lighting Equipment. 

7.9.3.1 Required emergency lighting systems shall be tested 
in accordance with one of the three options offered by 
7.9.3.1.1,7.9.3.1.2, or 7.9.3.1.3. 

7.9.3.1.1 Testing of required emergency lighting systems 
shall be permitted to be conducted as follows: 

(1) Functional testing shall be conducted at 30-day intervals 
for not less than 30 seconds. 

(2) Functional testing shall be conducted annually for not 
less than IVi hours if the emergency lighting system is 
battery powered. 

(3) The emergency lighting equipment shall be fully opera- 
tional for the duration of the tests required by 7.9.3.1.1 (1) 
and 7.9.3.1.1 (2). 

(4) Written records of visual inspections and tests shall be 
kept by the owner for inspection by the authority having 
jurisdiction. 

7.9.3.1.2 Testing of required emergency lighting systems 
shall be permitted to be conducted as follows: 

(1) Self-testing/ self-diagnostic battery-operated emergency 
lighting equipment shall be provided. 

(2) Self-testing/self-diagnostic battery-operated emergency 
lighting equipment shall automatically perform not less 
than once every 30 days a test for not less than 30 seconds 
and a diagnostic routine. 

(3) Self-testing/self-diagnostic battery-operated emergency 
lighting equipment shall indicate failures by a status indi- 
cator. 

(4) Avisual inspection shall be performed at intervals not ex- 
ceeding 30 days. 

(5) Functional testing shall be conducted annually for not 
less than VA hours. 

(6) Self-testing/self-diagnostic battery-operated emergency 
lighting equipment shall be fully operational for the du- 
ration of the VA hour test. 

(7) Written records of visual inspections and tests shall be 
kept by the owner for inspection by the authority having 
jurisdiction. 

7.9.3.1.3 Testing of required emergency lighting systems 
shall be permitted to be conducted as follows: 

(1) Computer-based, self-testing/ self-diagnostic battery-operated 
emergency lighting equipment shall be provided. 

(2) The emergency lighting equipment shall automatically 
perform not less than once every 30 days a test for not less 
than 30 seconds and a diagnostic routine. 

(3) The emergency lighting equipment shall automatically 
perform annually a test for not less than VA hours. 

(4) The emergency lighting equipment shall be fully opera- 
tional for the duration of the tests required by 7.9.3.1.3(2) 
and 7.9.3.1.3(3). 

(5) The computer-based system shall be capable of providing 
a report of the history of tests and failures at all times. 



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7.10 Marking of Means of Egress. 

7.10.1 General. 

7.10.1.1 Where Required. Means of egress shall be marked in 
accordance with Section 7.10 where required in Chapter 11 
through Chapter 42. 

7.10.1.2* Exits. Exits, other than main exterior exit doors that 
obviously and clearly are identifiable as exits, shall be marked 
by an approved sign that is readily visible from any direction of 
exit access. 

7.10.1.3 Exit Stair Door Tactile Signage. Tactile signage shall 
be provided to meet the following criteria, unless otherwise 
provided in 7.10.1.4: 

(1) Tactile signage shall be located at each exit door requir- 
ing an exit sign. 

(2) Tactile signage shall read as follows: EXIT 

(3) Tactile signage shall comply with ICC/ANSI A117.1, 
American National Standard for Accessible and Usable Build- 
ings and Facilities. 

7.10.1.4 Existing Exemption. The requirements of 7.10.1.3 
shall not apply to existing buildings, provided that the occu- 
pancy classification does not change. 

7.10.1.5 ExitAccess. 

7.10.1.5.1 Access to exits shall be marked by approved, 
readily visible signs in all cases where the exit or way to reach 
the exit is not readily apparent to the occupants. 

7.10.1.5.2* New sign placement shall be such that no point in 
an exit access corridor is in excess of the rated viewing dis- 
tance or 30 m (100 ft) , whichever is less, from the nearest sign. 

7.10.1.6* Floor Proximity Exit Signs. Where floor proximity 
exit signs are required in Chapter 11 through Chapter 42, such 
signs shall be located near the floor level in addition to those 
signs required for doors or corridors. The signs shall be illumi- 
nated in accordance with 7.10.5. Externally illuminated signs 
shall be sized in accordance with 7.10.6.1. The bottom of the sign 
shall be not less than 150 mm (6 in.) but not more than 455 mm 
( 18 in.) above the floor. For exit doors, the sign shall be mounted 
on the door or adjacent to the door, with the nearest edge of the 
sign within 100 mm (4 in.) of the door frame. 

7.10.1.7* Floor Proximity Egress Path Marking. Where floor 
proximity egress path marking is required in Chapter 11 
through Chapter 42, a listed and approved floor proximity 
egress path marking system that is internally illuminated shall 
be installed within 455 mm (18 in.) of the floor. The system 
shall provide a visible delineation of the path of travel along 
the designated exit access and shall be essentially continuous, 
except as interrupted by doorways, hallways, corridors, or 
other such architectural features. The system shall operate 
continuously or at any time the building fire alarm system is 
activated. The activation, duration, and continuity of opera- 
tion of the system shall be accordance with 7.9.2. 

7.10.1.8* Visibility. Every sign required in Section 7.10 shall be 
located and of such size, distinctive color, and design that it is 
readily visible and shall provide contrast with decorations, in- 
terior finish, or other signs. No decorations, furnishings, or 
equipment that impairs visibility of a sign shall be permitted. 
No brighdy illuminated sign (for other than exit purposes) , 
display, or object in or near the line of vision of the required 
exit sign that could detract attention from the exit sign shall 
be permitted. 



7.10.1.9 Mounting Location. The bottom of new egress mark- 
ings shall be located at a vertical distance of not more than 
2030 mm (80 in.) above the top edge of the egress opening 
intended for designation by that marking. Egress markings 
shall be located at a horizontal distance of not more than the 
required width of the egress opening, as measured from the 
edge of the egress opening intended for designation by that 
marking to the nearest edge of the marking. 

7.10.2* Directional Signs. A sign complying with 7.10.3 with a 
directional indicator showing the direction of travel shall be 
placed in every location where the direction of travel to reach 
the nearest exit is not apparent. 

7.10.3* Sign Legend. 

7.10.3.1 Signs required by 7.10.1 and 7.10.2 shall read as fol- 
lows in plainly legible letters, or other appropriate wording 
shall be used: 

EXIT 

7.10.3.2* Where approved by the authority having jurisdic- 
tion, pictograms shall be permitted. 

7.10.4* Power Source. Where emergency lighting facilities are 
required by the applicable provisions of Chapter 11 through 
Chapter 42 for individual occupancies, the signs, other than ap- 
proved self-luminous signs, shall be illuminated by the emer- 
gency lighting facilities. The level of illumination of the signs 
shall be in accordance with 7.10.6.3 or 7.10.7 for the required 
emergency lighting duration as specified in 7.9.2.1. However, the 
level of illumination shall be permitted to decline to 60 percent 
at the end of the emergency lighting duration. 

7.10.5 Illumination of Signs. 

7.10.5.1* General. Every sign required by 7.10.1.2 or 7.10.1.5, 
other than where operations or processes require low lighting 
levels, shall be suitably illuminated by a reliable light source. 
Externally and internally illuminated signs shall be legible in 
both the normal and emergency lighting mode. 

7.10.5.2* Continuous Illumination. 

7.10.5.2.1 Every sign required to be illuminated by 7.10.6.3 
and 7.10.7 shall be continuously illuminated as required un- 
der the provisions of Section 7.8 unless otherwise provided in 
7.10.5.2.2. 

7.10.5.2.2* Illumination for signs shall be permitted to flash 
on and off upon activation of the fire alarm system. 

7.10.6 Externally Illuminated Signs. 

7.10.6.1* Size of Signs. 

7.10.6.1.1 Externally illuminated signs required by 7.10.1 and 
7.10.2, other than approved existing signs, unless otherwise pro- 
vided in 7.10.6.1.2, shall read EXIT, or other appropriate word- 
ing shall be used, in plainly legible letters sized as follows: 

(1) For new signs, the letters shall be not less than 150 mm 
(6 in.) high, with the principal strokes of letters not less 
than 19 mm (% in.) wide. 

(2) For existing signs, the required wording shall be permit- 
ted to be in plainly legible letters not less than 100 mm 
(4 in.) high. 

(3) The word EXIT shall be in letters of a width not less than 
51 mm (2 in.), except the letter I, and the minimum spac- 
ing between letters shall be not less than 9.5 mm (% in.). 



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(4) Sign legend elements larger than the minimum estab- 
lished in 7.10.6.1.1(1) through 7.10.6.1.1(3) shall use let- 
ter widths, strokes, and spacing in proportion to their 
height. 

7.10.6.1.2 The requirements of 7.10.6.1.1 shall not apply to 
marking required by 7.10.1.3 and 7.10.1.6. 

7.10.6.2* Size and Location of Directional Indicator. 

7.10.6.2.1 Directional indicators, unless otherwise provided 
in 7.10.6.2.2, shall comply with the following: 

(1) The directional indicator shall be located outside of 
the EXIT legend, not less than 9.5 mm (% in.) from any 
letter. 

The directional indicator shall be of a chevron type, as 
shown in Figure 7.10.6.2.1. 

The directional indicator shall be identifiable as a direc- 
tional indicator at a distance of 12 m (40 ft). 

(4) A directional indicator larger than the minimum estab- 
lished for compliance with 7.10.6.2.1(3) shall be propor- 
tionately increased in height, width and stroke. 

(5) The directional indicator shall be located at the end of 
the sign for the direction indicated. 



(2) 
(3) 




FIGURE 7.10.6.2.1 Chevron-Type Indicator. 



7.10.6.2.2 The requirements of 7.10.6.2.1 shall not apply to 
approved existing signs. 

7.10.6.3* Level of Ultimination. Externally illuminated signs 
shall be illuminated by not less than 54 lux (5 ft-candles) at the 
illuminated surface and shall have a contrast ratio of not less 
than 0.5. 

7.10.7 Internally IDuniinated Signs. 

7.10.7.1 Listing. Internally illuminated signs shall be listed in 
accordance with UL 924, Standard for Safety Emergency Lighting 
and Power Equipment, unless they meet one of the following 
criteria: 

(1) They are approved existing signs. 

(2) They are existing signs having the required wording in 
legible letters not less than 100 mm (4 in.) high. 

(3) They are signs that are in accordance with 7.10.1.3 and 
7.10.1.6. 

7.10.7.2* Photoluniinescent Signs. The face of a photolumines- 
cent sign shall be continually illuminated while the building is 
occupied. The illumination levels on the face of the photolumi- 
nescent sign shall be in accordance with its listing. The charging 
illumination shall be a reliable light source as determined by the 
authority having jurisdiction. The charging light source shall be 
of a type specified in the product markings. 



7.10.8 Special Signs. 

7.10.8.1 Sign Illumination. 

7.10.8.1.1 Where required by other provisions of this Code, 
special signs shall be illuminated. 

7.10.8.1.2 Where emergency lighting facilities are required by 
the applicable provisions of Chapter 12 through Chapter 42, the 
required illumination of special signs shall additionally be pro- 
vided under emergency lighting conditions. 

7.10.8.2 Characters. Special signs, where required by other 
provisions of this Code, shall comply with the visual character 
requirements of ICC/ ANSI All 7.1 American National Standard 
for Accessible and Usable Buildings and Facilities. 

7.10.8.3* No Exit. 

7.10.8.3.1 Any door, passage, or stairway that is neither an 
exit nor a way of exit access and that is located or arranged so 
that it is likely to be mistaken for an exit shall be identified by 
a sign that reads as follows: 

NO 

EXIT 

7.10.8.3.2 The NO EXIT sign shall have the word NO in let- 
ters 51 mm (2 in.) high, with a stroke width of 9.5 mm (%in.), 
and the word EXIT in letters 25 mm (1 in.) high, with the 
word EXIT below the word NO, unless such sign is an ap- 
proved existing sign. 

7.10.8.4 Elevator Signs. Elevators that are a part of a means of 
egress (see 7.2.13.1) shall have signs with a minimum letter 
height of 16 mm ( 5 /s in.) posted in every elevator lobby as 
follows: 

(l)*Signs that indicate that the elevator can be used for 

egress, including any restrictions on use 
(2)*Signs that indicate the operational status of elevators 

7.10.9 Testing and Maintenance. 

7.10.9.1 Inspection. Exit signs shall be visually inspected for 
operation of the illumination sources at intervals not to ex- 
ceed 30 days, or shall be periodically monitored in accordance 
with 7.9.3.1.3. 

7.10.9.2 Testing. Exit signs connected to or provided with a 
battery-operated emergency illumination source, where re- 
quired in 7.10.4, shall be tested and maintained in accordance 
with 7.9.3. 

7.11 Special Provisions for Occupancies with High Hazard 
Contents. See Section 6.2. 

7.11.1* Where the contents are classified as high hazard, exits 
shall be provided and arranged to allow all occupants to es- 
cape from the building or structure or from the hazardous 
area thereof to the outside or to a place of safety with a travel 
distance of not more than 23 m (75 ft), measured as required 
in 7.6.1, unless otherwise provided in 7.11.2. 

7.11.2 The requirement of 7.11.1 shall not apply to storage 
occupancies as otherwise provided in Chapter 42. 

7.11.3 Egress capacity for high hazard contents areas shall be 
based on 18 mm/person (0.7 in. /person) for stairs or 10 mm/ 
person (0.4 in. /person) for level components and ramps in 
accordance with 7.3.3.1. 



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7.11.4 Not less than two means of egress shall be provided 
from each building or hazardous area thereof, unless all of the 
following criteria are met: 

(1) Rooms or spaces do not exceed 18.6 m 2 (200 ft 2 ). 

(2) Rooms or spaces have an occupant load not exceeding 
three persons. 

(3) Rooms or spaces have a travel distance to the room door 
not exceeding 7620 mm (300 in.). 

7.11.5 Means of egress, for rooms or spaces other than those 
that meet the criteria of 7.11.4(1) through 7.11.4(3), shall be 
arranged so that there are no dead ends in corridors. 

7.11.6 Doors serving high hazard contents areas with occu- 
pant loads in excess of five shall be permitted to be provided 
with a latch or lock only if the latch or lock is panic hardware 
or fire exit hardware complying with 7.2.1.7. 

7.12 Mechanical Equipment Rooins, Boiler Rooms, and Fur- 
nace Rooms. 

7.12.1 Mechanical equipment rooms, boiler rooms, furnace 
rooms, and similar spaces shall be arranged to limit common 
path of travel to a distance not exceeding 15 m (50 ft), unless 
otherwise permitted by the following: 

(1) A common path of travel not exceeding 30 m (100 ft) 
shall be permitted in the following locations: 

(a) In buildings protected throughout by an approved, 
supervised automatic sprinkler system in accordance 
with Section 9.7 

(b) In mechanical equipment rooms with no fuel-fired 
equipment 

(c) In existing buildings 

(2) In an existing building, a common path of travel not ex- 
ceeding 46 m (150 ft) shall be permitted if all of the fol- 
lowing criteria are met: 

(a) The building is protected throughout by an ap- 
proved, supervised automatic sprinkler system in- 
stalled in accordance with Section 9.7 

(b) No fuel-fired equipment is within the space. 

(c) The egress path is readily identifiable. 

(3) The requirement of 7.12.1 shall not apply to rooms or 
spaces in existing health care occupancies complying with 
the arrangement of means of egress provisions of 19.2.5 
and the travel distance limits of 19.2.6. 

7.12.2 Stories used exclusively for mechanical equipment, fur- 
naces, or boilers shall be permitted to have a single means of 
egress where the travel distance to an exit on that story is not in 
excess of the common path of travel limitations of 7.12.1. 



Chapter 8 Features of Fire Protection 

8.1 General. 

8.1.1 Application. The features of fire protection set forth in 
this chapter shall apply to both new construction and existing 
buildings. 

8.1.2 Automatic Sprinkler Systems. Where another provision 
of this chapter requires an automatic sprinkler system, the au- 
tomatic sprinkler system shall be installed in accordance with 
the subparts of 9.7.1.1 as permitted by the applicable occu- 
pancy chapter. 



8.2 Construction and Conipartraientation. 

8.2.1 Construction. 

8.2.1.1 Buildings or structures occupied or used in accor- 
dance with the individual occupancy chapters, Chapter 12 
through Chapter 42, shall meet the minimum construction 
requirements of those chapters. 

8.2.1.2* NFPA 220, Standard on Types of Building Construction, 
shall be used to determine the requirements for the construc- 
tion classification. 

8.2.1.3 Where the building or facility includes additions or 
connected structures of different construction types, the rat- 
ing and classification of the structure shall be based on one of 
the following: 

(1) Separate buildings, if a 2-hour or greater vertically 
aligned fire barrier wall in accordance with NFPA 221, 
Standard for Fire Walls and Fire Barrier Walls, exists between 
the portions of the building 

(2) Separate buildings, if provided with previously approved 
separations 

(3) The least fire-resistive type of construction of the con- 
nected portions, if separation as specified in 8.2.1.3(1) or 
8.2.1.3(2) is not provided 

8.2.2 General. 

8.2.2.1 Where required by other chapters of this Code, every 
building shall be divided into compartments to limit the 
spread of fire and restrict the movement of smoke. 

8.2.2.2 Fire compartments shall be formed with fire barriers 
that comply with Section 8.3. 

8.2.2.3* Fire compartments shall be formed by fire barriers 
complying with one of the following: 

( 1 ) The fire barriers are continuous from outside wall to outside 
wall or from one fire barrier to another, or a combination 
thereof, including continuity through all concealed spaces, 
such as those found above a ceiling, including interstitial 
spaces. 

(2) The fire barriers are continuous from outside wall to out- 
side wall or from one fire barrier to another, or from the 
floor to the bottom of the interstitial space, provided that 
the construction assembly forming the bottom of the in- 
terstitial space has a fire resistance rating not less than 
that of the fire barrier. 

8.2.2.4 Where required elsewhere in this Code to comply with 
8.2.2.4, door assemblies also shall comply with the following: 

( 1 ) They shall be tested in accordance with UL 1 784, Standard 
for Air Leakage Tests for Door Assemblies. 

(2) The maximum air leakage rate of the door assembly shall 
be 0.9 m s /min/m 2 (3.0 ft 3 /min/ft 2 ) of door opening at 
25 N/m 2 (0.10 in. water column) for both the ambient 
and elevated temperature tests. 

8.2.3 Fire Resistive-Rated Construction. 

8.2.3.1* The fire resistance of structural elements and 
building assemblies shall be determined in accordance with 
test procedures set forth in NFPA 251, or other approved 
test methods, or analytical methods approved by the au- 
thority having jurisdiction. Materials used to construct fire 
resistance-rated elements and assemblies shall be limited 
to those permitted in this Code. 



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101-71 



8.2.3.2 Fire resistance-rated floor and roof assemblies shall 
be classified as restrained or unrestrained in accordance with 
NFPA 251 or other approved test methods. The construction 
shall be considered restrained only where a registered design 
professional has furnished the authority having jurisdiction 
with satisfactory documentation verifying that the construc- 
tion is restrained. The classification of fire resistance-rated 
floor and roof construction shall be identified on the plans as 
restrained or unrestrained. 

8.2.3.3 Structural elements that support fire barriers shall be 
permitted to have only the fire resistance rating required for 
the construction classification of the building, provided that 
both of the following criteria are met: 

(1 ) Such structural elements support nonbearing wall or par- 
tition assemblies have a required fire resistance rating of 
1 hour or less. 

(2) Such structural elements do not serve as exit enclosures 
or protection for vertical openings. 

8.2.3.4 The requirement of 8.2.3.3 shall not apply to health 
care occupancy structural elements supporting floor assem- 
blies in accordance with the provisions of 18.1.6 and 19.1.6. 

8.2.4 Analytical Methods. 

8.2.4.1 Analytical methods utilized to determine the fire resis- 
tance of building assemblies shall comply with 8.2.4.2 or 8.2.4.3. 

8.2.4.2* Where calculations are used to establish the fire resis- 
tance rating of structural elements or assemblies, they shall be 
permitted to be performed in accordance with ASCE/SFPE 
29, Standard Calculation Methods for Structural Fire Protection. 
Where calculations are used to establish the fire resistance 
rating of concrete or masonry elements or assemblies, the pro- 
visions of ACI 216.1/TMS 0216.1, Standard Method for Determin- 
ing Fire Resistance of Concrete and Masonry Assemblies, shall be 
permitted to be used. 

8.2.4.3 Except for the method specified in 8.2.4.2, analytical 
methods used to calculate the fire resistance of building as- 
semblies or structural elements shall be approved. Where an 
approved analytical method is utilized to establish the fire re- 
sistance rating of a structural element or building assembly, 
the calculations shall be based upon the fire exposure and 
acceptance criteria specified in NFPA 251, Standard Methods of 
Tests of Fire Endurance of Building Construction and Materials. 

8.3 Fire Barriers. 

8.3.1 General. Fire barriers used to provide enclosure, subdi- 
vision, or protection under this Code shall be classified in ac- 
cordance with one of the following fire resistance ratings: 

(1) 2-hour fire resistance rating 

(2) 1-hour fire resistance rating 

(3) * a /4-hour fire resistance rating 

8.3.2 Walls. 

8.3.2.1 The fire-resistive materials, assemblies, and systems 
used shall be limited to those permitted in this Code and this 
chapter. 

8.3.2.2 The construction materials and details for fire-resistive 
assemblies and systems for walls described shall comply with all 
other provisions of this Code,, except as modified herein. 

8.3.2.3 Interior walls and partitions of nonsymmetrical con- 
struction shall be evaluated from both directions and assigned 
a fire resistance rating based on the shorter duration obtained 



in accordance with NFPA 251, Standard Methods of Tests of Fire 
Endurance of Building Construction and Materials. When the wall 
is tested with the least fire-resistive side exposed to the fur- 
nace, the wall shall not be required to be subjected to tests 
from the opposite side. 

8.3.3 Fire Doors and Windows. 

8.3.3.1 Wall openings required to have a fire protection rat- 
ing by Table 8.3.4.2 shall be protected by approved, listed, 
labeled fire door assemblies and fire window assemblies and 
their accompanying hardware, including all frames, closing 
devices, anchorage, and sills in accordance with the require- 
ments of NFPA 80, Standard for Fire Doors and Fire Windows, ex- 
cept as otherwise specified in this Code. 

8.3.3.2* Fire protection ratings for products required to comply 
with 8.3.3 shall be as determined and reported by a nationally 
recognized testing agency in accordance with NFPA252, Standard 
Methods of Fire Tests of Door Assemblies, or NFPA 257, Standard on Fire 
Test for 'Window and Glass Block Assemblies. 

(A) Fire protection-rated glazing shall be evaluated under 
positive pressure in accordance with NFPA 257. 

(B) All products required to comply with 8.3.3.2 shall bear an 
approved label. 

8.3.3.3 Unless otherwise specified, fire doors shall be self- 
closing or automatic-closing in accordance with 7.2.1.8. 

8.3.3.4 Floor fire door assemblies shall be tested in accor- 
dance with NFPA 288, Standard Methods of Fire Tests of Floor Fire 
Door Assemblies Installed Horizontally in Fire Resistance-Rated Floor 
Systems, and shall achieve a fire resistance rating not less than 
the assembly being penetrated. Floor fire doors assemblies 
shall be listed and labeled. 

8.3.3.5 Fire protection-rated glazing shall be permitted in 
fire barriers having a required fire resistance rating of 1 hour 
or less and shall be of an approved type with the appropriate 
fire protection rating for the location in which the barriers are 
installed. 

8.3.3.6* Glazing in fire window assemblies, other than in exist- 
ing fire window installations of wired glass and other fire-rated 
glazing material, shall be of a design that has been tested to 
meet the conditions of acceptance of NFPA 257, Standard on 
Fire Test for Window and Glass Block Assemblies. Fire protection- 
rated glazing in fire door assemblies, other than in existing 
fire-rated door assemblies, shall be of a design that has been 
tested to meet the conditions of acceptance of NFPA252, Stan- 
dard Methods of Fire Tests of Door Assemblies. 

8.3.3.7 Wired glass of 6 mm (V4 in.) in thickness and labeled 
for fire protection purposes shall be permitted to be used in 
approved opening protectives provided the maximum size 
specified by the listing is not exceeded. Other glazing materi- 
als that have been tested and labeled to indicate the type of 
opening to be protected for fire protection purposes shall be 
permitted to be used in approved opening protectives in ac- 
cordance with their listing, with the maximum sizes tested. 

8.3.3.8 Nonsymmetrical fire protection-rated glazing sys- 
tems shall be tested with each face exposed to the furnace, and 
the assigned fire protection rating shall be that of the shortest 
duration obtained from the two tests conducted in compli- 
ance with NFPA 257, Standard on Fire Test for Window and Glass 
Block Assemblies. 



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8.3.3.9 The total combined area of glazing in fire-rated win- 
dow assemblies and fire-rated door assemblies used in fire bar- 
riers shall not exceed 25 percent of the area of the fire barrier 
that is common with any room, unless the installation meets 
one of the following criteria: 

(1) The installation is an existing fire window installation of 
wired glass and other fire-rated glazing material in ap- 
proved metal frames. 

(2) The installation is an existing fire window installations of 
wired glass and other fire-rated glazing materials in ap- 
proved frames. 

(3) The fire protection-rated glazing material is installed in 
approved existing frames. 

8.3.4 Opening Protectives. 

8.3.4.1 Every opening in a fire barrier shall be protected to 
limit the spread of fire and restrict the movement of smoke 
from one side of the fire barrier to the other. 

8.3.4.2* The fire protection rating for opening protectives in 
fire barriers, fire-rated smoke barriers, and fire-rated smoke 
partitions shall be in accordance with Table 8.3.4.2. 



Table 8.3.4.2 Minimum Fire Protection Ratings for Opening 
Protectives in Fire Resistance-Rated Assemblies 





Walls and 


Fire Door 


Fire Window 




Partitions 


Assemblies 


Assemblies 


Component 


(hr) 


(far) 


(hr) 


Elevator 


2 


1M> 


NP 


hoistways 


1 


1 


NP 


Vertical shafts 


2 


Wz 


NP 


(including 


1 


1 


NP 


stairways, 


V-z 


Vi 


NP 


exits, and 








refuse 








chutes) 








Fire barriers 


2 


Wz 


NP 




1 


% 


3 /4 


Horizontal 


2 


VA> 


NP 


exits 








Exit access 


1 


Vi 


% 


corridors 1 


Vz 


Vs 


Vs 


Smoke 


1 


Vs 


% 


barriers 1 








Smoke 


Vz 


Vs 


Vs 


partitions 1,2 









Note: NP = not permitted. 

1 Fire doors are not required to have a hose stream test per NFPA 252. 

2 For residential board and care, see 32.2.3.1.1 and 33.2.3.1.1. 



8.3.4.3 Existing fire door assemblies having a %-hour fire 
protection rating shall be permitted to continue to be used in 
vertical openings and in exit enclosures in lieu of the 1-hour 
rating required by Table 8.3.4.2. 

8.3.4.4 Where a 20-minute fire protection-rated door is re- 
quired in existing buildings, an existing 44-mm (1%-in.) solid- 
bonded wood-core door, an existing steel-clad (tin-clad) wood 
door, or an existing solid-core steel door with positive latch 
and closer shall be permitted, unless otherwise specified by 
Chapter 11 through Chapter 42. 



8.3.5 Penetrations. The provisions of 8.3.5 shall govern the 
materials and methods of construction used to protect 
through-penetrations and membrane penetrations in fire 
walls, fire barrier walls, and fire resistance-rated horizontal 
assemblies. The provisions of 8.3.5 shall not apply to approved 
existing materials and methods of construction used to pro- 
tect existing through-penetrations and existing membrane 
penetrations in fire walls, fire barrier walls, or fire resistance- 
rated horizontal assemblies, unless otherwise required by 
Chapter 12 through Chapter 42. 

8.3.5.1 Firestop Systems and Devices Required. Penetrations 
for cables, cable trays, conduits, pipes, tubes, combustion 
vents and exhaust vents, wires, and similar items to accommo- 
date electrical, mechanical, plumbing, and communications 
systems that pass through a wall, floor, or floor/ceiling assem- 
bly constructed as a fire barrier shall be protected by a firestop 
system or device. The firestop system or device shall be tested 
in accordance with ASTM E-814 or ANSI/UL 1479 at a mini- 
mum positive pressure differential of 2.5 N/m 2 (0.01 in. water 
column) between the exposed and the unexposed surface of 
the test assembly. 

8.3.5.1.1 The requirements of 8.3.5.1 shall not apply where 
otherwise permitted by any one of the following: 

(1) Where penetrations are tested and installed as part of an 
assembly tested and rated in accordance with NFPA 251, 
Standard Methods of Tests of Fire Endurance of Building Con- 
struction and Materials 

(2) Where penetrations through floors are enclosed in a shaft 
enclosure designed as a fire barrier 

(3) Where concrete, grout, or mortar has been used to fill the 
annular spaces around cast-iron, copper, or steel piping 
that penetrates one or more concrete or masonry fire 
resistance-rated assemblies and both of the following cri- 
teria are also met: 

(a) The nominal diameter of each penetrating item shall 
not exceed 150 mm (6 in.), and the opening size shall 
not exceed 0.09 m 2 (1ft 2 ). 

(b) The thickness of the concrete, grout, or mortar shall 
be the full thickness of the assembly 

(4) Where firestopping materials are used with the penetrat- 
ing items in 8.3.5.1.1(1) through 8.3.5.1.1(3) and both of 
the following criteria are also met: 

(a) The penetration shall be limited to only one floor. 

(b) The firestopping material shall be capable of prevent- 
ing the passage of flame and hot gases sufficient to 
ignite cotton waste when subjected to the time- 
temperature fire conditions of NFPA 251 under a 
minimum positive pressure differential of 2.5 N/m 2 
(0.01 in. water column) at the location of the penetra- 
tion for the time period equivalent to the required fire 
resistance rating of the assembly penetrated. 

8.3.5.1.2 The maximum nominal diameter of the following 
penetrating items shall be not greater than 100 mm (4 in.), 
and the aggregate area of all penetrating items shall not ex- 
ceed 64,520 mm 2 (100 in. 2 ) in any 9.3 m 2 (100 ft 2 ) of floor or 
wall area: 

(1) Steel, ferrous, or copper cables 

(2) Cable or wire with steel jackets 

(3) Cast-iron, steel, or copper pipes 

(4) Steel conduit or tubing 



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8.3.5.1.3 Firestop systems and devices shall have an F rating 
of at least 1 hour, but not less than the required fire-resistive 
rating of the fire barrier penetrated. 

8.3.5.1.4 Penetrations in fire-rated horizontal assemblies 
shall be required to have a T rating of at least 1 hour, but not 
less than the rating of the horizontal assembly, and shall not 
be required for the following: 

(1) Floor penetrations contained within the cavity of a wall 
assembly 

(2) Penetrations through floors or floor assemblies where the 
penetration is not in direct contact with combustible 
material 

8.3.5.2 Sleeves. Where the penetrating item uses a sleeve to 
penetrate the wall or floor, the sleeve shall be securely set in 
the wall or floor, and the space between the item and the 
sleeve shall be filled with a material that complies with 8.3.5.1. 

8.3.5.3 Insulation and Coverings. Insulation and coverings 
for penetrating items shall not pass through the wall or floor 
unless the insulation or covering has been tested as part of the 
firestop system or device. 

8.3.5.4 Transeiissiom of Vibrations. Where designs take trans- 
mission of vibrations into consideration, any vibration isola- 
tion shall meet one of the following conditions: 

(1) It shall be provided on either side of the wall or floor. 

(2) It shall be designed for the specific purpose. 

8.3.5.5 Transitions. 

8.3.5.5.1 Where piping penetrates a fire resistance-rated wall 
or floor assembly, combustible piping shall not connect to 
noncombustible piping within 915 mm (36 in.) of the firestop 
system or device without demonstration that the transition will 
not reduce the fire resistance rating, except in the case of 
previously approved installations. 

8.3.5.5.2 Unshielded couplings shall not be used to connect 
noncombustible piping to combustible piping unless it can be 
demonstrated that the transition complies with the fire- 
resistive requirements of 8.3.5.5. 

8.3.5.6 Meeibrane Penetrations. 

8.3.5.6.1 Membrane penetrations for cables, cable trays, con- 
duits, pipes, tubes, combustion vents and exhaust vents, wires, 
and similar items to accommodate electrical, mechanical, 
plumbing, and communications systems that pass through a 
membrane of a wall, floor, or floor/ ceiling assembly con- 
structed as a fire barrier shall be protected by a firestop system 
or device and shall comply with 8.3.5.1 through 8.3.5.5.2. 

8.3.5.6.2 The firestop system or device shall be tested in ac- 
cordance with ASTM E-814 or ANSI/UL 1479 at a minimum 
positive pressure differential of 2.5 N/m 2 (0.01 in. water col- 
umn) between the exposed and the unexposed surface of the 
test assembly, unless one of the following is met: 

(1) Membrane penetrations of ceilings that are not an inte- 
gral part of a fire resistance-rated floor/ ceiling or roof/ 
ceiling assembly shall be permitted. 

(2) Membrane penetrations of steel, ferrous, or copper con- 
duits, pipes, tubes, or combustion vents or exhaust vents 
shall be permitted where the annular space is protected 
with an approved material, and the aggregate area of the 
openings does not exceed 0.06 m 2 (0.7 ft ) in any 9.3 m 2 
(100 ft 2 ) of ceiling area. 



(3) Electrical outlet boxes and fittings shall be permitted, 
provided that such devices are listed for use in fire 
resistance-rated assemblies and are installed in accor- 
dance with their listing. 

(4) The annular space created by the membrane penetration 
of a fire sprinkler shall be permitted, provided that the 
space is covered by a metal escutcheon plate. 

8.3.5.6.3 Where walls or partitions are required to have a fire 
resistance rating of not less than 1 hour, recessed fixtures shall 
be installed in the wall or partition in such a manner that the 
required fire resistance is not reduced, unless one of the fol- 
lowing is met: 

(1) Any steel electrical box not exceeding 0.01 m 2 (0.1 ft 2 ) 
shall be permitted where the aggregate area of the open- 
ings provided for the boxes does not exceed 0.06 m 2 
(0.7 ft 2 ) in any 9.3 m 2 (100 ft 2 ) of wall area, and, where 
outlet boxes are installed on opposite sides of the wall, the 
boxes shall be separated by one of the following: 

(a) Horizontal distance of not less than 610 mm (24 in.) 

(b) Horizontal distance of not less than the depth of the 
wall cavity, where the wall cavity is filled with cellulose 
loose-fill, rock wool, or slag wool insulation 

(c) *Solid fireblocking 

(d) Other listed materials and methods 

(2) Membrane penetrations for any listed electrical outlet 
box made of any material shall be permitted, provided 
that such boxes have been tested for use in fire resistance- 
rated assemblies and are installed in accordance with the 
instructions included in the listing. 

(3) The annular space created by the membrane penetration 
of a fire sprinkler shall be permitted, provided that the 
space is covered by a metal escutcheon plate. 

8.3.5.7 Openings for Air-Handling Ductwork. Openings in 
fire barriers for air-handling ductwork or air movement shall 
be protected in accordance with 9.2.1. 

8.4 Smoke Partitions. 

8.4.1* General. Where required elsewhere in this Code, smoke 
partitions shall be provided to limit the transfer of smoke. 

8.4.2 Continuity. The following shall apply to smoke partitions: 

(1) They shall extend from the floor to the underside of the 
floor or roof deck above, through any concealed spaces, 
such as those above suspended ceilings, and through in- 
terstitial structural and mechanical spaces. 

(2)*They shall be permitted to extend from the floor to the 
underside of a monolithic or suspended ceiling system 
where the following conditions are met: 

(a) The ceiling system forms a continuous membrane. 

(b) A smoke-tight joint is provided between the top of the 
smoke partition and the bottom of the suspended 
ceiling. 

(c) The space above the ceiling is not used as a plenum. 
(3) Smoke partitions enclosing hazardous areas shall be per- 
mitted to terminate at the underside of a monolithic or 
suspended ceiling system where the following conditions 
are met: 

(a) The ceiling system forms a continuous membrane. 

(b) A smoke-tightjoint is provided between the top of the 
smoke partition and the bottom of the suspended 
ceiling. 

(c) Where the space above the ceiling is used as a ple- 
num, return grilles from the hazardous area into the 
plenums are not permitted. 



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8.4.3 Opening Protectives. 

8.4.3.1 Doors in smoke partitions shall comply with 8.4.3.2 
through 8.4.3.5. 

8.4.3.2 Doors shall comply with the provisions of 7.2.1. 

8.4.3.3 Doors shall not include louvers. 

8.4.3.4* Door clearances shall be in accordance with NFPA80, 
Standard for Fire Doors and Fire Windows. 

8.4.3.5 Doors shall be self-closing or automatic-closing in ac- 
cordance with 7.2.1.8. 

8.4.4 Penetrations. The provisions of 8.4.4 shall govern the ma- 
terials and methods of construction used to protect through- 
penetrations and membrane penetrations of smoke partitions. 

8.4.4.1 Penetrations for cables, cable trays, conduits, pipes, 
tubes, vents, wires, and similar items to accommodate electri- 
cal, mechanical, plumbing, and communications systems that 
pass through a smoke partition shall be protected by a system 
or material that is capable of limiting the transfer of smoke. 

8.4.4.2 Where designs take transmission of vibrations into 
consideration, any vibration isolation shall meet one of the 
following conditions: 

(1) It shall be provided on either side of the smoke partition. 

(2) It shall be designed for the specific purpose. 

8.4.5 Joints. 

8.4.5.1 The provisions of 8.4.5 shall govern the materials and 
methods of construction used to protect joints in between and 
at the perimeter of smoke partitions or, where smoke parti- 
tions meet other smoke partitions, the floor or roof deck 
above, or the outside walls. The provisions of 8.4.5 shall not 
apply to approved existing materials and methods of construc- 
tion used to protect existing joints in smoke partitions, unless 
otherwise required by Chapter 12 through Chapter 42. 

8.4.5.2 Joints made within or at the perimeter of smoke par- 
titions shall be protected with a joint system that is capable of 
limiting the transfer of smoke. 

8.4.6 Air-Transfer Openings. 

8.4.6.1 General. The provisions of 8.4.6 shall govern the ma- 
terials and methods of construction used to protect air- 
transfer openings in smoke partitions. 

8.4.6.2* Smoke Dampers. Air-transfer openings in smoke par- 
titions shall be provided with approved smoke dampers de- 
signed and tested in accordance with the requirements of 
UL 555S, Standard for Smoke Dampers, to limit the transfer of 
smoke. 

8.4.6.3 Smoke Damper Ratings. Smoke damper leakage rat- 
ings shall be not less than Class II. Elevated temperature ratings 
shall be not less than 140°C (250°F). 

8.4.6.4 Smoke Detectors. Dampers in air-transfer openings 
shall close upon detection of smoke by approved smoke detec- 
tors installed in accordance with NFPA 72r, National Fire Alarm 
Code®. 

8.5 Smoke Barriers. 

8.5.1* General. Where required by Chapter 12 through Chap- 
ter 42, smoke barriers shall be provided to subdivide building 
spaces for the purpose of restricting the movement of smoke. 



8.5.2* Continuity. 

8.5.2.1 Smoke barriers required by this Code shall be continu- 
ous from an outside wall to an outside wall, from a floor to a 
floor, or from a smoke barrier to a smoke barrier, or a combi- 
nation thereof. 

8.5.2.2 Smoke barriers shall be continuous through all con- 
cealed spaces, such as those found above a ceiling, including 
interstitial spaces. 

8.5.2.3 A smoke barrier required for an occupied space be- 
low an interstitial space shall not be required to extend 
through the interstitial space, provided that the construction 
assembly forming the bottom of the interstitial space provides 
resistance to the passage of smoke equal to that provided by 
the smoke barrier. 

8.5.3 Fire Barrier Used as Smoke Barrier. Afire barrier shall 
be permitted to be used as a smoke barrier, provided that it 
meets the requirements of 8.5.3 through 8.5.6. 

8.5.3.1* Doors in smoke barriers shall close the opening leav- 
ing only the minimum clearance necessary for proper opera- 
tion and shall be without undercuts, louvers, or grilles. 

8.5.3.2 Where required by Chapter 12 through Chapter 42, 
doors in smoke barriers shall comply with the requirements of 
8.2.2.4. 

8.5.3.3 Latching hardware shall not be required on doors in 
smoke barriers where permitted by Chapter 12 through Chap- 
ter 42. 

8.5.3.4* Doors in smoke barriers shall be self-closing or 
automatic-closing in accordance with 7.2.1.8 and shall comply 
with the provisions of 7.2.1. 

8.5.3.5 Fire window assemblies shall comply with 8.3.3. 

8.5.4 Ducts and Air-Transfer Openings. 

8.5.4.1 General. The provisions of 8.5.4 shall govern the ma- 
terials and methods of construction used to protect ducts and 
air-transfer openings in smoke barriers. 

8.5.4.2 Smoke Dampers. Where a smoke barrier is penetrated 
by a duct or air-transfer opening, a smoke damper designed 
and tested in accordance with the requirements of UL 555S 
shall be installed. Where a smoke barrier is also constructed as 
a fire barrier, a combination fire/smoke damper designed 
and tested in accordance with the requirements of UL 555, 
Standard for Fire Dampers, and UL 555S shall be installed. 

8.5.4.3 Smoke Damper Exemptions. Smoke dampers shall 
not be required under any of the following conditions: 

(1) Where specifically exempted by provisions in Chapter 12 
through Chapter 42 

(2) Where ducts or air-transfer openings are part of an engi- 
neered smoke control system 

(3) Where the air in ducts continues to move and the air- 
handling system installed is arranged to prevent recir- 
culation of exhaust or return air under Fire emergency 
conditions 

(4) Where the air inlet or outlet openings in ducts are limited 
to a single smoke compartment 

(5) Where ducts penetrate floors that serve as smoke barriers 

8.5.4.4 Installation. 

8.5.4.4.1 Air-conditioning, heating, ventilating ductwork, and 
related equipment, including smoke dampers and combination 



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101-75 



fire and smoke dampers, shall be installed in accordance with 
NFPA90A, Standard for the Installation of Air-Conditioning and Venti- 
lating Systems. 

8.5.4.4.2 The equipment specified in 8.5.4.4.1 shall be installed 
in accordance with the requirements of 8.5.4.4, the manufactur- 
er's installation instructions, and the equipment listing. 

8.5.4.5 Access and Identification. Access to the dampers shall 
be provided for inspection, testing, and maintenance. The ac- 
cess openings shall not reduce the fire resistance rating of the 
fire barrier assembly. 

8.5.4.6 Stnolke Damper Ratings. Smoke damper leakage rat- 
ings shall be not less than Class II. Elevated temperature ratings 
shall be not less than 140°C (250°F) . 

8.5.4.7 Srnioke Detectors. 

8.5.4.7. 1 Required smoke dampers in ducts penetrating smoke 
barriers shall close upon detection of smoke by approved smoke 
detectors in accordance with NFPA 72®, National Fire Alarm Code' 1 ', 
unless one of the following conditions exists: 

(1) The ducts penetrate smoke barriers above the smoke bar- 
rier doors and the door release detector actuates the 
damper. 

(2) Approved smoke detector installations are located within 
the ducts in existing installations. 

8.5.4.7.2 Where a duct is provided on one side of the smoke 
barrier, the smoke detectors on the duct side shall be in accor- 
dance with 8.5.4.7.1. 

8.5.4.7.3 Required smoke dampers in air-transfer openings 
shall close upon detection of smoke by approved smoke detec- 
tors in accordance with NFPA 72®, National Fire Alarm Code®. 

8.5.5 Penetrations. 

8.5.5.1 The provisions of 8.5.5 shall govern the materials and 
methods of construction used to protect through-penetrations 
and membrane penetrations of smoke barriers. 

8.5.5.2 Penetrations for cables, cable trays, conduits, pipes, 
tubes, vents, wires, and similar items to accommodate electrical, 
mechanical, plumbing, and communications systems that pass 
through a wall, floor, or floor/ ceiling assembly constructed as a 
smoke barrier, or through the ceiling membrane of the roof/ 
ceiling of a smoke barrier assembly, shall be protected by a system 
or material capable of restricting the transfer of smoke. 

8.5.5.3 Where a smoke barrier is also constructed as a fire 
barrier, the penetrations shall be protected in accordance 
with the requirements of 8.3.5 to limit the spread of fire for a 
time period equal to the fire resistance rating of the assembly 
and 8.5.5 to restrict the transfer of smoke, unless the require- 
ments of 8.5.5.4 are met. 

8.5.5.4 Where sprinklers penetrate a single membrane of a 
fire resistance-rated assembly in buildings equipped through- 
out with an approved automatic fire sprinkler system, non- 
combustible escutcheon plates shall be permitted, provided 
that the space around each sprinkler penetration does not 
exceed 13 mm (Vfc in.), measured between the edge of the 
membrane and the sprinkler. 

8.5.5.5 Where the penetrating item uses a sleeve to penetrate 
the smoke barrier, the sleeve shall be securely set in the smoke 
barrier, and the space between the item and the sleeve shall be 
filled with a material capable of restricting the transfer of smoke. 



8.5.5.6 Where designs take transmission of vibrations into 
consideration, any vibration isolation shall meet one of the 
following conditions: 

( 1 ) It shall be provided on either side of the fire barrier. 

(2) It shall be designed for the specific purpose. 

8.5.6 Joints. 

8.5.6.1 The provisions of 8.5.6 shall govern the materials and 
methods of construction used to protectjoints in between and 
at the perimeter of smoke barriers or. where smoke barriers 
meet other smoke barriers, the floor or roof deck above, or 
the outside walls. The provisions of 8.5.6 shall not apply to 
approved existing materials and methods of construction used 
to protect existing joints in smoke barriers, unless otherwise 
required by Chapter 12 through Chapter 42. 

8.5.6.2 Joints made within or at the perimeter of smoke bar- 
riers shall be protected with a joint system that is capable of 
limiting the transfer of smoke. 

8.5.6.3 Joints made within or between smoke barriers shall be 
protected with a smoke-tight joint system that is capable of 
limiting the transfer of smoke. 

8.5.6.4 Smoke barriers that are also constructed as fire barri- 
ers shall be protected with a joint system that is designed and 
tested to resist the spread of fire for a time period equal to the 
required fire resistance rating of the assembly and restrict the 
transfer of smoke. 

8.5.6.5 Testing of the joint system in a smoke barrier that also 
serves as fire barrier shall be representative of the actual instal- 
lation suitable for the required engineering demand without 
compromising the fire resistance rating of the assembly or the 
structural integrity of the assembly. 

8.6 Vertical Openings. 

8.6.1 Floor Smoke Barriers. Every floor that separates stories 
in a building shall meet one of the following criteria: 

(1) It shall be constructed as a smoke barrier to form a basic 
degree of compartmentation. (See 3.3.23.2.) 

(2) It shall have openings as permitted by 8.6.6, 8.6.7, 8.6.8, or 
Chapter 11 through Chapter 42. 

8.6.2* Continuity. Openings through floors shall be enclosed 
with fire barrier walls, shall be continuous from floor to floor, 
or floor to roof, and shall be protected as appropriate for the 
fire resistance rating of the barrier. 

8.6.3 Continuity Exemptions. The requirements of 8.6.2 shall 
not apply where otherwise permitted by the following: 

(1) Where pneumatic tube conveyors are protected in accor- 
dance with 8.3.5.1 

(2) Where specified by 8.6.6, 8.6.7, 8.6.8.1, 8.6.8.2, or Chapter 
11 through Chapter 42 

(3) Where escalators and moving walks are protected in ac- 
cordance with 8.6.8.5 or 8.6.8.6 

(4) Where expansion or seismic joints designed to prevent 
the penetration of fire and shown to have a fire resistance 
rating of not less than that required for the floor when 
tested in accordance with ANSI/UL 2079, Test of Fire Resis- 
tance of Building Joint Systems 

(5) Where existing mail chutes meet one of the following cri- 
teria: 

(a) The cross-sectional area does not exceed 0.01 m 2 
(0.1 ft 2 ). 

(b) The building is protected throughout by an approved 
automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Sec- 
tion 9.7. 



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8.6.4 Shafts. Shafts that do not extend to the bottom or the 
top of the building or structure shall comply with either 
8.6.4.1 or 8.6.4.2. 

8.6.4.1 Shafts shall be enclosed at the lowest or highest level of 
the shaft, respectively, with construction in accordance with 8.6.5. 

8.6.4.2 Shafts shall be permitted to terminate in a room or 
space having a use related to the purpose of the shaft, pro- 
vided that the room or space is separated from the remainder 
of the building by construction having a fire resistance rating 
and opening protectives in accordance with 8.6.5 and 8.3.4. 

8.6.4.3 Shafts that do not extend to the bottom or top of the 
building or structure shall be permitted to be protected by 
approved fire dampers installed in accordance with their list- 
ing at the lowest or highest floor level, as applicable, within the 
shaft enclosure. 

8.6.5* Required Fire Resistance Rating. The fire resistance rat- 
ing for the enclosure of floor openings shall be not less than as 
follows (see 7.1.3.2.1 for enclosure of exits): 

(1) Enclosures connecting four stories or more in new con- 
struction — 2-hour fire barriers 

(2) Other enclosures in new construction — 1-hour fire barriers 

(3) Existing enclosures in existing buildings — V4-hour fire 
barriers 

(4) Enclosures for lodging and rooming houses — as speci- 
fied in Chapter 26 

(5) Enclosures for new hotels — as specified in Chapter 28 

(6) Enclosures for new apartment buildings — as specified in 
Chapter 30 

8.6.6 Connniunicating Space. Unless prohibited by Chapter 12 
through Chapter 42, unenclosed floor openings forming a 
communicating space between floor levels shall be permitted, 
provided that the following conditions are met: 

(1) The communicating space does not connect more than 
three contiguous stories. 

(2) The lowest or next-to-lowest story within the communicat- 
ing space is a street floor. 

(3) The entire floor area of the communicating space is open 
and unobstructed, such that a fire in any part of the space 
will be readily obvious to the occupants of the space prior 
to the time it becomes an occupant hazard. 

(4) The communicating space is separated from the remainder 
of the building by fire barriers with not less than a 1-hour fire 
resistance rating, unless one of the following is met: 

(a) In buildings protected throughout by an approved au- 
tomatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 9.7, 
a smoke barrier in accordance with Section 8.5 shall be 
permitted to serve as the separation required by 
8.6.6(4). 

(b) The requirement of 8.6.6(4) shall not apply to fully 
sprinklered residential housing units of detention 
and correctional occupancies in accordance with 
22.3.1(2) and 23.3.1.1(2) 

(5) The communicating space has ordinary hazard contents 
protected throughout by an approved automatic sprin- 
kler system in accordance with Section 9.7 or has only low 
hazard contents. (See 6.2.2.) 

(6) Egress capacity is sufficient to allow all the occupants of all 
levels within the communicating space to simultaneously 
egress the communicating space by considering it as single 
floor area in determining the required egress capacity. 



(7)*Each occupant within the communicating space has ac- 
cess to not less than one exit without having to traverse 
another story within the communicating space. 

(8) Each occupant not in the communicating space has ac- 
cess to not less than one exit without having to enter the 
communicating space. 

8.6.7* Atriums. Unless prohibited by Chapter 12 through 
Chapter 42, an atrium shall be permitted, provided that the 
following conditions are met: 

(1) The atrium is separated from the adjacent spaces by fire 
barriers with not less than a 1-hour fire resistance rating 
with opening protectives for corridor walls, unless one of 
the following is met: 

(a) The requirement of 8.6.7(1) shall not apply to exist- 
ing, previously approved atriums. 

(b) Any number of levels of the building shall be permit- 
ted to open directly to the atrium without enclosure 
based on the results of the engineering analysis re- 
quired in 8.6.7(5). 

(c)*Glass walls and inoperable windows shall be permit- 
ted in lieu of the fire barriers where all the following 
are met: 

i. Automatic sprinklers are spaced along both 
sides of the glass wall and the inoperable win- 
dow at intervals not to exceed 1830 mm (72 in.) . 

ii. The automatic sprinklers specified in 8.6.7(1) (c)i 
are located at a distance from the glass wall not to 
exceed 305 mm (12 in.) and arranged so that the 
entire surface of the glass is wet upon operation of 
the sprinklers. 

iii. The glass wall is of tempered, wired, or lami- 
nated glass held in place by a gasket system that 
allows the glass framing system to deflect with- 
out breaking (loading) the glass before the 
sprinklers operate. 

iv. The automatic sprinklers required by 8.6.7 ( 1 ) (c) i 
are not required on the atrium side of the glass 
wall and the inoperable windows where there is no 
walkway or other floor area on the atrium side 
above the main floor level. 
v. Doors in the glass walls shall be glass or other 
material that resists the passage of smoke. 

vi. Doors in the glass walls shall be self-closing or 
automatic-closing upon detection of smoke. 

(2) Access to exits is permitted to be within the atrium, and 
exit discharge in accordance with 7.7.2 is permitted to be 
within the atrium. 

(3) The occupancy within the atrium meets the specifications 
for classification as low or ordinary hazard contents. (See 
6.2.2.) 

(4) The entire building is protected throughout by an ap- 
proved, supervised automatic sprinkler system in accor- 
dance with Section 9.7. 

(5)*For other than existing, previously approved atriums, an 
engineering analysis is performed that demonstrates that 
the building is designed to keep the smoke layer interface 
above the highest unprotected opening to adjoining 
spaces, or 1830 mm (72 in.) above the highest floor level 
of exit access open to the atrium, for a period equal to 1.5 
times the calculated egress time or 20 minutes, whichever 
is greater. 



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(6)*In other than existing, previously approved atriums, 
where an engineered smoke control system is installed to 
meet the requirements of 8.6.7(5), the system is indepen- 
dently activated by each of the following: 

(a) The required automatic sprinkler system 

(b) Manual controls that are readily accessible to the fire 
department 

8.6.8 Convenience Openings. 

8.6.8.1 A vertical opening serving as other than an exit enclo- 
sure, connecting only two adjacent stories, and piercing only one 
floor shall be permitted to be open to one of the two stories. 

8.6.8.2 Where permitted by Chapter 12 through Chapter 42, 
unenclosed vertical openings not concealed within the build- 
ing construction shall be permitted as follows: 

(1) Such openings shall connect not more than two adjacent 
stories (one floor pierced only) . 

(2) Such openings shall be separated from unprotected verti- 
cal openings serving other floors by a barrier complying 
with 8.6.5. 

(3) Such openings shall be separated from corridors. 

(4) *Such openings shall not serve as a required means of egress. 

8.6.8.3 For other than existing hoistways in existing build- 
ings, elevator cars located within a building shall be enclosed 
as follows: 

( 1 ) Where there are three or fewer elevator cars in a building, 
they shall be permitted to be located within the same 
hoistway enclosure. 

(2) Where there are four elevator cars in the building, they 
shall be divided in such a manner that not less than two 
separate hoistway enclosures are provided. 

(3) Where there are more than four elevator cars in the build- 
ing, the number of elevator cars located within a single 
hoistway enclosure shall not exceed four. 

8.6.8.4 Service openings for conveyors, elevators, and dumb- 
waiters, where required to be open on more than one story at 
the same time for purposes of operation, shall be provided 
with closing devices in accordance with 7.2.1.8. 

8.6.8.5 Any escalators and moving walks serving as a required 
exit in existing buildings shall be enclosed in the same man- 
ner as exit stairways. (See 7.1.3.2.) 

8.6.8.6 Any escalators and moving walks not constituting an 
exit shall have their floor openings enclosed or protected as 
required for other vertical openings, unless otherwise permit- 
ted by the following: 

(1) The requirement of 8.6.8.6 shall not apply to escalators in 
large open areas, such as atriums and enclosed shopping 
malls. 

(2)*In buildings protected throughout by an approved auto- 
matic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 9.7, es- 
calator and moving walk openings shall be permitted to 
be protected in accordance with the method detailed in 
NFPA13, Standard for the Installation of Sprinkler Systems, or 
in accordance with a method approved by the authority 
having jurisdiction. 

(3) In buildings protected throughout by an approved auto- 
matic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 9.7, es- 
calator and moving walk openings shall be permitted to 
be protected by rolling steel shutters appropriate for the 
fire resistance rating of the vertical opening as follows: 



(a) The shutters shall close automatically and indepen- 
dently of each other upon smoke detection and sprin- 
kler operation. 

(b) A manual means of operating and testing the opera- 
tion of the shutter shall be provided. 

(c) The shutters shall be operated not less than once a 
week to ensure that they remain in proper operating 
condition. 

(d) The shutters shall operate at a speed not to exceed 
0.15 m/s (30 ft/min) and shall be equipped with a 
sensitive leading edge. 

(e) The leading edge shall arrest the progress of a mov- 
ing shutter and cause it to retract a distance of ap- 
proximately 150 mm (6 in.) upon the application of a 
force not exceeding 90 N (20 Ibf) applied to the sur- 
face of the leading edge. 

(f) The shutter, following the retraction specified in 
8.6.8.6(3) (e), shall continue to close. 

(g) The operating mechanism for the rolling shutter 
shall be provided with standby power complying with 
the provisions of NFPA 70, National Electrical Code®. 

8.6.9 Mezzanines. 

8.6.9.1 General. 

8.6.9.1.1 Amezzanine shall not be included as a story for the 
purpose of determining the allowable number of stories in a 
building. 

8.6.9.1.2 Multilevel residential housing areas in detention 
and correctional occupancies in accordance with Chapter 22 
and Chapter 23 shall be exempt from the provisions of 8.6.9.2 
and 8.6.9.3. 

8.6.9.2 Area Limitations. 

8.6.9.2.1 The aggregate area of mezzanines located within a 
room, other than those located in special purpose industrial 
occupancies, shall not exceed one-third the open area of the 
room in which the mezzanines are located. Enclosed space 
shall not be included in a determination of the size of the 
room in which the mezzanine is located. 

8.6.9.2.2 No limit on the number of mezzanines in a room 
shall be required. 

8.6.9.2.3 For purposes of determining the allowable mezza- 
nine area, the aggregate area of the mezzanines shall not be 
included in the area of the room. 

8.6.9.3 Openness. Mezzanines shall be in accordance with 
8.6.9.3.1 or 8.6.9.3.2. 

8.6.9.3.1 All portions of a mezzanine, other than walls not 
more than 1065 mm (42 in.) high, columns, and posts, shall 
be open to and unobstructed from the room in which the 
mezzanine is located, unless the occupant load of the aggre- 
gate area of the enclosed space does not exceed 10. 

8.6.9.3.2 Amezzanine having two or more means of egress shall 
not be required to open into the room in which it is located if not 
less than one of the means of egress provides direct access from 
the enclosed area to an exit at the mezzanine level. 

8.6.10 Concealed Spaces and Draft Stops. 

8.6.10.1 Any concealed combustible space in which building 
materials having a flame spread index greater than Class A are 
exposed shall be draftstopped as follows: 

(1) Every exterior and interior wall and partition shall be 
firestopped at each floor level, at the top story ceiling 
level, and at the level of support for roofs. 



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(2) Every unoccupied attic space shall be subdivided by draft- 

(3) 



stops into areas not to exceed 280 m 2 (3000 ft 2 



Any concealed space between the ceiling and the floor or 
roof above shall be draftstopped for the full depth of the 
space along the line of support for the floor or roof struc- 
tural members and, if necessary, at other locations to form 
areas not to exceed 93 m 2 (1000 ft 2 ) for any space be- 
tween the ceiling and floor, and 280 m 2 (3000 ft 2 ) for any 
space between the ceiling and roof. 

8.6.10.2 The requirements of 8.6.10.1 shall not apply where 
any of the following conditions are met: 

(1) Where the space is protected throughout by an approved 
automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 9.7 

(2) Where concealed spaces serve as plenums (see NFPA 90A, 
Standard for the Installation of Air-Conditioning and Ventilat- 
ing Systems) 

(3) Where the installation is an existing installation 

8.6.10.3 Draftstopping materials shall be not less than 13-mm 
(Vl-in.) thick gypsum board, 12-mm ( J %2-in.) thick plywood, 
or other approved materials that are adequately supported. 

8.6.10.4 The integrity of all draftstops shall be maintained. 

8.6.10.5 In existing buildings, firestopping and draftstopping 
shall be provided as required by Chapter 12 through Chapter 42. 

8.7 Special Hazard Protection. 

8.7.1 General. 

8.7.1.1* Protection from any area having a degree of hazard 
greater than that normal to the general occupancy of the 
building or structure shall be provided by one of the following 
means: 

(1) Enclosing the area with a fire barrier without windows 
that has a 1-hour fire resistance rating in accordance with 
Section 8.3 

(2) Protecting the area with automatic extinguishing systems 
in accordance with Section 9.7 

(3) Applying both 8.7.1.1(1) and 8.7.1.1 (2) where the hazard 
is severe or where otherwise specified by Chapter 12 
through Chapter 42 

8.7.1.2 In new construction, where protection is provided 
with automatic extinguishing systems without fire-resistive 
separation, the space protected shall be enclosed with smoke 
partitions in accordance with Section 8.4, unless otherwise 
permitted by one of the following conditions: 

(1) Where mercantile occupancy general storage areas and 
stockrooms are protected by automatic sprinklers in ac- 
cordance with Section 9.7 

(2) Where hazardous areas in industrial occupancies are pro- 
tected by automatic extinguishing systems in accordance 
with 40.3.2 

8.7.1.3 Doors in barriers required to have a fire resistance 
rating shall have a %-hour fire protection rating and shall be 
self-closing or automatic-closing in accordance with 7.2.1.8. 

8.7.2* Explosion Protection. Where hazardous processes or 
storage is of such a character as to introduce an explosion 
potential, an explosion venting system or an explosion sup- 
pression system specifically designed for the hazard involved 
shall be provided. 



8.7.3 FlaenniabJe Liquids and Gases. 

8.7.3.1 The storage and handling of flammable liquids or 
gases shall be in accordance with the following applicable 
standards: 

(1) NFPA 30, Flammable and Combustible Liquids Code 

(2) NFPA 54, National Fuel Gas Code 

(3) NFPA 58, Liquefied Petroleum Gas Code 

8.7.3.2* No storage or handling of flammable liquids or gases 
shall be permitted in any location where such storage would 
jeopardize egress from the structure, unless otherwise permit- 
ted by 8.7.3.1. 

8.7.4 Laboratories. 

8.7.4.1 Laboratories that use chemicals shall comply with 
NFPA 45, Standard on Fire Protection for Laboratories Using Chemi- 
cals, unless otherwise modified by other provisions of this Code. 

8.7.4.2 Laboratories in health care occupancies and medical 
and dental offices shall comply with NFPA 99, Standard for 
Health Care Facilities. 

8.7.5* Hyperbaric Facilities. All occupancies containing hy- 
perbaric facilities shall comply with NFPA 99, Standard for 
Health Care Facilities, Chapter 19, unless otherwise modified by 
other provisions of this Code. 



Chapter 9 Building Service and Fire 
Protection Equipment 

9.1 Utilities. 

9.1.1 Gas. Equipment using gas and related gas piping shall 
be in accordance with NFPA 54, National Fuel Gas Code, or 
NFPA 58, Liquefied Petroleum Gas Code, unless such installations 
are approved existing installations, which shall be permitted 
to be continued in service. 

9.1.2 Electrical Systems. Electrical wiring and equipment 
shall be in accordance with NFPA 70, National Electrical Code®, 
unless such installations are approved existing installations, 
which shall be permitted to be continued in service. 

9.1.3 Emergency Generators. Emergency generators, where 
required for compliance with this Code, shall be tested and 
maintained in accordance with NFPA 110, Standard for Emer- 
gency and Standby Power Systems. 

9.1.4 Stored Electrical Energy Systems. Stored electrical en- 
ergy systems shall be maintained in accordance with NFPA 111, 
Standard on Stored Electrical Energy Emergency and Standby Power 
Systems. 

9.2 Heating, Ventilating, and Air-Conditioning. 

9.2.1 Air-Conditioning, Heating, Ventilating Ductwork, and 
Related Equipment. Air-conditioning, heating, ventilating 
ductwork, and related equipment shall be in accordance with 
NFPA 90A, Standard for the Installation of Air-Conditioning and 
Ventilating Systems, or NFPA 90B, Standard for the Installation of 
WarmAir Heating and Air-Conditioning Systems, as applicable, un- 
less such installations are approved existing installations, 
which shall be permitted to be continued in service. 

9.2.2 Ventilating or Heat-Producing Equipment. Ventilating 
or heat-producing equipment shall be in accordance with 
NFPA 91 , Standard for Exhaust Systems for Air Conveying of Vapors, 



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Gases, Mists, and Noncombustible Particulate Solids; NFPA 211, 
Standard for Chimneys, Fireplaces, Vents, and Solid Fuel-Burning 
Appliances; NFPA 31, Standard for the Installation of Oil-Burning 
Equipment, NFPA 54, National Fuel Gas Code; or NFPA 70, Na- 
tional Electrical Code®, as applicable, unless such installations 
are approved existing installations, which shall be permitted 
to be continued in service. 

9.2.3 Commercial Cooking Equipment. Commercial cooking 
equipment shall be in accordance with NFPA 96, Standard for 
Ventilation Control and Fire Protection of Commercial Cooking Opera- 
tions, unless such installation are approved existing installa- 
tions, which shall be permitted to be continued in service. 

9.2.4 Ventilating Systems in Laboratories Using Chemicals. 
Ventilating systems in laboratories using chemicals shall be in 
accordance with NFPA 45, Standard on Fire Protection for Labora- 
tories Using Chemicals, or NFPA 99, Standard for Health Care Fa- 
cilities, as appropriate. 

9.3 Smoke Control. 

9.3.1* Where required by the provisions of another section of 
this Code, smoke control systems shall be installed, inspected, 
tested, and maintained in accordance with nationally recognized 
standards, engineering guides, or recommended practices. 

9.3.2 The engineer of record shall clearly identify the intent 
of the system, the design method used, the appropriateness of 
the method used, and the required means of inspecting, test- 
ing, and maintaining the system. 

9.3.3 Acceptance testing shall be performed by a special in- 
spector in accordance with Section 9.8. 

9.3.4 Smoke Control System Operation. 

9.3.4.1 Floor- or zone-dependent smoke control systems shall 
be automatically activated by sprinkler waterflow or smoke de- 
tection systems. 

9.3.4.2 Means for manual operation of smoke control sys- 
tems shall be provided at an approved location. 

9.4 Elevators, Escalators, and Conveyors. 

9.4.1* General. An elevator, other than an elevator in accor- 
dance with 7.2.13, shall not be considered a component in a 
required means of egress but shall be permitted as a compo- 
nent in an accessible means of egress. 

9.4.2 Code Compliance. 

9.4.2.1 Except as modified herein, new elevators, escalators, 
dumbwaiters, and moving walks shall be in accordance with 
the requirements of ASME A17.1, Safety Code for Elevators and 
Escalators. 

9.4.2.2 Except as modified herein, existing elevators, escala- 
tors, dumbwaiters, and moving walks shall conform to the re- 
quirements of ASME Al 7.3, Safety Code for Existing Elevators and 
Escalators. 

9.4.3 Fire Fighters' Emergency Operations. 

9.4.3.1 All new elevators shall conform to the fire fighters' 
emergency operations requirements of ASME A17.1, Safety 
Code for Elevators and Escalators. 

9.4.3.2 All existing elevators having a travel distance of 
7620 mm (300 in.) or more above or below the level that best 
serves the needs of emergency personnel for fire fighting or 



rescue purposes shall conform to the fire fighters' emergency 
operations requirements of ASMEA17.3, Safety Code for Existing 
Elevators and Escalators. 

9.4.4 Number of Cars. The number of elevator cars permit- 
ted in a hoistway shall be in accordance with 8.6.8.3. 

9.4.5* Elevator Machine Rooms. Elevator machine rooms that 
contain solid-state equipment for elevators, other than exist- 
ing elevators, having a travel distance exceeding 15 m (50 ft) 
above the level of exit discharge or exceeding 9150 mm 
(360 in.) below the level of exit discharge shall be provided 
with independent ventilation or air-conditioning systems re- 
quired to maintain temperature during fire fighters' service 
operation for elevator operation (see 9.4.3). The operating 
temperature shall be established by the elevator equipment 
manufacturer's specifications. When standby power is con- 
nected to the elevator, the machine room ventilation or air- 
conditioning shall be connected to standby power. 

9.4.6 Elevator Testing. Elevators shall be subject to periodic 
inspections and tests as specified in ASME Al 7.1, Safety Code for 
Elevators and Escalators. All elevators equipped with fire fight- 
ers' emergency operations in accordance with 9.4.3 shall be sub- 
ject to a monthly operation with a written record of the findings 
made and kept on the premises as required by ASME Al 7.1, Safety 
Code for Elevators and Escalators. 

9.4.7 Openings. Conveyors, elevators, dumbwaiters, and 
pneumatic conveyors serving various stories of a building shall 
not open to an exit. 

9.5 Rubbish Chutes, Incinerators, and Laundry Chutes. 

9.5.1 Enclosure. 

9.5. 1 . 1 Rubbish chutes and laundry chutes shall be separately 
enclosed by walls or partitions in accordance with the provi- 
sions of Section 8.3. 

9.5.1.2 Inlet openings serving chutes shall be protected in 
accordance with Section 8.3. 

9.5.1.3 The doors of chutes specified in 9.5.1.2 shall open 
only to a room that is designed and used exclusively for access- 
ing the chute opening. 

9.5. 1 .4 The room used for accessing the chute opening shall be 
separated from other spaces in accordance with Section 8.7. 

9.5.1.5 The requirements of 9.5.1.1 through 9.5.1.4 shall not 
apply where otherwise permitted by the following: 

(1) Existing installations having properly enclosed service 
chutes and properly installed and maintained service 
openings shall be permitted to have inlets open to a cor- 
ridor or normally occupied space. 

(2) Rubbish chutes and laundry chutes shall be permitted to 
open into rooms not exceeding 37 m 2 (400 ft 2 ) that are 
used for storage, provided that the room is protected by 
automatic sprinklers. 

9.5.2 Installation and Maintenance. Rubbish chutes, laundry 
chutes, and incinerators shall be installed and maintained in 
accordance with NFPA 82, Standard on Incinerators and Waste 
and Linen Handling Systems and Equipment, unless such installa- 
tions are approved existing installations, which shall be per- 
mitted to be continued in service. 



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9.6 Fire Detection, Alarm, and Communications Systems. 
9.6.1* General. 

9.6.1.1 The provisions of Section 9.6 shall apply only where 
specifically required by another section of this Code. 

9.6.1.2 Fire detection, alarm, and communications systems 
installed to make use of an alternative permitted by this Code 
shall be considered required systems and shall meet the provi- 
sions of this Code applicable to required systems. 

9.6.1.3 Afire alarm system required for life safety shall be in- 
stalled, tested, and maintained in accordance with the applicable 
requirements of NFPA70, National Electrical Code®, and NFPA 72®, 
National Fire Alarm Code®, unless it is an approved existing instal- 
lation, which shall be permitted to be continued in use. 

9.6.1.4 All systems and components shall be approved for the 
purpose for which they are installed. 

9.6.1.5 Fire alarm system installation wiring or other trans- 
mission paths shall be monitored for integrity in accordance 
with 9.6.1.3. 

9.6.1.6* To ensure operational integrity, the fire alarm system 
shall have an approved maintenance and testing program 
complying with the applicable requirements of NFPA 70, Na- 
tional Electrical Code®, and NFPA 7.2r, National Fire Alarm Code®. 

9.6.1.7* Where a required fire alarm system is out of service 
for more than 4 hours in a 24-hour period, the authority hav- 
ing jurisdiction shall be notified, and the building shall be 
evacuated or an approved fire watch shall be provided for all 
parties left unprotected by the shutdown until the fire alarm 
system has been returned to service. 

9.6.1.8 For the purposes of this Code, a complete fire alarm 
system shall provide functions for initiation, notification, and 
control, which shall perform as follows: 

(1) The initiation function provides the input signal to the 
system. 

(2) The notification function is the means by which the sys- 
tem advises that human action is required in response to a 
particular condition. 

(3) The control function provides outputs to control building 
equipment to enhance protection of life. 

9.6. 1 .9 All required documentation regarding the design of fire 
detection, alarm, and communications systems and the proce- 
dures for maintenance, inspection, and testing of fire detection, 
alarm, and communications systems shall be maintained at an 
approved, secured location for the life of the system. 

9.6.1.10 Testing and maintenance records required by 
NFPA 72®, National Fire Alarm Code®, shall be maintained at an 
approved, secured location. 

9.6.2 Signal Initiation. 

9.6.2.1 Where required by other sections of this Code, actua- 
tion of the complete fire alarm system shall be initiated by, but 
shall not be limited to, any or all of the following means: 

(1) Manual fire alarm initiation 

(2) Automatic detection 

(3) Extinguishing system operation 

9.6.2.2 Manual fire alarm boxes shall be approved for the 
particular application and shall be used only for fire- 
protective signaling purposes. Combination fire alarm and 
guard's tour stations shall be acceptable. 



9.6.2.3 Amanual fire alarm box shall be provided in the natu- 
ral exit access path near each required exit from an area, un- 
less modified by another section of this Code. 

9.6.2.4* Additional manual fire alarm boxes shall be located 
so that, on any given floor in any part of the building, no 
horizontal distance on that floor exceeding 60 m (200 ft) shall 
need to be traversed to reach a manual fire alarm box. 

9.6.2.5 For fire alarm systems using automatic fire detection 
or waterflow detection devices, not less than one manual fire 
alarm box shall be provided to initiate a fire alarm signal. The 
manual fire alarm box shall be located where required by the 
authority having jurisdiction. 

9.6.2.6* Each manual fire alarm box on a system shall be ac- 
cessible, unobstructed, and visible. 

9.6.2.7 Where a sprinkler system provides automatic detec- 
tion and alarm system initiation, it shall be provided with an 
approved alarm initiation device that operates when the flow 
of water is equal to or greater than that from a single auto- 
matic sprinkler. 

9.6.2.8 Where a total (complete) coverage smoke detection 
system is required by another section of this Code, automatic 
detection of smoke in accordance with NFPA 72®, National Fire 
Alarm Code®, shall be provided in all occupiable areas, com- 
mon areas, and work spaces in environments that are suitable 
for proper smoke detector operation. 

9.6.2.9 Where a partial smoke detection system is required by 
another section of this Code, automatic detection of smoke in 
accordance with NFPA 72®, National Fire Alarm Code®, shall be 
provided in all common areas and work spaces, such as corri- 
dors, lobbies, storage rooms, equipment rooms, and other 
tenantiess spaces in environments that are suitable for proper 
smoke detector operation. Selective smoke detection unique 
to other sections of this Code shall be provided as required by 
those sections. 

9.6.2.10 Sinoke Alarms. 

9.6.2.10.1 Where required by another section of this Code, 
single-station and multiple-station smoke alarms shall be in 
accordance with NFPA 72®, National Fire Alarm Code®. System 
smoke detectors in accordance with NFPA 72®, National Fire 
Alarm Code®, and arranged to function in the same manner as 
single-station or multiple-station smoke alarms shall be per- 
mitted in lieu of smoke alarms. 

9.6.2.10.2 Smoke alarms, other than battery-operated devices 
as permitted by other sections of this Code, or battery-operated 
devices complying with 9.6.1 .3 and the low-power wireless system 
requirements of NFPA 72", National Fire Alarm Code®, shall receive 
their operating power from the building electrical system. 

9.6.2.10.3* In new construction, where two or more smoke 
alarms are required within a dwelling unit, suite of rooms, or 
similar area, they shall be arranged so that operation of any 
smoke alarm shall cause the alarm in all smoke alarms within 
the dwelling unit, suite of rooms, or similar area to sound, 
unless otherwise permitted by the following: 

(1) The requirement of 9.6.2.10.3 shall not apply where per- 
mitted by another section of this Code. 

(2) The requirement of 9.6.2.10.3 shall not apply to configu- 
rations that provide equivalent distribution of the alarm 
signal. 



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9.6.2.10.4 The alarms shall sound only within an individual 
dwelling unit, suite of rooms, or similar area and shall not 
actuate the building fire alarm system, unless otherwise per- 
mitted by the authority havingjurisdiction. Remote annuncia- 
tion shall be permitted. 

9.6.2.11 Where required by Chapter 11 through Chapter 42, 
an automatic fire detection system shall be provided in hazard- 
ous areas for initiation of the signaling system. 

9.6.3 Occupant Notification. 

9.6.3.1 Occupant notification shall be provided to alert occu- 
pants of a fire or other emergency where required by other 
sections of this Code. 

9.6.3.2 Occupant notification shall be in accordance with 

9.6.3.3 through 9.6.3.11, unless otherwise provided in 9.6.3.2.1 
through 9.6.3.2.4. 

9.6.3.2.1* Elevator lobby, hoistway, and associated machine 
room smoke detectors used solely for elevator recall, and heat 
detectors used solely for elevator power shutdown, shall not be 
required to activate the building evacuation alarm if the power 
supply and installation wiring to such detectors are monitored 
by the building fire alarm system, and if the activation of such 
detectors results in an audible and visible alarm signal at a 
constantly attended location. 

9.6.3.2.2* Smoke detectors used solely for closing dampers or 
headng, ventilating, and air-conditioning system shutdown shall 
not be required to activate the building evacuation alarm. 

9.6.3.2.3* Detectors located at doors for the exclusive opera- 
tion of automatic door release shall not be required to activate 
the building evacuation alarm. 

9.6.3.2.4 Detectors in accordance with 22.3.4.3.1(2) and 
23.3.4.3.1(2) shall not be required to activate the building 
evacuation alarm. 

9.6.3.3 Where permitted by Chapter 11 through Chapter 42, a 
presignal system shall be permitted where the initial fire alarm 
signal is automatically transmitted without delay to a municipal 
fire department, to a fire brigade (if provided) , and to an on-site 
staff person trained to respond to a fire emergency. 

9.6.3.4 Where permitted by Chapter 11 through Chapter 42, 
a positive alarm sequence shall be permitted, provided that it 
is in accordance with NFPA 72 s , National Fire Alarm Code 9 . 

9.6.3.5 Unless otherwise provided in 9.6.3.5.1 through 
9.6.3.5.6, notification signals for occupants to evacuate shall 
be audible and visible signals in accordance with NFPA 72®, 
National Fire Alarm Code®, and ICC/ ANSI A117.1, American Na- 
tional Standard for Accessible and Usable Buildings and Facilities, or 
other means of notification acceptable to the authority having 
jurisdiction shall be provided. 

9.6.3.5.1 Areas not subject to occupancy by persons who are 
hearing impaired shall not be required to comply with the 
provisions for visible signals. 

9.6.3.5.2 Visible-only signals shall be provided where specifi- 
cally permitted in health care occupancies in accordance with 
the provisions of Chapter 18 and Chapter 19. 

9.6.3.5.3 Existing alarm systems shall not be required to com- 
ply with the provision for visible signals. 

9.6.3.5.4 Visible signals shall not be required in lodging or 
rooming houses in accordance with the provisions of Chapter 26. 



9.6.3.5.5 Visible signals shall not be required in exit stair en- 
closures. 

9.6.3.5.6 Visible signals shall not be required in elevator cars. 

9.6.3.6 The general evacuation alarm signal shall operate in 
accordance with one of the methods prescribed by 9.6.3.6.1 
through 9.6.3.6.4. 

9.6.3.6.1 The general evacuation alarm signal shall operate 
throughout the entire building. 

9.6.3.6.2* Where total evacuation of occupants is impractical 
due to building configuration, only the occupants in the af- 
fected zones shall be notified initially. Provisions shall be made 
to selectively notify occupants in other zones to afford orderly 
evacuation of the entire building. 

9.6.3.6.3 Where occupants are incapable of evacuating them- 
selves because of age, physical or mental disabilities, or physical 
restraint, the private operating mode as described in NFPA 72®, 
National Fire Alarm Code®, shall be permitted to be used. Only the 
attendants and other personnel required to evacuate occupants 
from a zone, area, floor, or building shall be required to be noti- 
fied. The notification shall include means to readily identify the 
zone, area, floor, or building in need of evacuation. 

9.6.3.6.4 In mall buildings in accordance with Chapter 36 
and Chapter 37, notification within the mall shall be permit- 
ted in accordance with 36.4.4.4.3. 1 (3) and 37.4.4.4.3. 1(3). 

9.6.3.6.5 The general evacuation signal shall not be required 
to operate in exit stair enclosures. 

9.6.3.6.6 The general evacuation signal shall not be required 
to operate in elevator cars. 

9.6.3.7 Audible alarm notification appliances shall be of such 
character and so distributed as to be effectively heard above 
the average ambient sound level that exists under normal con- 
ditions of occupancy. 

9.6.3.8 Audible alarm notification appliances shall produce 
signals that are distinctive from audible signals used for other 
purposes in a given building. 

9.6.3.9 Automatically transmitted or live voice evacuation or 
relocation instructions shall be permitted to be used to notify 
occupants and shall be in accordance with NFPA 72®, National 
Fire Alarm Code®. 

9.6.3.10 Unless otherwise permitted by another section of 
this Code, audible and visible fire alarm notification appliances 
shall comply with either 9.6.3.10.1 or 9.6.3.10.2. 

9.6.3.10.1 Audible and visible fire alarm notification appli- 
ances shall be used only for fire alarm system or other emer- 
gency purposes. 

9.6.3.10.2 Voice communication systems shall be permitted 
to be used for other purposes, subject to the approval of the 
authority havingjurisdiction, if the fire alarm system takes pre- 
cedence over all other signals. 

9.6.3.11 Alarm notification signals shall take precedence over 
all other signals. 

9.6.4 Emergency Forces Notification. 

9.6.4.1 Where required by another section of this Code, emer- 
gency forces notification shall be provided to alert the munici- 
pal fire department and fire brigade (if provided) of fire or 
other emergency. 



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9.6.4.2 Where fire department notification is required by an- 
other section of this Code, the fire alarm system shall be arranged 
to transmit the alarm automatically via any of the following 
means acceptable to the authority having jurisdiction and shall 
be in accordance vnthNFPA 72 s , National Five Alarm Code m 

( 1 ) Auxiliary alarm system 

(2) Central station connection 

(3) Proprietary system 

(4) Remote station connection 

9.6.4.3 For existing installations where none of the means of 
notification specified in 9.6.4.2(1) through 9.6.4.2(4) is avail- 
able, an approved plan for notification of the municipal fire 
department shall be permitted. 

9.6.5 Emergency Control. 

9.6.5.1 A fire alarm and control system, where required by 
another section of this Code, shall be arranged to actuate auto- 
matically the control functions necessary to make the pro- 
tected premises safer for building occupants. 

9.6.5.2 Where required by another section of this Code, the 
following functions shall be actuated by the complete fire 
alarm system: 

(1) Release of hold-open devices for doors or other opening 
protectives 

(2) Stairwell or elevator shaft pressurization 

(3) Smoke management or smoke control systems 

(4) Emergency lighting control 

(5) Unlocking of doors 

9.6.5.3 The functions specified in 9.6.5.2 shall be permitted 
to be actuated by any fire alarm and control system where 
otherwise not required by this Code. Additionally, such a fire 
alarm and control system shall be permitted to recall elevators, 
as required by Section 9.4, if the activation of the system for 
such recall is by means of the elevator lobby, hoistway, or asso- 
ciated machine room detectors only. 

9.6.5.4* Installation of emergency control devices shall be in 
accordance with NFPA 72 s , National Fire Alarm Code 9 . The per- 
formance of emergency control functions shall not impair the 
effective response of all required alarm notification functions. 

9.6.6 Location of Controls. Operator controls, alarm indica- 
tors, and manual communications capability shall be installed 
in a control center at a convenient location acceptable to the 
authority havingjurisdiction. 

9.6.7 Annunciation. 

9.6.7.1 Where alarm annunciation is required by another sec- 
tion of this Code, it shall comply with 9.6.7.2 through 9.6.7.7. 

9.6.7.2 Alarm annunciation at the control center shall be by 
means of audible and visible indicators. 

9.6.7.3 For the purposes of alarm annunciation, each floor of 
the building, other than floors of existing buildings, shall be 
considered as not less than one zone, unless otherwise permit- 
ted by 9.6.7.4.3, 9.6.7.4.4, or another section of this Code. 

9.6.7.4 If a floor area exceeds 2090 m 2 (22,500 ft 2 ), addi- 
tional fire alarm zoning shall be provided, and the length of 
any single fire alarm zone shall not exceed 91m (300 ft) in any 
direction, except as provided in 9.6.7.4.1 through 9.6.7.4.4 or 
otherwise modified by another section of this Code. 



9.6.7.4.1 Where permitted by another section of this Code, 
fire alarm zones shall be permitted to exceed 2090 m 2 
(22,500 ft 2 ), and the length of a zone shall be permitted to 
exceed 91 m (300 ft) in any direction. 

9.6.7.4.2 Where the building is protected by an automatic 
sprinkler system in accordance with 9.7.1.1(1), the area of the 
fire alarm zone shall be permitted to coincide with the allow- 
able area of the sprinkler system. 

9.6.7.4.3 Where the building is protected by an automatic 
sprinkler system in accordance with 9.7.1.1(2), the sprinkler 
system shall be permitted to be annunciated on the fire alarm 
system as a single zone. 

9.6.7.4.4 Where the building is protected by an automatic 
sprinkler system in accordance with 9.7.1.1(3), the sprinkler 
system shall be permitted to be annunciated on the fire alarm 
system as a single zone. 

9.6.7.5 A system trouble signal shall be annunciated at the 
control center by means of audible and visible indicators. 

9.6.7.6 A system supervisory signal shall be annunciated at 
the control center by means of audible and visible indicators. 

9.6.7.7 Where the system serves more than one building, 
each building shall be annunciated separately. 

9.7 Automatic Sprinklers and Other Extinguishing Equipment. 

9.7.1 Automatic Sprinklers. 

9.7.1.1* Each automatic sprinkler system required by another 
section of this Code shall be in accordance with one of the 
following: 

( 1 ) NFPA 13, Standard for the Installation of Sprinkler Systems 

(2) NFPA 1 3R, Standard for the Installation of Sprinkler Systems in 
Residential Occupancies up to and Including Four Stories in 
Height 

(3) NFPA13D, Standardfor the Installation of Sprinkler Systems in 
One- and Two-Family Dwellings and Manufactured Homes 

9.7.1.2 Sprinkler piping serving not more than six sprinklers 
for any isolated hazardous area shall be permitted to be con- 
nected directly to a domestic water supply system having a 
capacity sufficient to provide 6.1 mm/min (0.15 gpm/ft 2 ) 
throughout the entire enclosed area. An indicating shutoff 
valve, supervised in accordance with 9.7.2 or NFPA 13, Stan- 
dard for the Installation of Sprinkler Systems, shall be installed in 
an accessible, visible, location between the sprinklers and the 
connection to the domestic water supply. 

9.7.1.3* In areas protected by automatic sprinklers, automatic 
heat-detection devices required by other sections of this Code 
shall not be required. 

9.7.1.4 Automatic sprinkler systems installed to make use of 
an alternative permitted by this Code shall be considered re- 
quired systems and shall meet the provisions of this Code that 
apply to required systems. 

9.7.2 Supervision. 

9.7.2.1* Supervisory Signals. Where supervised automatic 
sprinkler systems are required by another section of this Code, 
supervisory attachments shall be installed and monitored for in- 
tegrity in accordance with NFPA 72 s , National Fire Alarm Code®, 
and a distinctive supervisory signal shall be provided to indicate a 
condition that would impair the satisfactory operation of the 
sprinkler system. System components and parameters that shall 



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be monitored shall include, but shall not be limited to, control 
valves, fire pump power supplies and running conditions, water 
tank levels and temperatures, tank pressure, and air pressure on 
dry-pipe valves. Supervisory signals shall sound and shall be dis- 
played either at a location within the protected building that is 
constantly attended by qualified personnel or at an approved, 
remotely located receiving facility. 

9.7.2.2 Alarm Signal Transmission. Where supervision of au- 
tomatic sprinkler systems is provided in accordance with an- 
other provision of this Code, waterflow alarms shall be transmit- 
ted to an approved, proprietary alarm-receiving facility, a 
remote station, a central station, or the fire department. Such 
connection shall be in accordance with 9.6.1.3. 

9.7.3 Other Automatic Extinguishing Equipment. 

9.7.3.1 In any occupancy where the character of the fuel for 
fire is such that extinguishment or control of fire is accom- 
plished by a type of automatic extinguishing system in lieu of 
an automatic sprinkler system, such system shall be installed in 
accordance with the appropriate standard, as determined in 
accordance with Table 9.7.3.1. 

Table 9.7.3.1 Fire Suppression System Installation Standards 



Fire Suppression System 



Installation Standard 



Low-expansion foam 

systems 
Medium- and 

high-expansion foam 

systems 
Carbon dioxide systems 

Halon 1301 systems 

Water spray fixed systems 



Deluge foam-water 
sprinkler systems 



Dry chemical systems 

Wet chemical systems 

Water mist systems 

Clean agent extinguishing 
systems 



NFPA 11, Standard for 

Low-Expansion Foam 
NFPA 11 A, Standard for Medium- 

and High-Expansion Foam 

Systems 
NFPA 12, Standard on Carbon 

Dioxide Extinguishing Systems 
NFPA 12A, Standard on Halon 

1301 Fire Extinguishing Systems 
NFPA 15, Standard for Water 

Spray Fixed Systems for Fire 

Protection 
NFPA 16, Standard for the 

Installation of Deluge 

Foam-Water Sprinkler and 

Foam-Water Spray Systems 
NFPA 17, Standard for Dry 

Chemical Extinguishing Systems 
NFPA 17A, Standard for Wet 

Chemical Extinguishing Systems 
NFPA 750, Standard on Water 

Mist Fire Protection Systems 
NFPA 2001, Standard on Clean 

Agent Fire Extinguishing 

Systems 



9.7.3.2 If the extinguishing system is installed in lieu of a 
required, supervised automatic sprinkler system, the activa- 
tion of the extinguishing system shall activate the building fire 
alarm system, where provided. The actuation of an extinguish- 
ing system that is not installed in lieu of a required, supervised 
automatic sprinkler system shall be indicated at the building 
fire alarm system, where provided. 

9.7.4 Manual Extmguishing Equipment. 

9.7.4.1* Where required by the provisions of another section 
of this Code, portable fire extinguishers shall be installed, in- 



spected, and maintained in accordance with NFPA 10, Stan- 
dard for Portable Fire Extinguishers. 

9.7.4.2 Where required by the provisions of another section of 
this Code, standpipe and hose systems shall be provided in accor- 
dance with NFPA 14, Standard for the Installation of Standpipe and 
Hose Systems. Where standpipe and hose systems are installed in 
combination with automatic sprinkler systems, installation shall 
be in accordance with the appropriate provisions established by 
NFPA 13, Standard for the Installation of Sprinkler Systems, and 
NFPA 14, Standard for the Installation of Standpipe and Hose Systems. 

9.7.5 Maintenance and Testing. All automatic sprinkler and 
standpipe systems required by this Code shall be inspected, 
tested, and maintained in accordance with NFPA 25, Standard 
for the Inspection, Testing, and Maintenance of Water-Based Fire Pro- 
tection Systems. 

9.7.6* Sprinkler System Shutdown. 

9.7.6. 1 Where a required automatic sprinkler system is out of 
service for more than 4 hours in a 24-hour period, the author- 
ity having jurisdiction shall be notified, and the building shall 
be evacuated or an approved fire watch shall be provided for 
all parties left unprotected by the shutdown until the sprinkler 
system has been returned to service. 

9.7.6.2 Sprinkler impairment procedures shall comply with 
NFPA 25, Standard for the Inspection, Testing, and Maintenance of 
Water-Based Fire Protection Systems. 

9.7.7 Documentation. All required documentation regarding 
the design of the fire protection system and the procedures 
for maintenance, inspection, and testing of the fire protection 
system shall be maintained at an approved, secured location 
for the life of the fire protection system. 

9.7.8 Record Keeping. Testing and maintenance records re- 
quired by NFPA 25, Standard for the Inspection, Testing and Main- 
tenance of Water-Based Fire Protection Systems, shall be maintained 
at an approved, secured location. 

9.8 Special Inspections and Tests. 

9.8.1 Where required by another section of this Code, special 
inspections and tests shall be performed to verify the opera- 
tion of the fire protection system in its final condition for ac- 
ceptance by the authority havingjurisdiction. 

9.8.2 The design documents shall provide the procedures 
and methods to be used and items subject to special inspec- 
tions and tests. 

9.8.3 The special inspector shall submit an inspection and 
test report to the authority havingjurisdiction and registered 
design professional in responsible charge. 



Chapter 



I Interior Finish, Contents, 
and Fnunmislhimgs 



10.1 General. 



10.1.1 Application. The interior finish, contents, and furnish- 
ings provisions set forth in this chapter shall apply to new con- 
struction and existing buildings. 

10.1.2 Automatic Sprinkler Systems. Where another provi- 
sion of this chapter requires an automatic sprinkler system, 
the automatic sprinkler system shall be installed in accordance 
with the subparagraph of 9.7.1.1 as permitted by the appli- 
cable occupancy chapter. 



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10.1.3 Definitions. The following is a list of terms used in this 
chapter: 

(1) Contents and Furnishings. See 3.3.36. 

(2) Flashover. See 3.3.85. 

(3) Interior Finish. See 3.3.120. 

(4) Interior Ceiling Finish. See 3.3.120.1. 

(5) Interior Floor Finish. See 3.3.120.2. 

(6) Interior Wall Finish. See 3.3.120.3. 

10.2* Interior Finish. 
10.2.1 General. 

10.2.1.1 Classification of interior finish materials shall be in 
accordance with tests made under conditions simulating ac- 
tual installations, provided that the authority having jurisdic- 
tion shall be permitted to establish the classification of any 
material on which a rating by standard test is not available, 
unless otherwise provided in 10.2.1.2. 

10.2.1.2 Materials applied directly to the surface of walls and 
ceilings in a total thickness of less than 0.9 mm (V28 in.) shall 
be exempt from tests simulating actual installation if they 
meet the requirements of Class A interior wall or ceiling finish 
when tested in accordance with 10.2.3 using inorganic rein- 
forced cement board as the substrate material. 

10.2.2* Use of Interior Finishes. 

10.2.2.1 Requirements for interior wall and ceiling finish 
shall apply as follows: 

(1) Where specified elsewhere in this Code for specific occu- 
pancies (see Chapter 7 and Chapter 11 through Chapter 42) 

(2) As specified in 10.2.4 

10.2.2.2* Requirements for interior floor finish shall apply un- 
der any of the following conditions: 

(1) Where floor finish requirements are specified elsewhere 
in the Code 

(2)*Where carpet or carpet-like material not meeting the re- 
quirements of ASTM D 2859, Flammability of Finished Textile 
Floor Covering Materials, is used 

(3) Where the fire performance of the floor finish cannot be 
demonstrated to be equivalent to floor finishes with a 
critical radiant flux of at least 0. 1 W/cm 2 

(4) Where the fire performance of the floor finish is unknown 

10.2.3* Interior Wall or Ceiling Finish Testing and Classifica- 
tion. Interior wall or ceiling finish that is required elsewhere 
in this Code to be Class A, Class B, or Class C shall be classified 
based on test results from NFPA255, Standard Method of Test of 
Surface Burning Characteristics of Building Materials, except as 
indicated in 10.2.3.1 or 10.2.3.2. 

10.2.3.1 Exposed portions of structural members complying 
with the requirements for Type IV(2HH) construction in ac- 
cordance with NFPA 220, Standard on Types of Building Construc- 
tion, shall be exempt from testing and classification in accor- 
dance with NFPA 255, Standard Method of Test of Surface Burning 
Characteristics of Building Materials. 

10.2.3.2 Interior wall and ceiling finish tested in accordance 
with NFPA 286, Standard Methods of Fire Tests for Evaluating Con- 
tribution of Wall and Ceiling Interior Finish to Room Fire Growth, 
and meeting the conditions of 10.2.3.7.3 shall be permitted to 
be used where interior wall and ceiling finish is required to be 
Class Ain accordance with NFPA 255, Standard Method of Test of 
Surface Burning Characteristics of Building Materials. 



10.2.3.3 For fire retardant coatings, see 10.2.6. 

10.2.3.4* Products required to be tested in accordance with 
NFPA 255, Standard Method of Test of Surface Burning Characteris- 
tics of Building Materials, shall be classified as follows in accor- 
dance with their flame spread and smoke development, ex- 
cept as indicated in 10.2.3.4.1. 

(1) Class A interior wall and ceiling finish shall be character- 
ized by the following: 

(a) Flame spread, 0-25 

(b) Smoke development, 0-450 

(c) No continued propagation of fire in any element 
thereof when so tested 

(2) Class B interior wall and ceiling finish shall be character- 
ized by the following: 

(a) Flame spread, 26-75 

(b) Smoke development, 0-450 

(3) Class C interior wall and ceiling finish shall be character- 
ized by the following: 

(a) Flame spread, 76-200 

(b) Smoke development, 0-450 

10.2.3.4.1 Existing interior finish shall be exempt from the 
smoke development criteria of 10.2.3.4. 

10.2.3.5 The classification of interior finish specified in 

10.2.3.4 shall be that of the basic material used by itself or in 
combination with other materials. 

10.2.3.6 Wherever the use of Class C interior wall and ceiling 
finish is required, Class A or Class B shall be permitted. Where 
Class B interior wall and ceiling finish is required, Class A shall 
be permitted. 

10.2.3.7* Products tested in accordance with NFPA 265, Stan- 
dard Methods of Fire Tests for Evaluating Room Fire Growth Contri- 
bution of Textile Coverings on Full Height Panels and Walls, shall 
comply with the criteria of 10.2.3.7.1 or 10.2.3.7.2. Products 
tested in accordance with NFPA 286, Standard Methods of Fire 
Tests for Evaluating Contribution of Wall and Ceiling Interior Finish 
to Room Fire Growth, shall comply with the criteria of 10.2.3.7.3. 

10.2.3.7.1* The following criteria shall be met when using 
methodAof the test protocol of NFPA265, Standard Methods of 
Fire Tests for Evaluating Room Fire Growth Contribution of Textile 
Coverings on Full Height Panels and Walls: 

(1) Flame shall not spread to the ceiling during the 40-kW 
exposure. 

(2) During the 150-kW exposure, the following criteria shall 
be met: 

(a) Flame shall not spread to the outer extremities of the 
sample on the 2440 mm x 3660 mm (96 in. x 144 in.) 
wall. 

(b) The specimen shall not burn to the outer extremities 
of the 610-mm (24-in.) wide samples mounted verti- 
cally in the corner of the room. 

(c) Burning droplets that are judged to be capable of 
igniting the textile wall covering or that persist in 
burning for 30 seconds or more shall not be formed 
and dropped to the floor. 

(d) Flashover shall not occur. 

(e) The maximum instantaneous net peak rate of heat 
release shall not exceed 300 kW. 



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10.2.3.7.2 The following conditions shall be met when using 
method B of the test protocol of NFPA 265, Standard Methods of 
Fire Tests for Evaluating Room Fire Growth Contribution of Textile 
Coverings on Full Height Panels and Walls: 

(1) Flame shall not spread to the ceiling during the 40-kW 
exposure. 

(2) During the 150-kW exposure, the following criteria shall 
be met: 

(a) Flame shall not spread to the outer extremities of the 
sample on the 2440 mm x 3660 mm (96 in. x 144 in.) 
wall. 

(b) Flashover shall not occur. 

10.2.3.7.3 The following conditions shall be met when using 
the test protocol of NFPA 286, Standard Methods of Fire Tests for 
Evaluating Contribution of Wall and Ceiling Interior Finish to Room 
Fire Growth: 

(1) Flames shall not spread to the ceiling during the 40-kW 
exposure. 

(2) During the 160-kW exposure, the following criteria shall 
be met: 

(a) Flame shall not spread to the outer extremities of the 
sample on the 2440 mm x 3660 mm (96 in. x 144 in.) 
wall. 

(b) Flashover shall not occur. 

(3) For new installations, the total smoke released through- 
out the test shall not exceed 1000 m 2 . 

10.2.4* Specific Materials. 

10.2.4.1* Textile Wall and Textile Ceiling Materials. The use of 
textile materials on walls or ceilings shall comply with one of 
the following conditions: 

(1) Textile materials having a Class A rating (see 10.2.3.4) shall 
be permitted on the walls or ceilings of rooms or areas 
protected by an approved automatic sprinkler system. 

(2) Textile materials having a Class Arating (see 10.2.3.4) shall 
be permitted on partitions that do not exceed three- 
quarters of the floor-to-ceiling height or do not exceed 
2440 mm (96 in.) in height, whichever is less. 

(3) Textile materials having a Class Arating (see 10.2.3.4) shall 
be permitted to extend not more than 1220 mm (48 in.) 
above the finished floor on ceiling-height walls and 
ceiling-height partitions. 

(4) Previously approved existing installations of textile mate- 
rial having a Class A rating (see 10. 2.3. 4) shall be permitted 
to be continued to be used. 

(5) Textile materials shall be permitted on walls and partitions 
where tested in accordance with NFPA 265, Standard Methods 
of Fire Tests for Evaluating Room Fire Growth Contribution of Textile 
Coverings on Full Height Panels and Walls. (See 10.2.3. 7.) 

10.2.4.2* Expanded 'Vinyl Wall or Ceiling Coverings. The use 
of expanded vinyl wall or ceiling coverings shall comply with 
one of the following conditions: 

(1) Materials having a Class A rating (see 10.2.3.4) shall be 
permitted on the walls or ceilings of rooms or areas pro- 
tected by an approved automatic sprinkler system. 

(2) Materials having a Class A rating (see 10.2.3.4) shall be 
permitted on partitions that do not exceed three-quarters 
of the floor-to-ceiling height or do not exceed 2440 mm 
(96 in.) in height, whichever is less. 

(3) Materials having a Class A rating (see 10.2.3.4) shall be 
permitted to extend not more than 1220 mm (48 in.) 



above the finished floor on ceiling-height walls and 
ceiling-height partitions. 

(4) Existing installations of materials with the appropriate 
wall finish classification for the occupancy involved, and 
with classification in accordance with the provisions in 
10.2.3.4, shall be permitted to be continued to be used. 

(5) Materials shall be permitted on walls and partitions where 
tested in accordance with NFPA 265, Standard Methods of 
Fire Tests for Evaluating Room Fire Growth Contribution of Tex- 
tile Coverings on Full Height Panels and Walls. (See 1 0. 2. 3. 7. ) 

(6) Materials shall be permitted on walls, partitions, and ceil- 
ings where tested in accordance with NFPA 286, Standard 
Methods of Fire Tests for Evaluating Contribution of Wall and 
Ceiling Interior Finish to Room Fire Growth. (See 10.2.3. 7.) 

10.2.4.3 Cellular or Foamed Plastic. Cellular or foamed plas- 
tic materials shall not be used as interior wall and ceiling finish 
unless specifically permitted by 10.2.4.3.1 or 10.2.4.3.2. 

10.2.4.3.1 Cellular or foamed plastic materials shall be per- 
mitted where subjected to fire tests that substantiate their com- 
bustibility characteristics for the use intended under actual fire 
conditions using large-scale tests performed on a finished 
foamed plastic assembly of the maximum thickness intended for 
use that is related to the actual end-use configuration. 

10.2.4.3.2 Cellular or foamed plastic shall be permitted for 
trim not in excess of 10 percent of the wall or ceiling area, 
provided that it is not less than 320 kg/m 3 (20 lb/ft 3 ) in density, 
is limited to 13 mm ( ] <4 in.) in thickness and 100 mm (4 in.) in 
width, and complies with the requirements for Class A or Class B 
interior wall and ceiling finish as described in 10.2.3.4; however, 
the smoke rating shall not be limited. 

10.2.4.4* Light-Transmitting Plastics. Light-transmitting plas- 
tics shall be permitted to be used as interior wall and ceiling 
finish if approved by the authority having jurisdiction. 

10.2.4.5 Becorations and Furnishings. Decorations and fur- 
nishings that do not meet the definition of interior finish as 
defined in 3.3.120 shall be regulated by the provisions of Sec- 
tion 10.3. 

10.2.5 Trim and Incidental Finish. Interior wall and ceiling 
finish not in excess of 10 percent of the aggregate wall and 
ceiling areas of any room or space shall be permitted to be 
Class C materials in occupancies where interior wall and ceil- 
ing finish of Class A or Class B is required. 

10.2.6* Fire-Retardant Coatings. 

10.2.6.1* The required flame spread or smoke development 
classification of existing surfaces of walls, partitions, columns, 
and ceilings shall be permitted to be secured by applying ap- 
proved fire-retardant coatings to surfaces having higher flame 
spread ratings than permitted. Such treatments shall comply with 
the requirements of NFPA 703, Standard for Fire Retardant Impreg- 
nated Wood and Fire Retardant Coatings for Building Materials. 

10.2.6.2 Fire-retardant coatings shall possess the desired de- 
gree of permanency and shall be maintained so as to retain 
the effectiveness of the treatment under the service conditions 
encountered in actual use. 

10.2.7 Interior Floor Finish Testing and Classification. 

10.2.7.1 Carpet and carpet-like interior floor finishes shall 
comply with ASTM D 2859, Standard Test Method for Flammability 
of Finished Textile Floor Covering Materials. 



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10.2.7.2* Floor coverings, other than carpet for which 10.2.2.2 
establishes requirements for fire performance, shall have a 
minimum critical radiant flux of 0.1 W/cm 2 . 

10.2.7.3* Interior floor finishes shall be classified in accor- 
dance with 10.2.7.4 based on test results from NFPA253, Stan- 
dard Method of Test for Critical Radiant Flux of Floor Covering Sys- 
tems Using a Radiant Heat Energy Source. 

10.2.7.4 Interior floor finishes shall be classified as follows in 
accordance with the critical radiant flux ratings: 

( 1 ) Class I interior floor finish shall be characterized by a criti- 
cal radiant flux not less than 0.45 W/cm 2 as determined 
by the test described in 10.2.7.3. 

(2) Class II interior floor finish shall be characterized by a criti- 
cal radiant flux not less than 0.22 W/cm 2 but less than 
0.45 W/cm 2 as determined by the test described in 10.2.7.3. 

10.2.7.5 Wherever the use of Class II interior floor finish is 
required, Class I interior floor finish shall be permitted. 

10.2.8 Automatic Sprinklers. 

10.2.8.1 Unless specifically prohibited elsewhere in this Code, 
where an approved automatic sprinkler system is in accor- 
dance with Section 9.7, Class C interior wall and ceiling finish 
materials shall be permitted in any location where Class B is 
required, and Class B interior wall and ceiling finish materials 
shall be permitted in any location where Class A is required. 

10.2.8.2 Unless specifically prohibited elsewhere in this Code, 
where an approved automatic sprinkler system is in accor- 
dance with Section 9.7, Class II interior floor finish shall be 
permitted in any location where Class I interior floor finish is 
required, and where Class II is required, no critical radiant 
flux rating shall be required. 

10.3 Contents and Furnishings. 

10.3.1* Where required by the applicable provisions of this 
Code, draperies, curtains, and other similar loosely hanging 
furnishings and decorations shall be flame resistant as demon- 
strated by testing in accordance with NFPA 701, Standard Meth- 
ods of Fire Tests for Flame Propagation of Textiles and Films. 

10.3.2* Where required by the applicable provisions of this 
Code, upholstered furniture and mattresses shall be resistant to 
a cigarette ignition (that is, smoldering) in accordance with 
the following: 

(1) Where required by the applicable provisions of this Code, 
the components of the upholstered furniture, unless lo- 
cated in rooms or spaces protected by an approved auto- 
matic sprinkler system, shall meet the requirements for 
Class I when tested in accordance with NFPA 260, Standard 
Methods of Tests and Classification System for Cigarette Ignition 
Resistance of Components of Upholstered Furniture. 

(2) Where required by the applicable provisions of this Code, 
mocked-up composites of the upholstered furniture, un- 
less located in rooms or spaces protected by an approved 
automatic sprinkler system, shall have a char length not 
exceeding 38 mm {Wi in.) when tested in accordance 
wi th NFPA 261, Standard Method of Test for Determining Resis- 
tance of Mock-Up Upholstered Furniture Material Assemblies to 
Ignition by Smoldering Cigarettes. 

(3)*Where required by the applicable provisions of this Code, 
mattresses, unless located in rooms or spaces protected by 
an approved automatic sprinkler system, shall have a char 
length not exceeding 51 mm (2 in.) when tested in accor- 
dance with Part 1632 of the Code of Federal Regulations 16. 



10.3.3* Where required by the applicable provisions of this 
Code, upholstered furniture, unless the furniture is located in a 
building protected throughout by an approved automatic 
sprinkler system, shall have limited rates of heat release when 
tested in accordance with ASTM E 1537, Standard Method for 
Fire Testing of Real Scale Upholstered Furniture Items, as follows: 

(1) The peak rate of heat release for the single upholstered 
furniture item shall not exceed 250 kW. 

(2) The total energy released by the single upholstered furni- 
ture item during the first 5 minutes of the test shall not 
exceed 40 MJ. 

10.3.4* Where required by the applicable provisions of this 
Code, mattresses, unless the mattress is located in a building 
protected throughout by an approved automatic sprinkler sys- 
tem, shall have limited rates of heat release when tested in 
accordance with ASTM E 1590, Standard Method for Fire Testing 
of Real Scale Mattresses, as follows: 

(1) The peak rate of heat release for the mattress shall not 
exceed 250 kW. 

(2) The total energy released by the mattress during the first 
5 minutes of the test shall not exceed 40 MJ. 

10.3.5* Furnishings or decorations of an explosive or highly 
flammable character shall not be used. 

10.3.6 Fire-retardant coatings shall be maintained to retain 
the effectiveness of the treatment under service conditions en- 
countered in actual use. 

10.3.7* Where required by the applicable provisions of this 
Code, furnishings and contents made with foamed plastic ma- 
terials that are unprotected from ignition shall have a heat 
release rate not exceeding 100 kW when tested in accordance 
with UL 1975, Standard for Fire Tests for Foamed Plastics Used for 
Decorative Purposes. 



er 11 Special Structures and 
Higfa-Rise Buildings 

11.1 General Requirements. 

11.1.1 Application. The requirements of Section 11.1 through 
Section 11.11 apply to occupancies regulated by Chapter 12 
through Chapter 42 that are in a special structure. The appli- 
cable provisions of Chapter 12 through Chapter 42 shall apply, 
except as modified by this chapter. Section 11.8 applies to 
high-rise buildings only where specifically required by Chap- 
ter 12 through Chapter 42. 

11.1.2 Multiple Occupancies. See 6.1.14. 

11.1.3 Definitions. See the defined terms within each special 
structure section. 

11.1.4 Classification of Occupancy. Occupancies regulated by 
Chapter 12 through Chapter 42 that are in special structures 
shall meet the requirements of those chapters, except as modi- 
fied by this chapter. 

11.1.5 Classification of Hazard of Contents. Classification of 
hazard of contents shall be in accordance with Section 6.2. 

11.1.6 Minimum Construction Requirements. Minimum con- 
struction requirements shall be in accordance with the appli- 
cable occupancy chapter. 



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101-8*7 



11.1.7 Occupant Load. The occupant load of special struc- 
tures shall be based on the use of the structure as regulated by 
Chapter 12 through Chapter 42. 

11.1.8 Automatic Sprinkler Systems. Where another provi- 
sion of this chapter requires an automatic sprinkler system, 
the automatic sprinkler system shall be installed in accordance 
with the subparts of 9.7.1.1 as permitted by the applicable oc- 
cupancy chapter. 

11.2 Open Structures. 

11.2.1 



11.2.1.1 General. The provisions of Section 11.1 shall apply. 

11.2.1.2 Definition — Open Structure. See 3.3.217.6. 
11.2.2* Means of Egress. 

11.2.2.1 General. The means of egress provisions of the appli- 
cable occupancy, Chapter 12 through Chapter 42, shall apply, 
except as modified by 11.2.2.2 through 11.2.2.10. 

11.2.2.2 Means of Egress Components. 

11.2.2.2.1 Fire Escape Ladders. Open structures that are de- 
signed for occupancy by not more than three persons shall be 
permitted to be served by fire escape ladders complying with 
7.2.9. 

11.2.2.3 Capacity of Means of Egress. Open structures shall be 
exempt from the requirements for capacity of means of egress. 

11 .2.2.4 Number of Means of Egress. 

11.2.2.4.1 The grade level of open structures, which by their 
very nature contain an infinite number of means of egress, 
shall be exempt from the requirements for number of means 
of egress. 

11.2.2.4.2 Open structures occupied by not more than three 
persons, with travel distance of not more than 61 m (200 ft), 
shall be permitted to have a single exit. 

11.2.2.5 Arrangement of Means of Egress. (No modifications.) 

11.2.2.6 Travel Distance to Exits. Open structures shall be ex- 
empt from travel distance limitations. 

11.2.2.7 Discharge from Exits. Open structures permitted to 
have a single exit per 11.2.2.4 shall be permitted to have 
100 percent of the exi t discharge through areas on the level of 
exit discharge. 

11.2.2.8 Iluniination of Means of Egress. Open structures shall 
be exempt from illumination of means of egress requirements. 

11.2.2.9 Emergency Lighting. Open structures shall be ex- 
empt from emergency lighting requirements. 

11.2.2.10 Marking of Means of Egress. Open structures shall 
be exempt from marking of means of egress requirements. 

11.2.3 Protection. 

11.2.3.1 Protection of Vertical Openings. Open structures shall 
be exempt from protection of vertical opening requirements. 

11.2.3.2 Protection from Hazards. Every open structure, 
other than those structures with only occasional occupancy, 
shall have automatic, manual, or other protection that is ap- 
propriate to the particular hazard and that is designed to mini- 
mize danger to occupants in case of fire or other emergency 
before they have time to use the means of egress. 



11.2.3.3 Interior Finish. (No modifications.) 

11.2.3.4 Detection, Alarm, and Communications Systems. 
Open structures shall be exempt from requirements for detec- 
tion, alarm, and communications systems. 

11.2.3.5 Extinguishing Requirements. (No modifications.) 
11.3 Towers. 

11.3.1 Application. 

11.3.1.1 General. The provisions of Section 11.1 shall apply. 

11.3.1.2 Definition — Tower. See 3.3.224. 

11.3.1.3 Use of Accessory Levels. 

11.3.1.3.1 Sprinklered Towers. In towers protected through- 
out by an automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Sec- 
tion 9.7, the levels located below the observation level shall be 
permitted to be occupied only for the following uses that sup- 
port tower operations: 

(1) Electrical and mechanical equipment rooms, including 
emergency power, radar, communications, and electron- 
ics rooms 

(2)*Incidental accessory uses 

11.3.1 .3.2 Nonsprinklered Towers. The levels located within a 
tower below the observation level and the equipment room 
for that level in nonsprinklered towers shall not be occupied. 

11.3.2 Means of Egress. 

11.3.2.1 General. The means of egress provisions of the appli- 
cable occupancy chapter, Chapter 12 through Chapter 42, 
shall apply, except as modified by 11.3.2.2 through 11.3.2.10. 

11.3.2.2 Means of Egress Components. 

11.3.2.2.1 Fire Escape Ladders. Towers, such as forest fire ob- 
servation or railroad signal towers, that are designed for occu- 
pancy by not more than three persons shall be permitted to be 
served by fire escape ladders complying with 7.2.9. 

11.3.2.2.2 Elevators. Towers subject to occupancy by not 
more than 90 persons shall be permitted to use elevators in 
the means of egress in accordance with 7.2.13. 

11 .3.2.3 Capacity of Means of Egress. 

11.3.2.3.1 Means of egress for towers shall be provided for 
the number of persons expected to occupy the space. 

11.3.2.3.2 Spaces not subject to human occupancy because of 
machinery or equipment shall be excluded from consideration. 

11.3. 2.4* Number of Means of Egress. 

11.3.2.4.1 Towers shall be permitted to have a single exit if 
the following conditions are met: 

(1 ) The tower shall be subject to occupancy by fewer than 25 
persons. 

(2) The tower shall not be used for living or sleeping purposes. 

(3) The tower shall be of Type I, Type II, or Type IV construc- 
tion. (See 8.2.1.) 

(4) The tower interior wall and ceiling finish shall be Class A 
or Class B. 

(5) No combustible materials shall be located within the 
tower, under the tower, or within the immediate vicinity 
of the tower, except necessary furniture. 

(6) No high hazard occupancies shall be located within the 
tower or within its immediate vicinity. 



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(7) Where the tower is located above a building, the single exit 
from the tower shall be provided by one of the following: 

(a) An exit enclosure separated from the building with 
no door openings to or from the building 

(b) An exit enclosure leading directly to an exit enclo- 
sure serving the building, with walls and door separat- 
ing the exit enclosures from each other, and another 
door allowing access to the top floor of the building 
that provides access to a second exit serving that floor 

11.3.2.4.2 Towers with 360-degree line-of-sight requirements 
shall be permitted to have a single means of egress for a dis- 
tance of travel not exceeding 23 m (75 ft), or 30 m (100 ft) if 
the tower is protected throughout by an approved, supervised 
automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 9.7. 

11.3.2.5 Arrangement of Means of Egress. (No modifications.) 

11.3.2.6 Travel Distance to Exits. Towers where ladders are 
permitted by 11.3.2.2.1 shall be exempt from travel distance 
limitations. 

11.3.2.7 Discharge from Exits. Towers permitted to have a 
single exit per 11.3.2.4 shall be permitted to have 100 percent of 
the exit discharge through areas on the level of exit discharge. 

11.3.2.8 Illumination of Means of Egress. Towers where lad- 
ders are permitted by 11.3.2.2.1 shall be exempt from illumi- 
nation of means of egress requirements. 

11.3.2.9 Emergency Lighting. 

11.3.2.9.1 Towers where ladders are permitted by 11.3.2.2.1 
shall be exempt from emergency lighting requirements. 

11.3.2.9.2 Locations not routinely inhabited by humans shall 
be exempt from emergency lighting requirements. 

11.3.2.9.3 Structures occupied only during daylight hours, 
with windows arranged to provide the required level of illumi- 
nation of all portions of the means of egress during such 
hours, shall be exempt from emergency lighting requirements 
where approved by the authority having jurisdiction. 

11.3.2.10 Marking of Means of Egress. 

11.3.2.10.1 Towers where ladders are permitted by 11.3.2.2.1 
shall be exempt from marking of means of egress require- 
ments. 

11.3.2.10.2 Locations not routinely inhabited by humans shall 
be exempt from marking of means of egress requirements. 

11.3.3 Protection. 

11.3.3.1 Protection of Vertical Openings. 

11.3.3.1.1 Towers where ladders are permitted by 11.3.2.2.1 
shall be exempt from protection of vertical opening require- 
ments. 

11.3.3.1.2 In towers where the support structure is open and 
there is no occupancy below the top floor level, stairs shall be 
permitted to be open with no enclosure required, or fire es- 
cape stairs shall be permitted. 

11.3.3.2 Protection from Hazards. Every tower, other than 
structures with only occasional occupancy, shall have auto- 
matic, manual, or other protection that is appropriate to the 
particular hazard and that is designed to minimize danger to 
occupants in case of fire or other emergency before they have 
time to use the means of egress. 



11.3.3.3 Interior Finish. (No modifications.) 

11.3.3.4 Detection, Alarm, and Conimunications Systems. 
Towers designed for occupancy by not more than three per- 
sons shall be exempt from requirements for detection, alarm, 
and communications systems. 

11.3.3.5 Extinguishing Requirements. (No modifications.) 

11.3.3.6 Corridors. (No modifications.) 

11.4 Water-Surrounded Structures. 

11.4.1 Application. 

11.4.1.1 General. The provisions of Section 11.1 and Sec- 
tion 11 .4 shall apply to those structures that are not under the 
jurisdiction of the U.S. Coast Guard and not designed and 
arranged in accordance with U.S. Coast Guard regulations. 

11.4.1.2 Definition — Water-Surrounded Structure. See 
3.3.217.12. 

11.4.2 Means of Egress. 

1 1 .4.2. 1 General. The means of egress provisions of the appli- 
cable occupancy chapter, Chapter 12 through Chapter 42, 
shall apply, except as modified by 11.4.2.2 through 11.4.2.10. 

11.4.2.2 Means of Egress Components. (No modifications.) 

11.4.2.3 Capacity of Means of Egress. Spaces in water- 
surrounded structures that are not subject to human occu- 
pancy because of machinery or equipment shall be exempt 
from the requirements for capacity of means of egress. 

11.4.2.4 Number of Means of Egress. (No modifications.) 

11.4.2.5 Arrangement of Means of Egress. (No modifications.) 

11.4.2.6 Travel Distance to Exits. (No modifications.) 

11.4.2.7 Discharge from Exits. Structures permitted to have a 
single exit per the applicable occupancy chapter shall be per- 
mitted to have 1 00 percent of the exit discharge through areas 
on the level of exit discharge. 

11.4.2.8 Illumination of Means of Egress. (No modifications.) 

11.4.2.9 Emergency Lighting. 

11.4.2.9.1 Locations not routinely inhabited by humans are 
exempt from emergency lighting requirements. 

11.4.2.9.2 Structures occupied only during daylight hours, 
with windows arranged to provide the required level of illumi- 
nation of all portions of the means of egress during such 
hours, shall be exempt from emergency lighting requirements 
where approved by the authority havingjurisdiction. 

11.4.2.10 Marking of Means of Egress. Locations not rou- 
tinely inhabited by humans shall be exempt from marking of 
means of egress requirements. 

11.4.3 Protection. 

11.4.3.1 Protection of Vertical Openings. (No modifications.) 

11.4.3.2 Protection from Hazards. Every water-surrounded 
structure, other than structures with only occasional occu- 
pancy, shall have automatic, manual, or other protection that 
is appropriate to the particular hazard and that is designed to 
minimize danger to occupants in case of fire or other emer- 
gency before they have time to use the means of egress. 

11.4.3.3 Interior Finish. (No modifications.) 



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11.4.3.4 Betection, Alarm, and Communications Systems. 
(No modifications.) 

11.4.3.5 Extinguishing Requirements. (No modifications.) 

11.4.3.6 Corridors. (No modifications.) 
11.5* Piers. 

11.5.1 Application. The provisions of Section 11.1 shall apply. 

11.5.2 Number of Means of Egress. Piers used exclusively to 
moor cargo vessels and to store material shall be exempt from 
number of means of egress requirements where provided with 
proper means of egress from structures thereon to the pier 
and a single means of access to the mainland, as appropriate 
to the pier's arrangement. 

11.5.3 Arrangement of Means of Egress. Piers not meeting the 
requirements of 11.5.2 and occupied for other than cargo han- 
dling and storage shall have means of egress arranged in accor- 
dance with Chapter 12 through Chapter 42. In addition, one of 
the following measures shall be provided on piers extending over 
46 m (150 ft ) from shore to minimize the possibility that fire 
under or on the pier blocks the escape of occupants to shore: 

(1) The pier shall be arranged to provide two separate ways to 
travel to shore, such as by two well-separated walkways or 
independent structures. 

(2) The pier deck shall be open, fire resistive, and set on non- 
combustible supports. 

(3) The pier shall be open, unobstructed, and not less than 
15 m (50 ft) in width if less than 150 m (500 ft) long, or its 
width shall be not less than 10 percent of its length if 
more than 150 m (500 ft) long. 

(4) The pier deck shall be provided with an approved auto- 
matic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 9.7 for 
combustible substructures and all superstructures. Such 
sprinkler system shall be supervised where required by the 
applicable occupancy chapter (Chapter 12 through 
Chapter 42). 

11.6* Vehicles and Vessels. 

11.6.1 Vehicles. Where immobile, attached to a building, or 
permanently fixed to a foundation, and where subject to hu- 
man occupancy, the following vehicles shall comply with the 
requirements of this Code that are appropriate to buildings of 
similar occupancy: 

(1) Trailers 

(2) Railroad cars 

(3) Streetcars 

(4) Buses 

(5) Conveyances similar to those in 11.6.1 (1) through 11.6.1 (4) 

11.6.2 Vessels. Any ship, barge, or other vessel permanently 
fixed to a foundation or mooring, or unable to get underway 
by means of its own power, and occupied for purposes other 
than navigation shall be subject to the requirements of this 
Code that apply to buildings of similar occupancy. 

11.7 Underground and limited Access Structures. 

11.7.1 Application. The provisions of Section 11.1 shall apply. 

11.7.2* Definitions. The following is a list of terms used in 
Section 11.7: 

(1) Underground Structure. See 3.3.217.11. 

(2) limited Access Structure. See 3.3.21 7.3. 



11.7.3 Special Provisions for Underground and Limited Ac- 
cess Structures. 

11.7.3.1 A structure or portion of a structure that does not 
have openings in compliance with 11.7.3.1(A) and 11.7.3.1(B) 
shall be designated as a limited access structure and shall com- 
ply with 11.7.3.4 and 11.7.3.5. 

(A) Single-Story Structures. Single-story structures shall have 
grade level doors or emergency access openings in accordance 
with 11.7.3.2 on two sides of the building, spaced not more 
than 38 m (125 ft) apart on the exterior walls. 

(B) Multiple-Story-Structures. Multiple-story structures shall 
comply with the following: 

(1) The story at grade level shall comply with 11.7.3.1(A). 

(2) Other stories shall be provided with emergency access 
openings in accordance with 11.7.3.2 on two sides of the 
building, spaced not more than 9140 mm (360 in.) apart. 

11.7.3.2 Emergency access openings shall consist of a win- 
dow, panel, or similar opening that complies with all of the 
following: 

(1) The opening shall have dimensions of not less than 
560 mm (22 in.) in width and 610 mm (24 in.) in height 
and shall be unobstructed to allow for ventilation and res- 
cue operations from the exterior. 

(2) The bottom of the opening shall be not more than 
1120 mm (44 in.) above the floor. 

(3) The opening shall be readily identifiable from both the 
exterior and interior. 

(4) The opening shall be readily openable from both the ex- 
terior and interior. 

11.7.3.3 A structure or portion of a structure shall not be 
considered an underground structure if the story is provided, 
on not less than two sides, with not less than 1 .9 m 2 (20 ft 2 ) of 
emergency access opening located entirely above the adjoin- 
ing grade level in each 15 lineal m (50 lineal ft) of exterior 
enclosing wall area. 

11.7.3.4 Underground and limited access structures, and all 
areas and floor levels traversed in traveling to the exit dis- 
charge, shall be protected by an approved, supervised auto- 
matic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 9.7, unless 
such structures meet one of the following criteria: 

( 1 ) They have an occupant load of 50 or fewer persons in new 
underground or limited access portions of the structure. 

(2) They have an occupant load of 100 or fewer persons in exist- 
ing underground or limited access portions of the structure. 

(3) The structure is a single-story underground or limited ac- 
cess structure that is permitted to have a single exit per 
Chapter 12 through Chapter 42, with a common path of 
travel not greater than 15 m (50 ft). 

11.7.3.5 Underground or limited access portions of struc- 
tures and all areas traversed in traveling to the exit discharge, 
other than in one- and two-family dwellings, shall be provided 
with emergency lighting in accordance with Section 7.9. 

11.7.4 Additional Provisions for Underground Structures. 

11.7.4.1 A structure or portion of a structure shall not be 
considered an underground structure if the story is provided, 
on not less than two sides, with not less than 1 .9 m 2 (20 ft 2 ) of 
emergency access opening located entirely above the adjoin- 
ing grade level in each 15 lineal m (50 lineal ft) of exterior 
enclosing wall area. 



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11.7.4.2 The requirements of 11.7.3 shall apply. 

11.7.4.3 Exits from underground structures with an occupant 
load of more than 100 persons in the underground portions of 
the structure and having a floor used for human occupancy lo- 
cated more than 9140 mm (360 in.) below the lowest level of exit 
discharge, or having more than one level located below the low- 
est level of exit discharge, shall meet the following criteria: 

(1) Exits shall be cut off from the level of exit discharge per 
7.1.3.2. 

(2) Exits shall be provided with outside smoke-venting facili- 
ties or other means to prevent the exits from becoming 
charged with smoke from any fire in the areas served by 
the exits. 

11.7.4.4 The underground portions of an underground 
structure, other than an existing underground structure, shall 
be provided with approved automatic smoke venting in accor- 
dance with Section 9.3 where the underground structure has 
the following features: 

(1) An occupant load of more than 100 persons in the under- 
ground portions of the structure 

(2) A floor level used for human occupancy located more 
than 9140 mm (360 in.) below the lowest level of exit 
discharge, or having more than one level located below 
the lowest level of exit discharge 

(3) Combustible contents, combustible interior finish, or 
combustible construction 

11.7.4.5 Exit stair enclosures in underground structures hav- 
ing a floor level used for human occupancy located more than 
9140 mm (360 in.) below the lowest level of exit discharge, or 
having more than one level located below the lowest level of 
exit discharge, shall be provided with signage in accordance 
with 7.2.2.5.4 at each floor level landing traversed in traveling 
to the exit discharge. The signs shall include a chevron-shaped 
indicator to show direction to the exit discharge. 

11.8 High-Rise Buildings. 

11.8.1 General. 

11.8.1.1 Where required by Chapter 12 through Chapter 42, 
the provisions of Section 11.8 shall apply to high-rise buildings 
as defined in 3.3.27.7. 

11.8.1.2 In addition to the requirements of Section 11.8, 
compliance with all other applicable provisions of this Code 
shall be required. 

11.8.2 Extinguishing Requirements. 

11.8.2.1* High-rise buildings shall be protected throughout by 
an approved, supervised automatic sprinkler system in accor- 
dance with Section 9.7. A sprinkler control valve and a water- 
flow device shall be provided for each floor. 

11.8.2.2 High-rise buildings shall be protected throughout by 
a Class I standpipe system in accordance with Section 9.7. 

11.8.3 Detection, Alarm, and Communications Systems. 

11.8.3.1* Afire alarm system using an approved, emergency 
voice/alarm communication system shall be installed in accor- 
dance with Section 9.6. 

11.8.3.2 Two-way telephone service shall be in accordance 
with 11.8.3.2(A) and 11.8.3.2(B): 

(A) Two-way telephone communicadon service shall be 
provided for fire department use. This system shall be in 



accordance with NFPA 72^, National Fire Alarm Code®. The 
communications system shall operate between the central 
control station and every elevator car, every elevator lobby, 
and each floor level of exit stairs. 

(B) The requirement of 11.8.3.2(A) shall not apply where the 
fire department radio system is approved as an equivalent system. 

11.8.4 Emergency Lighting and Standby Power. 

11.8.4.1 Emergency lighting in accordance with Section 7.9 
shall be provided. 

11.8.4.2 Requirements for standby power shall be as specified 
in 11.8.4.2(A) through 11.8.4.2(D). 

(A)* Class I, Type 60, standby power in accordance with Ardcle 
701 of NFPA 70, National Electrical Code®, and NFPA 110, Stan- 
dard for Emergency and Standby Power Systems, shall be provided. 

(B) The standby power system shall have a capacity and rating 
sufficient to supply all equipment required to be connected by 
11.8.4.2(D). 

(C) Selective load pickup and load shedding shall be permit- 
ted in accordance with NFPA 70, National Electrical Code®. 

(D) The standby power system shall be connected to the 
following: 

(1) Fire alarm system 

(2) Electric fire pump 

(3) Central control station equipment and lighting 

(4) Not less than one elevator serving all floors, with standby 
power transferable to any elevator 

(5) Mechanical equipment for smokeproof enclosures 

(6) Mechanical equipment required to conform with the re- 
quirements of Section 9.3 

11.8.5* Central Control Station. A central control station shall 
be provided in a location approved by the fire department. 
The control station shall contain the following: 

(1) Voice fire alarm system panels and controls 

(2) Fire department two-way telephone communication ser- 
vice panels and controls where required by another sec- 
tion of this Code 

(3) Fire detection and fire alarm system annunciation panels 

(4) Elevator floor location and operation annunciators 

(5) Sprinkler valve and waterflow annunciators 

(6) Emergency generator status indicators 

(7) Controls for any automatic stairway door unlocking system 

(8) Fire pump status indicators 

(9) A telephone for fire department use with controlled ac- 
cess to the public telephone system 

11.9 Permanent Membrane Structures. 

11.9.1 Application. 

11.9.1.1 General. The provisions of Section 11.1 shall apply. 

11.9.1.2 Use of Membrane Roofs. Membrane roofs shall be 
used in accordance with the following: 

(1) Membrane materials shall not be used where fire resis- 
tance ratings are required for walls or roofs. 

(2) Where every part of the roof, including the roof mem- 
brane, is not less than 6100 mm (240 in.) above any floor, 
balcony, or gallery, a noncombustible or limited- 
combustible membrane shall be permitted to be used as 
the roof in any type of construction. 



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(3) With approval of the authority having jurisdiction, mem- 
brane materials shall be permitted to be used where every 
part of the roof membrane is sufficiently above every sig- 
nificant fire potential such that the imposed temperature 
cannot exceed the capability of the membrane, including 
seams, to maintain its structural integrity. 

11.9.1.3 Testing. Testing of membrane materials for compli- 
ance with the requirements of Section 11.9 for use of the cat- 
egories of noncombustible and limited-combustible materials 
shall be performed on weathered-membrane material as de- 
fined in 3.3. 

11.9.1.4 Flame Spread Classification. Flame spread of all 
membrane materials exposed within the structure shall be 
Class A in accordance with Section 10.2. 

11.9.1.5 Roof Covering Classification. Roof membranes shall 
have a roof covering classification, as required by the appli- 
cable building codes, when tested in accordance with 
NFPA 256, Standard Methods of Fire Tests of Roof Coverings. 

11.9.1.6 Flame Resistance. 

11.9.1.6.1 All membrane structure fabric shall be flame resis- 
tant in accordance with 10.3.1. 

11.9.1.6.2 One of the following shall serve as evidence that 
the fabric materials have the required flame resistance: 

(1) The authority having jurisdiction shall require a certifi- 
cate or other evidence of acceptance by an organization 
acceptable to the authority havingjurisdicdon. 

(2) The authority having jurisdiction shall require a report of 
tests made by other inspection authorities or organiza- 
tions acceptable to the authority having jurisdiction. 

11.9.1.6.3 Where required by the authority havingjurisdicdon, 
confirmatory field tests shall be conducted using test specimens 
from the original material, which shall have been affixed at the 
time of manufacture to the exterior of the structure. 

11.9.2 Tensioned-Menilbrane Structures. 

11.9.2.1 The design, materials, and construction of the build- 
ing shall be based on plans and specifications prepared by a 
licensed architect or engineer knowledgeable in tensioned- 
membrane construction. 

11.9.2.2 Material loads and strength shall be based on physi- 
cal properties of the materials verified and certified by an ap- 
proved testing laboratory. 

11.9.2.3 The membrane roof for structures in climates sub- 
ject to freezing temperatures and ice buildup shall be com- 
posed of two layers separated by an air space through which 
heated air can be moved to guard against ice accumulation. As 
an alternative to the two layers, other approved methods that 
protect against ice accumulation shall be permitted. 

11.9.2.4 Roof drains shall be equipped with electrical ele- 
ments to protect against ice buildup that can prevent the 
drains from functioning. Such heating elements shall be 
served by on-site standby electrical power in addition to the 
normal public service. As an alternative to such electrical ele- 
ments, other approved methods that protect against ice accu- 
mulation shall be permitted. 

11.9.3 Air-Supported and Air-Inflated Structures. 

11.9.3.1 General. In addition to the general provisions of 
11.9.1, the requirements of 11.9.3 shall apply to air-supported 
and air-inflated structures. 



11.9.3.2 Pressurization (Inflation) System. The pressurization 
system shall consist of one or more operating blower units. 
The system shall include automatic control of auxiliary blower 
units to maintain the required operating pressure. Such 
equipment shall meet the following requirements: 

(1) Blowers shall be powered by continuous-rated motors at 
the maximum power required. 

(2) Blowers shall have personnel protection, such as inlet 
screens and belt guards. 

(3) Blower systems shall be weather protected. 

(4) Blower systems shall be equipped with backdraft check 
dampers. 

(5) Not less than two blower units shall be provided, each of 
which has capacity to maintain full inflation pressure with 
normal leakage. 

(6) The blowers shall be designed to be incapable of over- 
pressurizadon. 

(7) The auxiliary blower unit(s) shall operate automatically if 
there is any loss of internal pressure or if an operating 
blower unit becomes inoperative. 

(8) The design inflation pressure and the capacity of each 
blower system shall be certified by a professional engineer. 

11.9.3.3 Standby Power System. 

11.9.3.3.1* Afully automatic standby power system shall be pro- 
vided. The system shall be either an auxiliary engine generator 
set capable of running the blower system or a supplementary 
blower unit that is sized for 1 times the normal operating capacity 
and is powered by an internal combustion engine. 

11.9.3.3.2 The standby power system shall be fully automatic 
to ensure continuous inflation in the event of any failure of 
the primary power. The system shall be capable of operating 
continuously for a minimum of 4 hours. 

11.9.3.3.3 The sizing and capacity of the standby power sys- 
tem shall be certified by a professional engineer. 

11.9.4 Maintenance and Operation. 

11.9.4.1 Instructions in both operation and maintenance 
shall be transmitted to the owner by the manufacturer of the 
tensioned-membrane, air-supported, or air-inflated structure. 

11.9.4.2 Annual inspection and required maintenance of 
each structure shall be performed to ensure safety conditions. 
At least biennially, the inspection shall be performed by a pro- 
fessional engineer, registered architect, or individual certified 
by the manufacturer. 

11.9.5 Services. 
11.9.5.1 Fired Heaters. 

11.9.5.1.1 Only labeled heating devices shall be used. 

11.9.5.1.2 Fuel-fired heaters and their installation shall be 
approved by the authority having jurisdiction. 

11.9.5.1.3 Containers for liquefied petroleum gases shall be 
installed not less than 1525 mm (60 in.) from any temporary 
membrane structure and shall be in accordance with the pro- 
visions of NFPA 58, Liquefied Petroleum Gas Code. 

11.9.5.1.4 Tanks shall be secured in the upright position and 
protected from vehicular traffic. 



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11.9.5.2 Electric Heaters. 

11.9.5.2.1 Only labeled heaters shall be permitted. 

11.9.5.2.2 Heaters shall be connected to electricity by electric 
cable that is suitable for outside use and is of sufficient size to 
handle the electrical load. 

11.10 Temporary Membrane Structures. 

11.10.1 Application. 

11.10.1.1 General. The provisions of Section 11.1 shall apply. 

11.10.1.2 Required Approval. Membrane structures designed 
to meet all the requirements of Section 11.10 shall be permit- 
ted to be used as temporary buildings subject to the approval 
of the authority having jurisdiction. 

11.10.1.3 Alternative Requirements. Temporary tensioned- 
membrane structures shall be permitted to comply with Sec- 
tion 11.11 instead of Section 11.10. 

11.10.1.4 Roof Covering Classification. Roof membranes 
shall have a roof covering classification, as required by the 
applicable building codes, when tested in accordance with 
NFPA 256, Standard Methods of Fire Tests of Roof Coverings. 

11.10.1.5 Flame Resistance. 

11.10.1.5.1 All membrane structure fabric shall be flame re- 
sistant in accordance with 10.3.1. 

11.10.1.5.2 One of the following shall serve as evidence that 
the fabric materials have the required flame resistance: 

(1) The authority having jurisdiction shall require a certifi- 
cate or other evidence of acceptance by an organization 
acceptable to the authority having jurisdiction. 

(2) The authority havingjurisdiction shall require a report of 
tests made by other inspection authorities or organiza- 
tions acceptable to the authority havingjurisdiction. 

11.10.1.5.3 Where required by the authority havingjurisdic- 
tion, confirmatory field tests shall be conducted using test speci- 
mens from the original material, which shall have been affixed at 
the time of manufacture to the exterior of the structure. 

11.10.2 Fire Hazards. 

11.10.2.1 The ground enclosed by any temporary membrane 
structure, and the ground for a reasonable distance but for 
not less than 3050 mm (120 in.) outside of such a structure, 
shall be cleared of all flammable or combustible material or 
vegetation that is not used for necessary support equipment. 
The clearing work shall be accomplished to the satisfaction of 
the authority havingjurisdiction prior to the erection of such 
a structure. The premises shall be kept free from such flam- 
mable or combustible materials during the period for which 
the premises are used by the public. 

11.10.2.2 Where prohibited by the authority havingjurisdic- 
tion, smoking shall not be permitted in any temporary mem- 
brane structure. 

11.10.3 Fire-Extinguishing Equipment Portable fire-extinguishing 
equipment of approved types shall be furnished and maintained 
in temporary membrane structures in such quantity and in such 
locations as directed by the authority havingjurisdiction. 

11.10.4 Tensioned-Membrane Structures. 

11.10.4.1 The design, materials, and construction of the 
building shall be based on plans and specifications prepared 



by a licensed architect or engineer knowledgeable in tensioned- 
membrane construction. 

11.10.4.2 Material loads and strength shall be based on physi- 
cal properties of the materials verified and certified by an ap- 
proved testing laboratory. 

11.10.4.3 The membrane roof for structures in climates sub- 
ject to freezing temperatures and ice buildup shall be com- 
posed of two layers separated by an air space through which 
heated air can be moved to guard against ice accumulation. As 
an alternative to the two layers, other approved methods that 
protect against ice accumulation shall be permitted. 

11.10.4.4 Roof drains shall be equipped with electrical ele- 
ments to protect against ice buildup that can prevent the 
drains from functioning. Such heating elements shall be 
served by on-site standby electrical power in addition to the 
normal public service. As an alternative to such electrical ele- 
ments, other approved methods that protect against ice accu- 
mulation shall be permitted. 

11.10.5 Air-Supported and Air-Inflated Structures. 

11.10.5.1 General. In addition to the general provisions of 
11.10.1, the requirements of 11.10.5 shall apply to air- 
supported and air-inflated structures. 

11.10.5.2 Pressurization (Inflation) System. The pressuriza- 
tion system shall consist of one or more operating blower 
units. The system shall include automatic control of auxiliary 
blower units to maintain the required operating pressure. 
Such equipment shall meet the following requirements: 

(1) Blowers shall be powered by continuous-rated motors at 
the maximum power required. 

(2) Blowers shall have personnel protection, such as inlet 
screens and belt guards. 

(3) Blower systems shall be weather protected. 

(4) Blower systems shall be equipped with backdraft check 
dampers. 

(5) Not less than two blower units shall be provided, each of 
which has capacity to maintain full inflation pressure with 
normal leakage. 

(6) The blowers shall be designed to be incapable of over- 
pressurization. 

(7) The auxiliary blower unit(s) shall operate automatically if 
there is any loss of internal pressure or if an operating 
blower unit becomes inoperative. 

(8) The design inflation pressure and the capacity of each 
blower system shall be certified by a professional 
engineer. 

11.10.5.3 Standby Power System . 

11.10.5.3.1 A fully automatic standby power system shall be 
provided. The system shall be either an auxiliary engine gen- 
erator set capable of running the blower system or a supple- 
mentary blower unit that is sized for 1 times the normal 
operating capacity and is powered by an internal combus- 
tion engine. 

11.10.5.3.2 The standby power system shall be fully automatic 
to ensure continuous inflation in the event of any failure of 
the primary power. The system shall be capable of operating 
continuously for a minimum of 4 hours. 

11.10.5.3.3 The sizing and capacity of the standby power sys- 
tem shall be certified by a professional engineer. 



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11.10.6 Maintenance and Operation. 

11.10.6.1 Instructions in both operation and maintenance 
shall be transmitted to the owner by the manufacturer of the 
tensioned-membrane, air-supported, or air-inflated structure. 

11.10.6.2 Annual inspection and required maintenance of 
each structure shall be performed to ensure safety conditions. 
At least biennially, the inspection shall be performed by a pro- 
fessional engineer, registered architect, or individual certified 
by the manufacturer. 

11.10.7 Services. 

11.10.7.1 Fired Heaters. 

11.10.7.1.1 Only labeled heating devices shall be used. 

11.10.7.1.2 Fuel-fired heaters and their installation shall be 
approved by the authority having jurisdiction. 

11.10.7.1.3 Containers for liquefied petroleum gases shall be 
installed not less than 1525 mm (60 in.) from any temporary 
membrane structure and shall be in accordance with the pro- 
visions of NFPA58, Liquefied Petroleum Gas Code. 

11.10.7.1.4 Tanks shall be secured in the upright position 
and protected from vehicular traffic. 

11.10.7.2 Electric Heaters. 

11.10.7.2.1 Only labeled heaters shall be permitted. 

11.10.7.2.2 Heaters used inside a temporary membrane struc- 
ture shall be approved. 

11.10.7.2.3 Heaters shall be connected to electricity by elec- 
tric cable that is suitable for outside use and is of sufficient size 
to handle the electrical load. 

11.11 Tents. 

11.11.1 General. 

11.11.1.1 The provisions of Section 11.1 shall apply. 

11.11.1.2 Tents shall be permitted only on a temporary basis. 

11.11.1.3 Tents shall be erected to cover not more than 
75 percent of the premises, unless otherwise approved by the 
authority having jurisdiction. 

11.11.2 Flame Resistance. 

11.11.2.1 All tent fabric shall be flame resistant in accordance 
with 10.3.1. 

11.11.2.2 One of the following shall serve as evidence that the 
tent fabric materials have the required flame resistance: 

(1) The authority having jurisdiction shall require a certifi- 
cate or other evidence of acceptance by an organization 
acceptable to the authority havingjurisdiction. 

(2) The authority havingjurisdiction shall require a report of 
tests made by other inspection authorities or organiza- 
tions acceptable to the authority havingjurisdiction. 

11.11.2.3 Where required by the authority havingjurisdic- 
tion, confirmatory field tests shall be conducted using test 
specimens from the original material, which shall have been 
affixed at the time of manufacture to the exterior of the tent. 

11.11.3 Location and Spacing. 

11.11.3.1 There shall be a minimum of 3050 mm (120 in.) 
between stake lines. 



11.11.3.2 Adjacent tents shall be spaced to provide an area 
to be used as a means of emergency egress. Where 3050 mm 
(120 in.) between stake lines does not meet the require- 
ments for means of egress, the distance necessary for means 
of egress shall govern. 

11.11.3.3 Tents not occupied by the public and not used for 
the storage of combustible material shall be permitted to be 
erected less than 3050 mm (120 in.) from other structures 
where the authority havingjurisdiction deems such close spac- 
ing to be safe from hazard to the public. 

11.11.3.4 Tents, each not exceeding 112 m 2 (1200 ft 2 ) in 
ground area and located in fairgrounds or similar open 
spaces, shall not be required to be separated from each other, 
provided that safety precautions meet the approval of the au- 
thority havingjurisdiction. 

11.11.3.5 The placement of tents relative to other structures 
shall be at the discretion of the authority havingjurisdiction, 
with consideration given to occupancy, use, opening, expo- 
sure, and other similar factors. 

11.11.4 Fire Hazards. 

11.11.4.1 The ground enclosed by any tent, and the ground 
for a reasonable distance but for not less than 3050 mm 
(120 in.) outside of such a tent, shall be cleared of all flam- 
mable or combustible material or vegetation that is not used 
for necessary support equipment. The clearing work shall be 
accomplished to the satisfaction of the authority havingjuris- 
diction prior to the erection of such a tent. The premises shall 
be kept free from such flammable or combustible materials dur- 
ing the period for which the premises are used by the public. 

11.11.4.2 Where prohibited by the authority havingjuris- 
diction, smoking shall not be permitted in any tent. 

11.11.5 Fii^Extinguishing Equipment Portable fire-extinguishing 
equipment of approved types shall be furnished and maintained 
in tents in such quantity and in such locations as directed by the 
authority havingjurisdiction. 

11.11.6 Services. 

11.11.6.1 Fired Heaters. 

11.11.6.1.1 Only labeled heating devices shall be used. 

11.11.6.1.2 Fuel-fired heaters and their installation shall be 
approved by the authority havingjurisdiction. 

11. ll.fi. 1.3 Containers for liquefied petroleum gases shall be 
installed not less than 1525 mm (60 in.) from any tent and 
shall be in accordance with the provisions of NFPA 58, Lique- 
fied Petroleum Gas Code. 

11.11.6.1.4 Tanks shall be secured in the upright position and 
protected from vehicular traffic. 

11.11.6.2 Electric Heaters. 

11.11.6.2.1 Only labeled heaters shall be permitted. 

11.11.6.2.2 Heaters used inside a tent shall be approved. 

11.11.6.2.3 Heaters shall be connected to electricity by elec- 
tric cable that is suitable for outside use and is of sufficient size 
to handle the electrical load. 



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LIFE SAFETY CODE 



Chapter 12 New Assembly Occupancies 

12.1 General Requirements. 

12.1.1 Application. The requirements of this chapter shall ap- 
ply to the following: 

(1) New buildings or portions thereof used as an assembly 
occupancy (see 1.3. 1) 

(2) Additions made to, or used as, an assembly occupancy (see 
4.6.7) 

(3) Alterations, modernizations, or renovations of existing as- 
sembly occupancies (see 4.6.8) 

(4) Existing buildings or portions thereof upon change of oc- 
cupancy to an assembly occupancy (see 4.6.12) 

12.1.2 Multiple Occupancies. 

12.1.2.1 General. Multiple occupancies shall be in accor- 
dance with 6.1.14. 

12.1.2.2* Simultaneous Occupancy. Exits shall be sufficient 
for simultaneous occupancy of both the assembly occupancy 
and other parts of the building, except where the authority 
having jurisdiction determines that the conditions are such 
that simultaneous occupancy will not occur. 

12.1.2.3 Assembly and Mercantile Occupancies in Mall 
Buildings. 

12.1.2.3.1 The provisions of Chapter 12 shall apply to the 
assembly occupancy tenant space. 

12.1.2.3.2 The provisions of 36.4.4 shall be permitted to be 
used outside the assembly occupancy tenant space. 

12.1.3* Definitions. Alist of terms used in this chapter follows: 

(1) Aisle Accessway. See 3.3.8. 

(2) Exhibit. See 3.3.58. 

(3) Exhibitor. See 3.3.59. 

(4) Exposition. See 3.3.65. 

(5) Exposition Facility. See 3.3.69.1. 

(6) Festival Seating. See 3.3.188.1. 

(7) Flow Time. See 3.3.88. 

(8) Fly Gallery. See 3.3.89. 

(9) Gridiron. See 3.3.96. 

(10) Legitimate Stage. See 3.3.210.1. 

(11) Life Safety Evaluation. See 3.3.126. 

(12) Multilevel Play Structure. See 3.3.217.5. 

(13) Multipurpose Assembly Occupancy. See 3.3.152.2.1. 

(14) Pinrail. See 3.3.165. 

(15) Platform. See 3.3.166. 

(16) Proscenium Wall. See 3.3.229.2. 

(17) Regular Stage. See 3.3.210.2. 

(18) Smoke-Protected Assembly Seating. See 3.3.188.4. 

(19) Special Amusement Building. See 3.3.27.10. 

(20) Stage. See 3.3.210. 

(21) Temporary Platform. See 3.3.166.1. 

12.1.4* Classification of Occupancy. See 6.1.2. 

12.1.5 Classification of Hazard of Contents. Contents' of as- 
sembly occupancies shall be classified in accordance with the 
provisions of Section 6.2. 

12.1.6 Minimum Construction Requirements. The location of 
an assembly occupancy shall be limited as shown in Table 12.1.6, 
unless otherwise permitted by the following (see 8.2. 1}. 



( 1 ) This requirement shall not apply to outdoor grandstands 
of Type I or Type II construction. 

(2) This requirement shall not apply to outdoor grandstands 
of Type III, Type IV, or Type V construction that meet the 
requirements of 12.4.8. 

(3) This requirement shall not apply to grandstands of noncom- 
bustible construction supported by the floor in a building 
meeting the construction requirements of Table 12.1.6. 

(4) This requirement shall not apply to assembly occupancies 
within mall buildings in accordance with 36.4.4. 

12.1.7 Occupant Load. 

12.1.7.1* General. The occupant load, in number of persons 
for whom means of egress and other provisions are required, 
shall be determined on the basis of the occupant load factors 
of Table 7.3.1.2 that are characteristic of the use of the space 
or shall be determined as the maximum probable population 
of the space under consideration, whichever is greater. 

12.1.7.1.1 In areas not in excess of 930 m 2 (10,000 ft 2 ), the 
occupant load shall not exceed one person in 0.46 m 2 (5 ft 2 ) . 

12.1.7.1.2 In areas in excess of 930 m 2 (10,000 ft 2 ), the occu- 
pant load shall not exceed one person in 0.65 m 2 (7 ft 2 ). 

12.1.7.2 Waiting Spaces. In theaters and other assembly occu- 
pancies where persons are admitted to the building at times 
when seats are not available, or when the permitted occupant 
load has been reached based on 12.1.7.1 and persons are al- 
lowed to wait in a lobby or similar space until seats or space is 
available, the following requirements shall apply: 

(1) Such use of a lobby or similar space shall not encroach 
upon the required clear width of exits. 

(2) The waiting spaces shall be restricted to areas other than 
the required means of egress. 

(3) Exits shall be provided for the waiting spaces on the basis of 
one person for each 0.28 m 2 (3 ft 2 ) of waiting space area. 

(4) Exits for waiting spaces shall be in addition to the exits 
specified for the main auditorium area and shall conform 
in construction and arrangement to the general rules for 
exits given in this chapter. 

12.1.7.3 Life Safety Evaluation. Where the occupant load of 
an assembly occupancy exceeds 6000, a life safety evaluation 
shall be performed in accordance with 12.4.1. 

12.1.7.4 Outdoor Facilities. In outdoor facilities, where ap- 
proved by the authority having jurisdiction, the number of 
occupants who are each provided with not less than 1.4 m 2 
(15 ft 2 ) of lawn surface shall be permitted to be excluded from 
the maximum occupant load of 6000 of 12.1.7.3 in determin- 
ing the need for a life safety evaluation. 

12.2 Means of Egress Requirements. 

12.2.1 General. All means of egress shall be in accordance 
with Chapter 7 and this chapter. 

12.2.2 Means of Egress Components. 

12.2.2.1 Components of means of egress shall be limited to 
the types described in 12.2.2.2 through 12.2.2.12. 

12.2.2.2 Doors. 

12.2.2.2.1 Doors complying with 7.2.1 shall be permitted. 



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KH-95 



Table 12.1.6 Construction Type Limitations 



Type of 
Construction 



Below LED 



LED 



1 



Number of Levels above LED 



>4 



I(443)t£§ Any assemblyO Any assembly Any assembly Any assembly Any assembly 

I(332)tJ§ 
II(222)tt§ 



II(111)U§ 



Any assemblyO 
Limited to 1 
level below LED 



Any assembly Any assembly 



Any assembly; If Assembly with 
OL> 10000 OL< 10000 



Any assembly; 
IfOL>3000 



NP 



IV(2HH) 
V(lll) 



Any assemblyO 
Limited to 1 
level below LED 



Any assembly Any assembly 



Any assembly; Assembly with 
IfOL>3000 OL< 10000 



NP 



11(000) Assembly with OL 

<10000 
Limited to 1 
level below LED 



Any assembly; Assembly with 
If OL> 10000 OL<3000 



NP 



NP 



NP 



III ( 200 ) Assembly with OL 

< 10000 

V(000) Limited to 1 level 

below LED 



Assembly with Assembly with 
OL < 1000 OL <3000 



NP 



NP 



NP 



NP: Not permitted. 
LED: Level of exit discharge. 
OL: Occupant load. 

Note: For the purpose of this table, a mezzanine is not counted as a level. 

fWhere every part of the structural framework of roofs in Type 1 or Type II construction is 6100 mm (240 in.) 
or more above the floor immediately below, omission of all fire protection of the structural members shall be 
permitted, including protection of trusses, roof framing, decking, and portions of columns above 6100 mm 
(240 in.). 

JWhere seating treads and risers serve as floors, such seating treads and risers shall be permitted to be of 
1-hour fire resistance-rated construction. Structural members supporting seating treads and risers shall 
conform to the requirements of Table 12.1.6. Joints between seating tread and riser units shall be permitted 
to be unrated, provided that such joints do not involve separation from areas containing high hazard con- 
tents and the facility is constructed and operated in accordance with 12.4.2. 

§In open-air fixed seating facilities, including stadia, omission of fire protection of structural members 
exposed to the outside atmosphere shall be permitted where substantiated by an approved engineering 
analysis. 

^Permitted if all the following are protected throughout by an approved, supervised automatic sprinkler 
system in accordance with Section 9.7: (1 ) The level of the assembly occupancy, (2) any level below the level 
of the assembly occupancy, (3) in the case of an assembly occupancy located below the level of exit discharge, 
any level intervening between that level and the level of exit discharge, including the level of exit discharge. 



12.2.2.2.2 Assembly occupancies with occupant loads of 300 
or less in malls (see 36.4.4.2.2) shall be permitted to have hori- 
zontal or vertical security grilles or doors complying with 
7.2.1.4.1.4 on the main entrance/exits. 

12.2.2.2.3 Any door in a required means of egress from an 
area having an occupant load of 100 or more persons shall be 
permitted to be provided with a latch or lock only if the latch 
or lock is panic hardware or fire exit hardware complying with 
7.2.1.7, unless otherwise permitted by the following: 

(1) This requirement shall not apply to delayed-egress locks 
as permitted in 12.2.2.2.5. 

(2) This requirement shall not apply to access-controlled 
egress doors as permitted in 12.2.2.2.6. 



12.2.2.2.4 Locking devices complying with 7.2.1.5.4 shall be 
permitted to be used on a single door or a single pair of doors 
if both of the following conditions apply: 

(1) The door or pair of doors serve as the main exit and the 
assembly occupancy has an occupant load not greater 
than 500. 

(2) Any latching devices on such a door(s) from an assembly 
occupancy having an occupant load of 100 or more are 
released by panic hardware or fire exit hardware. 

12.2.2.2.5 Delayed-egress locks complying with 7.2.1.6.1 
shall be permitted on doors other than main entrance/exit 
doors. 



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12-2.2.2.6 Doors in the means of egress shall be permitted to be 
equipped with an approved access control system complying with 
7.2.1.6.2, and such doors shall not be locked from the egress side 
when the assembly occupancy is occupied. (See 7.2.1.1.3.) 

12.2.2.2.7 Revolving doors complying with the requirements 
of 7.2.1.10 shall be permitted. 

12.2.2.2.8 The provisions of 7.2.1.11.1.1 to allow turnstiles 
where revolving doors are permitted shall not apply. 

12.2.2.2.9 No turnstiles or other devices that restrict the 
movement of persons shall be installed in any assembly occu- 
pancy in such a manner as to interfere with required means of 
egress facilities. 

12.2.2.3 Stairs. 

12.2.2.3.1 General. Stairs complying with 7.2.2 shall be per- 
mitted, unless one of the following criteria applies: 

(l)*Stairs serving seating that is designed to be repositioned 
shall not be required to comply with 7.2.2.3.1. 

(2) This requirement shall not apply to stages and platforms 
as permitted by 12.4.5. 

12.2.2.3.2 Catwalk, Gallery, and Gridiron Stairs. 

12.2.2.3.2.1 Noncombustible grated stair treads and landing 
floors shall be permitted in means of egress from lighting and 
access catwalks, galleries, and gridirons. 

12.2.2.3.2.2 Spiral stairs complyingwith 7.2.2.2.3 shall be per- 
mitted in means of egress from lighting and access catwalks, 
galleries, and gridirons. 

12.2.2.4 Smokeproof Enclosures. Smokeproof enclosures 
complying with 7.2.3 shall be permitted. 

12.2.2.5 Horizontal Exits. Horizontal exits complying with 
7.2.4 shall be permitted. 

12.2.2.6 Ramps. Ramps complying with 7.2.5 shall be permit- 
ted, and the following alternatives shall also apply: 

( 1 ) Ramps not part of an accessible means of egress and serv- 
ing only stages or nonpublic areas shall be permitted to 
have a slope not steeper than 1 in 8. 

(2) Ramped aisles not part of an accessible means of egress 
shall be permitted to have a slope not steeper than 1 in 8. 

12.2.2.7 Exit Passageways. Exit passageways complying with 
7.2.6 shall be permitted. 

12.2.2.8 Reserved. 

12.2.2.9 Reserved. 

12.2.2.10 Fire Escape Ladders. 

12.2.2.10.1 Fire escape ladders complying with 7.2.9 shall be 
permitted. 

12.2.2.10.2 For ladders serving catwalks, the three-person 
limitation in 7.2.9.1(3) shall be permitted to be increased to 
ten persons. 

12.2.2.11 Alternating Tread Devices. Alternating tread de- 
vices complyingwith 7.2.11 shall be permitted. 

12.2.2.12 Areas of Refuge. Areas of refuge complying with 
7.2.12 shall be permitted. 



12.2.3 Capacity of Means of Egress. 

12.2.3.1 The capacity of means of egress shall be in accor- 
dance with one of the following: 

(1) Section 7.3 for other than theater-type seating or smoke- 
protected assembly seating 

(2) 12.2.3.2 for rooms with theater-type seating or similar 
seating arranged in rows 

(3) 1 2.4.2 for smoke-protected assembly seating. 

12.2.3.2* Minimum clear widths of aisles and other means of 
egress serving theater-type seating, or similar seating arranged 
in rows, shall be in accordance with Table 12.2.3.2. 



Table 12.2.3.2 Capacity Factors 





Clear Width per Seat Served 


No. of 
Seats 


Stairs 


Passageways, Ramps, and 

Doorways 


mm in. 


mm in. 


Unlimited 


7.6 AS 0.3 AB 


5.6 C 0.22 C 



12.2.3.3 The minimum clear widths shown in Table 12.2.3.2 
shall be modified in accordance with all of the following: 

(1) If risers exceed 178 mm in height, the stair width in 
Table 12.2.3.2 shall be multiplied by factor A, where A equals 
the following: 



A = l + 



riser height- 178 
125 



(2) If risers exceed 7 in. in height, the stair width in 
Table 12.2.3.2 shall be multiplied by factor A, where A equals 
the following: 



A = l + 



riser height - 7 



(3) 



Stairs not having a handrail within a 760-mm (30-in.) hori- 
zontal distance shall be 25 percent wider than otherwise 
calculated; that is, their width shall be multiplied by fac- 
tor B, where B equals the following: 

5 = 1.25 



(4) Ramps steeper than 1 in 10 slope where used in ascent 
shall have their width increased by 10 percent; that is, 
their width shall be multiplied by factor C, where C equals 
the following: 

C = 1.10 

12.2.3.4 Lighting and Access Catwalks. The requirements of 
12.2.3.2 and 12.2.3.3 shall not apply to lighting and access 
catwalks as permitted by 12.4.5.9. 

12.2.3.5 Reserved. 

12.2.3.6 Main Entrance /Exit. Every assembly occupancy shall 
be provided with a main entrance/exit. 

12.2.3.6.1 The main entrance/exit shall be of a width that 
accommodates one-half of the total occupant load and shall 



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be at the level of exit discharge or shall connect to a stairway or 
ramp leading to a street. 

12.2.3.6.2 Each level of an assembly occupancy shall have 
access to the main entrance/exit, and such access shall have 
the capacity to accommodate 50 percent of the occupant load 
of such levels. 

12.2.3.6.3 Where the main entrance/exit from an assembly 
occupancy is through a lobby or foyer, the aggregate capacity 
of all exits from the lobby or foyer shall be permitted to pro- 
vide the required capacity of the main entrance/exit, regard- 
less of whether all such exits serve as entrances to the building. 

12.2.3.6.4 Abowling establishment shall have a main entrance/ 
exit of a capacity that accommodates 50 percent of the total oc- 
cupant load without regard to the number of aisles that it serves. 

12.2.3.6.5* In assembly occupancies where there is no well- 
defined main entrance/exit, exits shall be permitted to be dis- 
tributed around the perimeter of the building, provided that the 
total exit width furnishes not less than 100 percent of the width 
needed to accommodate the permitted occupant load. 

12.2.3.7 Other Exits. Each level of an assembly occupancy 
shall have access to the main entrance/exit and shall be pro- 
vided with additional exits of a width to accommodate not less 
than one-half of the total occupant load served by that level. 



12.2.3.7. 
12.2.7. 



Additional exits shall discharge in accordance with 



12.2.3.7.2 Additional exits shall be located as far apart as prac- 
ticable and as far from the main entrance/exit as practicable. 

12.2.3.7.3 Additional exits shall be accessible from a cross 
aisle or a side aisle. 

12.2.3.7.4 In assembly occupancies where there is no well- 
defined main entrance/exit, exits shall be permitted to be dis- 
tributed around the perimeter of the building, provided that the 
total exit width furnishes not less than 100 percent of the width 
required to accommodate the permitted occupant load. 

12.2.3.8 The width of any exit access corridor serving 50 or 
more persons shall be not less than 1120 mm (44 in.). 

12.2.4* Number of Exits. 

12.2.4.1 The number of exits shall be in accordance with 
Section 7.4, other than exits for fenced outdoor assembly oc- 
cupancies in accordance with 12.2.4.4. 

12.2.4.2 Reserved. 

12.2.4.3 Reserved. 

12.2.4.4 Afenced outdoor assembly occupancy shall have not 
less than two widely separated means of egress from the enclo- 
sure, unless otherwise required by one of the following: 

( 1 ) If more than 6000 persons are to be served by such means of 
egress, there shall be not less than three means of egress. 

(2) If more than 9000 persons are to be served by such means 
of egress, there shall be not less than four means of egress. 

12.2.4.5 Balconies or mezzanines having an occupant load 
not exceeding 50 shall be permitted to be served by a single 
means of egress, and such means of egress shall be permitted 
to lead to the floor below. 

12.2.4.6 Balconies or mezzanines having an occupant load 
exceeding 50 but not exceeding 100 shall have not less than 



two remote means of egress, but both such means of egress 
shall be permitted to lead to the floor below. 

12.2.4.7 Balconies or mezzanines having an occupant load 
exceeding 100 shall have means of egress as described in 7.4.1. 

12.2.4.8 A second means of egress shall not be required from 
lighting and access catwalks, galleries, and gridirons where a 
means of escape to a floor or a roof is provided. Ladders, alter- 
nating tread devices, or spiral stairs shall be permitted in such 
means of escape. 

1 2.2.5 Arrangement of Means of Egress. 

12.2.5.1 General. 

12.2.5.1.1 Means of egress shall be arranged in accordance 
with Section 7.5. 

12.2.5.1.2 Acommon path of travel shall be permitted for the 
first 6100 mm (240 in.) from any point where the common 
path serves any number of occupants, and for the first 23 m 
(75 ft) from any point where the common path serves not 
more than 50 occupants. 

12.2.5.1.3 Dead-end corridors shall not exceed 6100 mm 
(240 in.). 

12.2.5.2 Access Throiigh Hazardous Areas. Means of egress 
from a room or space for assembly purposes shall not be 
permitted through kitchens, storerooms, restrooms, clos- 
ets, legitimate stages, projection rooms, or hazardous areas 
as described in 12.3.2. 

12.2.5.3 Auditorium and Area Floors. Where the floor area of 
auditoriums and arenas is used for assembly occupancy 
activities/events, not less than 50 percent of the occupant load 
shall have means of egress provided without passing through 
adjacent fixed seating areas. 

12.2.5.4 General Requirements for Access and Egress Routes 
Within Assembly Areas. 

12.2.5.4.1 Festival seating, as defined in 3.3.188.1, shall be 
prohibited within a building, unless otherwise permitted by 
the following: 

(1) Festival seating shall be permitted in assembly occupan- 
cies having occupant loads of 1000 or less. 

(2) Festival seating shall be permitted in assembly occupancies 
where occupant loads exceed 1000 and where an approved 
life safety evaluation has been performed. (See 12.4. 1.) 

12.2.5.4.2* Access and egress routes shall be maintained so 
that any individual is able to move without undue hindrance, 
on personal initiative and at any time, from an occupied posi- 
tion to the exits. 

12.2.5.4.3* Access and egress routes shall be maintained so 
that crowd management, security, and emergency medical 
personnel are able to reach any individual at any time, without 
undue hindrance. 

12.2.5.4.4* The width of aisle accessways and aisles shall pro- 
vide sufficient egress capacity for the number of persons ac- 
commodated by the catchment area served by the aisle access- 
way or aisle in accordance with 12.2.3.2, or for smoke- 
protected assembly seating in accordance with 12.4.2. 

12.2.5.4.5 Where aisle accessways or aisles converge to form a 
single path of egress travel, the required egress capacity of that 
path shall not be less than the combined required capacity of 
the converging aisle accessways and aisles. 



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12.2.5.4.6 Those portions of aisle accessways and aisles where 
egress is possible in either of two directions shall be uniform in 
required width unless otherwise permitted by 12.2.5.4.7. 

12.2.5.4.7 The requirement of 12.2.5.4.6 shall not apply to 
those portions of aisle accessways where the required width, 
not including the seat space described by 12.2.5.7.3, does not 
exceed 305 mm (12 in.). 

12.2.5.4.8 In the case of side boundaries for aisle accessways 
or aisles, other than those for nonfixed seating at tables, the 
clear width shall be measured to boundary elements such as 
walls, guardrails, handrails, edges of seating, tables, and side 
edges of treads, and said measurement shall be made horizon- 
tally to the vertical projection of the elements, resulting in the 
smallest width measured perpendicularly to the line of travel. 

12-2.5.5* Aisle Accessways Serving Seating Not at Tables. 

12.2.5.5.1* The required clear width of aisle accessways be- 
tween rows of seating shall be determined as follows: 

(1) Horizontal measurements shall be made, between vertical 
planes, from the back of one seat to the front of the most 
forward projection of the seat immediately behind it. 

(2) Where the entire row consists of automatic or self-rising 
seats that comply with ASTM F 851, Test Method for Self- 
Rising Seat Mechanisms, the measurement shall be permit- 
ted to be made with the seats in the up position. 

12.2.5.5.2 The aisle accessway between rows of seating shall 
have a clear width of not less than 305 mm (12 in.), and this 
minimum shall be increased as a function of row length in 
accordance with 12.2.5.5.4 and 12.2.5.5.5. 

12.2.5.5.3 If used by not more than four persons, no mini- 
mum clear width shall be required for the portion of an aisle 
accessway having a length not exceeding 1830 mm (72 in.), 
measured from the center of the seat farthest from the aisle. 

1 2.2.5.5.4* Rows of seating served by aisles or doorways at both 
ends shall not exceed 100 seats per row. 

12.2.5.5.4.1 The 305-mm (12-in.) minimum clear width of 
aisle accessway between such rows shall be increased by 
7.6 mm (0.3 in.) for every seat over a total of 14 but shall not 
be required to exceed 560 mm (22 in.). 

12.2.5.5.4.2 The requirement of 12.2.5.5.4.1 shall not apply 
to smoke-protected assembly seating as permitted by 12.4.2.4. 

12.2.5.5.5 Rows of seating served by an aisle or doorway at 
one end only shall have a path of travel not exceeding 
9140 mm (360 in.) in length from any seat to an aisle. 

12.2.5.5.5.1 The 305-mm (12-in.) minimum clear width of 
aisle accessway between rows of seating as specified in 

12.2.5.5.5 shall be increased by 15 mm (0.6 in.) for every seat 
over a total of seven. 

12.2.5.5.5.2 The requirements of 12.2.5.5.5 and 12.2.5.5.5.1 
shall not apply to smoke-protected assembly seating as permit- 
ted by 12.4.2.5 and 12.4.2.6. 

12.2.5.5.6 Rows of seating using tablet-arm chairs shall be 
permitted only if the clear width of aisle accessways complies 
with the requirements of 12.2.5.5 when measured under one 
of the following conditions: 

(1) The clear width is measured with the tablet arm in the 
usable position. 



(2) The clear width is measured with the tablet arm in the 
stored position where the tablet arm automatically re- 
turns to the stored position when raised manually to a 
vertical position in one motion and falls to the stored po- 
sition by force of gravity. 

12.2.5.5.7 The depth of seat boards shall not be less than 
230 mm (9 in.) where the same level is not used for both seat 
boards and footboards. 

12.2.5.5.8 Footboards, independent of seats, shall be pro- 
vided so that there is no horizontal opening that allows the 
passage of a 13-mm (Vfc-in.) diameter sphere. 

12.2.5.6 Aisles Serving Seating Not at Tables. 

12.2.5.6.1 General. Aisles shall be provided so that the num- 
ber of seats served by the nearest aisle is in accordance with 

12.2.5.5.2 through 12.2.5.5.5, unless otherwise permitted by 
the following: 

( 1 ) Aisles shall not be required in bleachers, provided that all 
of the following conditions are met: 

(a) Egress from the front row shall not be obstructed by a 
rail, a guard, or other obstruction. 

(b) The row spacing shall be 710 mm (28 in.) or less. 

(c) The rise per row, including the first row, shall be 
150 mm (6 in.) or less. 

(d) The number of rows shall not exceed 16. 

(e) The seat spaces shall not be physically defined. 

(f) Seat boards that are also used as stepping surfaces for 
descent shall provide a walking surface with a width 
not less than 305 mm ( 1 2 in. ) , and, where a depressed 
footboard exists, the gap between seat boards of adja- 
cent rows shall not exceed 305 mm (12 in.), mea- 
sured horizontally. 

(g) The leading edges of seat boards used as stepping 
surfaces shall be provided with a contrasting marking 
stripe so that the location of the leading edge is 
readily apparent, particularly where viewed in de- 
scent and the following shall also apply: 

i. The marking stripe shall be not less than 25 mm 
(1 in.) wide and shall not exceed 51 mm (2 in.) 
in width, 
ii. The marking stripe shall not be required where 
bleacher surfaces and environmental condi- 
tions, under all conditions of use, are such that 
the location of each leading edge is readily ap- 
parent, particularly when viewed in descent. 

12.2.5.6.2 Bead-End Aisles. Dead-end aisles shall not exceed 
6100 mm (240 in.) in length, unless otherwise permitted by 
the following: 

(1) A dead-end aisle shall be permitted to exceed 6100 mm 
(240 in.) in length where seats served by the dead-end 
aisle are not more than 24 seats from another aisle, mea- 
sured along a row of seats having a clear width of not less 
than 305 mm (12 in.) plus 15 mm (0.6 in.) for each addi- 
tional seat over a total of 7 in the row. 

(2) A 16-row, dead-end aisle shall be permitted in folding and 
telescopic seating and grandstands. 

(3) Aisle termination in accordance with 12.4.2.7 for smoke- 
protected assembly seating shall be permitted. 

12.2.5.6.3* Minimum Aisle Width. The minimum clear width 
of aisles shall be sufficient to provide egress capacity in accor- 
dance with 12.2.3.2 but shall be not less than the following: 



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(1) 1220 mm (48 in.) for stairs having seating on each side, or 
915 mm (36 in.) where aisle does not serve more than 
50 seats 

(2) 915 mm (36 in.) for stairs having seating on only one side 

(3) 585 mm (23 in.) between a handrail and seating, or be- 
tween a guardrail and seating where the aisle is subdi- 
vided by a handrail 

(4) 1065 mm (42 in.) for level or ramped aisles having seating 
on both sides, or 915 mm (36 in.) where aisle does not 
serve more than 50 seats 

(5) 915 mm (36 in.) for level or ramped aisles having seating 
on only one side 

(6) 585 mm (23 in.) between a handrail or guardrail and seat- 
ing where the aisle does not serve more than five rows on 
one side 

12.2.5.6.4* Aisle Stairs and Ranips. The following shall apply 
to aisle stairs and ramps: 

(1) Aisles having a gradient steeper than 1 in 20, but not 
steeper than 1 in 8, shall consist of a ramp. 

(2) Aisles having a gradient steeper than 1 in 8 shall consist of 
an aisle stair. 

(3) The marking stripe exemption of 12.2.5.6.8.3 shall not be 
permitted for aisle stairs. 

(4) Aisles in folding and telescopic seating shall be permitted 
to be stepped aisles. 

(5) The limitation on height between landings in Table 
7.2.2.2.1 (a) and Table 7.2.2.2.1 (b) shall not apply to aisle 
stairs. 

12.2.5.6.5 Aisle Stair Treads. Aisle stair treads shall meet the 
following criteria: 

( 1 ) There shall be no variation in the depth of adjacent treads 

that exceeds 4.8 mm ( 3 /i6 in.). 
(2)*Treads shall be not less than 280 mm (11 in.). 
(3) All treads shall extend the full width of the aisle. 

12.2.5.6.6 Aisle Stair Risers. Aisle stair risers shall meet the 
following criteria: 

( 1 ) Riser heights shall be not less than 100 mm (4 in.) , unless 
otherwise permitted by the following: 

(a) The riser height of aisle stairs in folding and tele- 
scopic seating shall be permitted to be not less than 
90 mm (3% in.) but shall not exceed 280 mm (11 in.). 

(b) Where the gradient of an aisle is steeper than 205 mm 
(8 in.) in rise in 280 mm (11 in.) of run for the pur- 
pose of maintaining necessary sight lines in the ad- 
joining seating area, the riser height shall be permit- 
ted to exceed 205 mm (8 in.) but shall not exceed 
230 mm (9 in.). 

(2) Riser heights shall not exceed 205 mm (8 in.), unless oth- 
erwise permitted by 12.2.5.6.6(3). 

(3) The riser height of aisle stairs in folding and telescopic 
seating shall be permitted to be not more than 280 mm 
(11 in.). 

(4) Riser heights shall be designed to be uniform in each 
aisle, and the construction-caused nonuniformities shall 
not exceed 4.8 mm (%6 in.) between adjacent risers, un- 
less the following conditions apply: 

(a) Riser height shall be permitted to be nonuniform 
only for the purpose of accommodating changes in 
gradient necessary to maintain sight lines within a 
seating area, in which case the riser height shall be 
permitted to exceed 4.8 mm (Yw in.) in any flight. 



(b) Where nonuniformities permitted by 12.2.5.6.6(4) (a) 
exceed 4.8 mm (¥\6 in.) between adjacent risers, the 
exact location of such nonuniformities shall be indi- 
cated by a distinctive marking stripe on each tread at the 
nosing or leading edge adjacent to the nonuniform 
risers. 

12.2.5.6.7* Aisle Handrails. 

12.2.5.6.7.1 Ramped aisles having a gradient exceeding 1 in 
20 and aisle stairs shall be provided with handrails at one side 
or along the centerline and in accordance with 7.2.2.4.4.1, 
7.2.2.4.4.5, and 7.2.2.4.4.6. 

12.2.5.6.7.2 Where seating exists on both sides of the aisle, 
the handrails shall be noncontinuous with gaps or breaks at 
intervals not exceeding five rows to facilitate access to seating 
and to allow crossing from one side of the aisle to the other. 

12.2.5.6.7.3 The gaps or breaks permitted by 12.2.5.6.7.2 
shall have a clear width of not less than 560 mm (22 in.) and 
shall not exceed 915 mm (36 in.), measured horizontally, and 
the handrail shall have rounded terminations or bends. 

12.2.5.6.7.4 Where handrails are provided in the middle of 
aisle stairs, an additional intermediate rail shall be located ap- 
proximately 305 mm (12 in.) below the main handrail. 

12.2.5.6.7.5 Handrails shall not be required where otherwise 
permitted by the following: 

( 1 ) Handrails shall not be required for ramped aisles having a 
gradient not steeper than 1 in 8 and having seating on both 
sides where the aisle does not serve as an accessible route. 

(2) The requirement for a handrail shall be satisfied by the use 
of a guard provided with a rail that complies with the grasp 
ability requirements for handrails and located at a consistent 
height between 865 mm and 1065 mm (34 in. and 42 in.) , 
measured using one of the following methods: 

(a) Vertically from the top of the rail to the leading edge 
(nosing) of stair treads 

(b) Vertically from the top of the rail to the adjacent walk- 
ing surface in the case of a ramp 

12.2.5.6.8* Aisle Marking. 

12.2.5.6.8.1 A contrasting marking stripe shall be provided 
on each tread at the nosing or leading edge so that the loca- 
tion of such tread is readily apparent, particularly when viewed 
in descent. 

12.2.5.6.8.2 The marking stripe shall be not less than 25 mm 
(1 in.) wide and shall not exceed 51 mm (2 in.) in width. 

12.2.5.6.8.3 The marking stripe shall not be required where 
tread surfaces and environmental conditions, under all condi- 
tions of use, are such that the location of each tread is readily 
apparent, particularly when viewed in descent. 

12.2.5.7* Aisle Accessways Serving Seating at Tables. 

12.2.5.7.1 The required clear width of an aisle accessway shall 
be not less than 305 mm (12 in.) where measured in accor- 
dance with 12.2.5.7.3 and shall be increased as a function of 
length in accordance with 12.2.5.7.4, unless otherwise permit- 
ted by 12.2.5.7.2. 

12.2.5.7.2* If used by not more than four persons, no mini- 
mum clear width shall be required for the portion of an aisle 
accessway having a length not exceeding 1830 mm (72 in.) 
and located farthest from an aisle. 



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12.2.5.7.3* Where nonfixed seating is located between a table 
and an aisle accessway or aisle, the measurement of required 
clear width of the aisle accessway or aisle shall be made to a 
line 485 mm (19 in.) , measured perpendicularly to the edge of 
the table, away from the edge of said table. 

12.2.5.7.4* The minimum required clear width of an aisle ac- 
cessway, measured in accordance with 12.2.5.4.8 and 12.2.5.7.3, 
shall be increased beyond the 305-mm (12-in.) requirement of 
12.2.5.7.1 by 13 mm (M> in.) for each additional 305 mm (12 in.) 
or fraction thereof beyond 3660 mm (144 in.) of aisle accessway 
length, where measured from the center of the seat farthest from 
an aisle. 

12.2.5.7.5 The path of travel along the aisle accessway shall 
not exceed 11 m (36 ft) from any seat to the closest aisle or 
egress doorway. 

12.2.5.8 Aisles Serving Seating at Tables. 

12.2.5.8.1* Aisles that contain steps or that are ramped, such 
as aisles serving dinner theater-style configurations, shall 
comply with the requirements of 12.2.5.6. 

12.2.5.8.2* The width of aisles serving seating at tables shall be 
not less than 1120 mm (44 in.) where serving an occupant 
load exceeding 50, and 915 mm (36 in.) where serving an 
occupant load of 50 or fewer. 

12.2.5.8.3* Where nonfixed seating is located between a table 
and an aisle, the measurement of required clear width of the 
aisle shall be made to a line 485 mm (19 in.), measured per- 
pendicularly to the edge of the table, away from the edge of 
said table. 

12.2.5.9 Approval of Layouts. 

12.2.5.9.1 Where required by the authority having jurisdic- 
tion, plans drawn to scale showing the arrangement of furnish- 
ings or equipment shall be submitted to the authority by the 
building owner, manager, or authorized agent to substantiate 
conformance with the provisions of 12.2.5. 

12.2.5.9.2 The layout plans shall constitute the only accept- 
able arrangement, unless one of the following criteria is met: 

(1) The plans are revised. 

(2) Additional plans are submitted and approved. 

(3) Temporary deviations from the specifications of the ap- 
proved plans are used, provided that the occupant load is 
not increased and the intent of 12.2.5.9 is maintained. 

12.2.6 Travel Distance to Exits. Exits shall be arranged so that 
the total length of travel from any point to reach an exit shall 
not exceed 61 m (200 ft) in any assembly occupancy, unless 
otherwise permitted by the following: 

(1) The travel distance shall not exceed 76 m (250 ft) in as- 
sembly occupancies protected throughout by an ap- 
proved, supervised automatic sprinkler system in accor- 
dance with Section 9.7. 

(2) The travel distance requirement shall not apply to smoke- 
protected assembly seating as permitted by 12.4.2.8, 
12.4.2.9, and 12.4.2.10. 

12.2.7 Discharge from Exits. 

12.2.7.1 Exit discharge shall comply with Section 7.7. 

12.2.7.2 The level of exit discharge shall be measured at the 
point of principal entrance to the building. 



12.2.7.3 Where the principal entrance to an assembly occu- 
pancy is via a terrace, either raised or depressed, such terrace 
shall be permitted to be considered to be the level of exit 
discharge for the purposes of Table 12.1.6 where the following 
criteria are met: 

(1) The terrace is at least as long, measured parallel to the 
building, as the total width of the exit(s) it serves but not 
less than 1525 mm (60 in.) long. 

(2) The terrace is at least as wide, measured perpendicularly 
to the building, as the exit(s) it serves but not less than 
3050 mm (120 in.) wide. 

(3) Required stairs leading from the terrace to grade are pro- 
tected in accordance with 7.2.2.6.3 or are not less than 
3050 mm (120 in.) from the building. 

12.2.8 IHuimination of Means of Egress. Means of egress, 
other than for private party tents not exceeding 112 m 2 
(1200 ft 2 ) , shall be illuminated in accordance with Section 7.8. 

12.2.9 Emergency Dghting. 

12.2.9.1 Emergency lighting shall be provided in accordance 
with Section 7.9. 

12.2.9.2 Private party tents not exceeding 112 m 2 (1200 ft 2 ) 
shall not be required to have emergency lighting. 

12.2.10 Marking of Means of Egress. 

12.2.10.1 Means of egress shall be provided with signs in ac- 
cordance with Section 7.10. 

12.2.10.2 Exit markings shall not be required on the seating 
side of vomitories from seating areas where exit marking is 
provided in the concourse and where such marking is readily 
apparent from the vomitories. 

12.2.11 Special Means of Egress Features. 

12.2.11.1 Guards and Railings. 

12.2.11.1.1* Sightline-Constrained Rail Heights. Unless sub- 
ject to the requirements of 12.2.11.1.2, a fasciae or railing sys- 
tem complying with the guard requirements of 7.2.2.4 and 
having a height of not less than 660 mm (26 in.) shall be pro- 
vided where the floor or footboard elevation is more than 
760 mm (30 in.) above the floor or grade below and where the 
fasciae or railing system would otherwise interfere with the 
sightlines of immediately adjacent seating. 

12.2.11.1.2 At Foot of Aisles. 

12.2.11.1.2.1 A fasciae or railing system complying with the 
guard requirements of 7.2.2.4 shall be provided for the full 
width of the aisle where the foot of the aisle is more than 
760 mm (30 in.) above the floor or grade below. 

12.2.11.1.2.2 The fasciae or railing shall be not less than 
915 mm (36 in.) high and shall provide not less than 1065 mm 
(42 in.), measured diagonally, between the top of the rail and 
the nosing of the nearest tread. 

12.2.11.1.3 At Cross Aisles. Guards and railings at cross aisles 
shall meet the following criteria: 

(1) Cross aisles located behind seating rows shall be provided 
with railings not less than 660 mm (26 in.) above the ad- 
jacent floor of the aisle. 

(2) The requirement of 12.2.11.1.3(1) shall not apply where the 
backs of seats located at the front of the aisle project 610 mm 
(24 in.) or more above the adjacent floor of the aisle. 



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(3) Where cross aisles exceed 760 mm (30 in.) above the floor 
or grade below, guards shall be provided in accordance 
with 7.2.2.4. 

12.2.11.1.4 At Side and Back of Seating Areas. Guards comply- 
ing with the guard requirements of 7.2.2.4 shall be provided 
with a height not less than 1065 mm (42 in.) above the aisle, 
aisle accessway, or footboard where the floor elevation exceeds 
760 mm (30 in.) above the floor or grade to the side or back of 
seating. 

12.2.11.1.5 Below Seating. Openings between footboards and 
seat boards shall be provided with intermediate construction 
so that a 100-mm (4-in.) diameter sphere cannot pass through 
the opening. 

12.2.11.1.6 Locations Not Requiring Guards. Guards shall not 
be required in the following locations: 

(1) Guards shall not be required on the audience side of 
stages, of raised platforms, and of other raised floor areas 
such as runways, ramps, and side stages used for entertain- 
ment or presentations. 

(2) Permanent guards shall not be required at vertical open- 
ings in the performance area of stages. 

(3) Guards shall not be required where the side of an elevated 
walking surface is required to be open for the normal 
functioning of special lighting or for access and use of 
other special equipment. 

12.3 Protection. 

12.3.1 Protection of Vertical Openings. Any vertical opening 
shall be enclosed or protected in accordance with 8.6, unless 
otherwise permitted by the following: 

(l)*Stairs or ramps shall be permitted to be unenclosed be- 
tween balconies or mezzanines and main assembly areas 
located below, provided that the balcony or mezzanine is 
open to the main assembly area. 

(2) Exit access stairs from lighting and access catwalks, galler- 
ies, and gridirons shall not be required to be enclosed. 

(3) Assembly occupancies protected by an approved, super- 
vised automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Sec- 
tion 9.7 shall be permitted to have unprotected vertical 
openings in accordance with 8.6.8.2. 

12.3.2 Protection front Hazards. 

12.3.2.1 Service Equipment, Hazardous Operations or Pro- 
cesses, and Storage Facilities. 

12.3.2.1.1 Rooms containing high-pressure boilers, refriger- 
ating machinery of other than the domestic refrigerator type, 
large transformers, or other service equipment subject to ex- 
plosion shall meet the following requirements. 

(1) Such rooms shall not be located directly under or abut- 
ting required exits. 

(2) Such rooms shall be separated from other parts of the 
building by fire barriers in accordance with Section 8.3 
that have a fire resistance rating of not less than 1 hour or 
shall be protected by automatic extinguishing systems in 
accordance with Section 8.7. 

12.3.2.1.2 Rooms or spaces for the storage, processing, or use 
of materials specified in 12.3.2.1.2(1) through 12.3.2.1.2(3) 
shall be protected in accordance with the following: 



(1) Separation from the remainder of the building by fire 
barriers having a fire resistance rating of not less than 
1 hour or protection of such rooms by automatic extin- 
guishing systems as specified in Section 8.7 in the follow- 
ing areas: 

(a) Boiler and furnace rooms, unless otherwise permit- 
ted by the following: 

i. The requirement of 12.3.2.1.2(1) (a) shall not 
apply to rooms enclosing furnaces, heating and 
air-handling equipment, or compressor equip- 
ment with a total aggregate input rating less than 
211 MJ (200,000 Btu), provided that such rooms 
are not used for storage. 

ii. The requirements of 12.3.2.1.2(1) (a) shall not 
apply to attic locations of the rooms addressed in 
12.3.2.1.2(1) (a)i provided such rooms comply 
with the draft stopping requirements of 8.6.10. 

(b) Rooms or spaces used for the storage of combustible 
supplies in quantities deemed hazardous by the au- 
thority havingjurisdiction 

(c) Rooms or spaces used for the storage of hazardous ma- 
terials or flammable or combustible liquids in quantities 
deemed hazardous by recognized standards 

(2) Separation from the remainder of the building by fire 
barriers having a fire resistance rating of not less than 
1 hour and protection of such rooms by automatic extin- 
guishing systems as specified in Section 8.7 in the follow- 
ing areas: 

(a) Laundries 

(b) Maintenance shops, including woodworking and 
painting areas 

(c) Rooms or spaces used for processing or use of com- 
bustible supplies deemed hazardous by the authority 
havingjurisdiction 

(d) Rooms or spaces used for processing or use of hazard- 
ous materials or flammable or combustible liquids in 
quantities deemed hazardous by recognized standards 

(3) Where automatic extinguishing is used to meet the re- 
quirements of 12.3.2, the protection shall be permitted to 
be in accordance with 9.7.1.2. 

12.3.2.2 Cooking Equipment. Cooking equipment shall be 
protected in accordance with 9.2.3 unless the cooking equip- 
ment meets one of the following: 

(1) Outdoor equipment 

(2) Portable equipment not flue connected 

(3) Equipment used only for food warming 

12.3.3 Interior Finish. 

12.3.3.1 Interior finish shall be in accordance with Section 10.2. 

12.3.3.2 Interior wall and ceiling finish materials complying 
with Section 10.2 shall be Class A or Class B in all corridors and 
lobbies and shall be Class A in enclosed stairways. 

12.3.3.3 Interior wall and ceiling finish materials complying 
with Section 10.2 shall be Class A or Class B in general assem- 
bly areas having occupant loads of more than 300 and shall be 
Class A, Class B, or Class C in assembly areas having occupant 
loads of 300 or fewer. 

12.3.3.4 Screens on which pictures are projected shall com- 
ply with requirements of Class A or Class B interior finish in 
accordance with Section 10.2. 



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12.3.3.5 Interior Floor Finish. 

12.3.3.5.1 Interior floor finish shall comply with Section 10.2. 

12.3.3.5.2 Interior floor finish in exit enclosures and exit ac- 
cess corridors and in spaces not separated from them by walls 
complying with 12.3.6 shall be not less than Class II. 

12.3.3.5.3 Interior floor finish shall comply with 10.2.7.1 or 
10.2.7.2, as applicable. 

12.3.4 Detection, Alarm, and Communications Systems. 

12.3.4.1 General. Assembly occupancies with occupant loads 
of more than 300 and all theaters with more than one 
audience-viewing room shall be provided with an approved 
fire alarm system in accordance with 9.6.1 and 12.3.4, unless 
otherwise permitted by the following: 

(1) Assembly occupancies that are a part of a multiple occu- 
pancy protected as a mixed occupancy (see 6.1.14) shall be 
permitted to be served by a common fire alarm system, 
provided that the individual requirements of each occu- 
pancy are met. 

(2) Voice communication or public address systems complying 
with 12.3.4.3.3 shall not be required to comply with 9.6.1. 

12.3.4.2 Initiation. 

12.3.4.2.1 Initiation of the required fire alarm system shall be 
by manual means in accordance with 9.6.2.1(1), and the sys- 
tem shall be provided with an emergency power source, unless 
otherwise permitted by the following: 

(1) This requirement shall not apply to fire alarm systems ini- 
tiated by means of an approved automatic fire detection 
system in accordance with 9.6.2.1 (2) that provides fire de- 
tection throughout the building. 

(2) This requirement shall not apply to fire alarm systems initi- 
ated by means of an approved automatic sprinkler system in 
accordance with 9.6.2.1(3) that provides fire detection and 
protection throughout the building. 

12.3.4.2.2 The initiating device shall be capable of transmit- 
ting an alarm to a receiving station, located within the build- 
ing, that is constantly attended when the assembly occupancy 
is occupied. 

12.3.4.2.3* In assembly occupancies with occupant loads of 
more than 300, automatic detection shall be provided in all 
hazardous areas that are not normally occupied, unless such 
areas are protected throughout by an approved, supervised 
automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 9.7. 

12.3.4.3 Notification. The required fire alarm system shall 
sound an audible alarm in a constantly attended receiving sta- 
tion within the building when occupied for purposes of initi- 
ating emergency action. 

12.3.4.3.1 Positive alarm sequence in accordance with 9.6.3.4 
shall be permitted. 

12.3.4.3.2 Reserved. 

12.3.4.3.3 Occupant notification shall be by means of visible 
signals and voice announcements, either live or prerecorded, 
initiated by the person in the constantly attended location. 

1 2.3.4.3.4 The announcement shall be made via an approved 
voice communication or public address system, provided with 
an emergency power source, that is audible above the ambient 
noise level of the assembly occupancy. 



12.3.4.3.5 Where the authority having jurisdiction deter- 
mines that a constantly attended location is impractical, a fire 
alarm system in accordance with Section 9.6 shall be used that 
meets the following criteria: 

(1) It shall be initiated by manual fire alarm boxes in accor- 
dance with 9.6.2.1 (1) or other approved means. 

(2) It shall automatically provide prerecorded evacuation in- 
structions in accordance with 9.6.3.10. 

12.3.5 Extinguishment Requirements. 

1 2.3.5. 1 Buildings containing assembly occupancies with occu- 
pant loads of more than 300 shall be protected by an approved, 
supervised automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Sec- 
tion 9.7 as follows (see also 12.1.6, 12.2.6, 12.3.2, and 12.3.6). 

(1) Throughout the story containing the assembly occupancy 

(2) Throughout all stories below the story containing the as- 
sembly occupancy 

(3) In the case of an assembly occupancy located below the 
level of exit discharge, throughout all stories intervening 
between that story and the level of exit discharge, includ- 
ing the level of exit discharge 

12.3.5.2 The requirements of 12.3.5.1 shall not apply to the 
following: 

(1) Assembly occupancies used primarily for worship with 
fixed seating that are not part of a multiple occupancy 
protected as a mixed occupancy (see 6.1.14) 

(2)*Assembly occupancies consisting of a single multipurpose 
room of less than 1115 m 2 (12,000 ft") that arc not used for 
exhibition or display and are not part of a mixed occupancy 

(3) Gymnasiums, skating rinks, and swimming pools used ex- 
clusively for participant sports with no audience facilities 
for more than 300 persons 

(4) In the following locations in stadia and arenas: 

(a) Over the floor area used for contest, performance, or 
entertainment 

(b) Over the seating areas 

(c) Over open-air concourses where an approved engi- 
neering analysis substantiates the ineffectiveness of 
the sprinkler protection due to building height and 
combustible loading 

(5) In the following areas in unenclosed stadia and arenas: 

(a) In press boxes less than 93 m 2 (1000 ft 2 ) 

(b) In storage facilities less than 93 m 2 (1000 ft 2 ) if en- 
closed with not less than 1-hour fire resistance-rated 
construction 

(c) In enclosed areas underneath grandstands that com- 
ply with 12.4.8.5 

12.3.5.3 Where another provision of this chapter requires an 
automatic sprinkler system, the sprinkler system shall be in- 
stalled in accordance with 9.7.1.1(1). 

12.3.6 Corridors. Interior corridors and lobbies shall be con- 
structed in accordance with 7.1.3.1 and Section 8.3, unless 
otherwise permitted by the following: 

(1) Corridor and lobby protection shall not be required where 
assembly rooms served by the corridor or lobby have at least 
50 percent of their exit capacity discharging directly to the 
outside, independent of corridors and lobbies. 

(2) Corridor and lobby protection shall not be required in 
buildings protected throughout by an approved, supervised 
automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 9.7. 



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(3) Lobbies serving only one assembly area that meet the re- 
quirements for intervening rooms (see 7.5.1.6) shall not be 
required to have a fire resistance rating. 

(4) Where the corridor ceiling is an assembly having a 1-hour 
fire resistance rating where tested as a wall, the corridor walls 
shall be permitted to terminate at the corridor ceiling. 

(5) Corridor and lobby protection shall not be required in 
buildings protected throughout by an approved, total 
(complete) coverage smoke detection system, providing 
occupant notification and installed in accordance with 
Section 9.6. 

12.4 Special Provisions. 

12.4.1 Life Safety Evaluation. 

12.4.1.1* Where a life safety evaluation is required by other 
provisions of the Code, it shall comply with the following: 

(1) The life safety evaluation shall be performed by persons 
acceptable to the authority having jurisdiction. 

(2) The life safety evaluation shall include a written assess- 
ment of safety measures for conditions listed in 12.4.1 .2. 

(3) The life safety evaluation shall be approved annually by 
the authority having jurisdiction and shall be updated for 
special or unusual conditions. 

12.4.1.2 Life safety evaluations shall include an assessment 
of the following conditions and related appropriate safety 
measures: 

(1) Nature of the events and the participants and attendees 

(2) Access and egress movement, including crowd density 
problems 

(3) Medical emergencies 

(4) Fire hazards 

(5) Permanent and temporary structural systems 

(6) Severe weather conditions 

(7) Earthquakes 

(8) Civil or other disturbances 

(9) Hazardous materials incidents within and near the facility 
(10) Relationships among facility management, event partici- 
pants, emergency response agencies, and others having 
a role in the events accommodated in the facility 

12.4.1.3* Life safety evaluations shall include assessments of 
both building systems and management features upon 
which reliance is placed for the safety of facility occupants, 
and such assessments shall consider scenarios appropriate 
to the facility. 

12.4.2* Smoke-Protected Assembly Seating. 

12.4.2.1 To be considered smoke protected, an assembly seat- 
ing facility shall comply with the following: 

(1) All enclosed areas with walls and ceilings in buildings or 
structures containing smoke-protected assembly seating 
shall be protected with an approved, supervised auto- 
matic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 9.7, un- 
less otherwise permitted by the following: 
(a) The requirement of 12.4.2.1(1) shall not apply to the 
floor area used for the contest, performance, or en- 
tertainment, provided that the roof construction is 
more than 15 m (50 ft) above the floor level and use is 
restricted to low fire hazard uses. 
(b)*Sprinklers shall not be required to be located over 
the floor area used for contest, performance, or 
entertainment and over the seating areas where an 



approved engineering analysis substantiates the in- 
effectiveness of the sprinkler protection due to 
building height and combustible loading. 
(2) All means of egress serving a smoke-protected assembly 
seating area shall be provided with smoke-actuated venti- 
lation facilities or natural ventilation designed to main- 
tain the level of smoke at not less than 1830 mm (72 in.) 
above the floor of the means of egress. 

12.4.2.2 To use the provisions of smoke-protected assembly 
seating, a facility shall be subject to a life safety evaluation in 
accordance with 12.4.1. 

12.4.2.3 Where using Table 12.4.2.3, the number of seats 
specified shall be within a single assembly space, and interpo- 
lation shall be permitted between the specific values shown. A 
single seating space shall be permitted to have multiple levels, 
floors or mezzanines. The minimum clear widths shown shall 
be modified in accordance with all of the following: 

(1) If risers exceed 178 mm in height, the stair width in 
Table 1 2.4.2.3 shall be multiplied by factor A, where A equals 
the following: 



A = l + 



riser height- 178 
125 



(2) If risers exceed 7 in. in height, the stair width in 
Table 1 2.4.2.3 shall be multiplied by factor A, where A equals 
the following: 



A = l + 



riser height - 7 



(3) Stairs not having a handrail within a 760-mm (30-in.) hori- 
zontal distance shall be 25 percent wider than otherwise 
calculated; that is, their width shall be multiplied by factor 
B, where B equals the following: 

£ = 1.25 

(4) Ramps steeper than 1 in 10 slope where used in ascent 
shall have their width increased by 10 percent; that is, 
their width shall be multiplied by factor C, where C equals 
the following: 

C = 1.10 



Table 12.4.2.3 Capacity Factors for Smoke-Protected 
Assembly Seating 

Clear Width per Seat Served 



No. of 
Seats 


Stairs 


Passageways, 

Ramps, and 

Doorways 


mnB 


in. 


mm 


in. 


2,000 

5,000 

10,000 

15,000 

20,000 

>25,000 


7.6 AB 
5.1 AB 

3.3 AB 

2.4 AS 
1.9 AB 

1.5 AB 


0.300 AB 
0.200 AB 
0.130 AB 
0.096 AB 
0.076 AB 
0.060 AB 


5.6 C 
3.8 C 
2.5 C 
1.8 C 
1.4 C 
1.1 C 


0.220 C 
0.150 C 
0.100 C 
0.070 C 
0.056 C 
0.044 C 










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12.4.2.4 Where smoke-protected assembly seating conforms 
to the requirements of 12.4.2, for rows of seats served by aisles 
or doorways at both ends, the number of seats per row shall 
not exceed 100, and the clear width of not less than 305 mm 
(12 in.) for aisle accessways shall be increased by 7.6 mm 
(0.3 in.) for every additional seat beyond the number stipu- 
lated in Table 12.4.2.4; however, the minimum clear width 
shall not be required to exceed 560 mm (22 in.). 



Table 12.4.2.4 Smoke-Protected Assembly Seating Aisle 

Accessways 



Number of Seats per Row Permitted to 

Have a Clear Width Aisle Accessway of 

Not Less than 305 mm (12 in.) 





Aisle 


or Doorway 


Aisle or Doorway 


Total Number of 


at Both Ends of 


at One End of 


Seats in the Space 




Row 


Row 


<4,000 




14 


7 


4,000-6,999 




15 


7 


7,000-9,999 




16 


8 


10,000-12,999 




17 


8 


13,000-15,999 




18 


9 


16,000-18,999 




19 


9 


19,000-21,999 




20 


10 


>22,000 




21 


11 



12.4.2.5 Where smoke-protected assembly seating conforms 
to the requirements of 12.4.2, for rows of seats served by an 
aisle or doorway at one end only, the aisle accessway clear 
width of not less than 305 mm (12 in.) shall be increased by 
15 mm (0.6 in.) for every additional seat beyond the number 
stipulated in Table 12.4.2.4; however, the minimum clear 
width shall not be required to exceed 560 mm (22 in.). 

12.4.2.6 Smoke-protected assembly seating conforming with 
the requirements of 12.4.2 shall be permitted to have a com- 
mon path of travel of 15 m (50 ft) from any seat to a point 
where a person has a choice of two directions of egress travel. 

12.4.2.7 Where smoke-protected assembly seating conforms 
to the requirements of 12.4.2, the dead ends in aisle stairs shall 
not exceed a distance of 21 rows, unless both of the following 
criteria are met: 

(1) The seats served by the dead-end aisle are not more than 
40 seats from another aisle 

(2) The 40-seat distance is measured along a row of seats hav- 
ing an aisle accessway with a clear width of not less than 
305 mm (12 in.) plus 7.6 mm (0.3 in.) for each additional 
seat above 7 in the row 

12.4.2.8 Where smoke-protected assembly seating conforms 
to the requirements of 12.4.2, the travel distance from each 
seat to the nearest entrance to an egress vomitory portal or 
egress concourse shall not exceed 122 m (400 ft). 

12.4.2.9 Where smoke-protected assembly seating conforms 
to the requirements of 12.4.2, the travel distance from the 
entrance to the vomitory portal or from the egress concourse 
to an approved egress stair, ramp, or walk at the building exte- 
rior shall not exceed 61 m (200 ft). 



12.4.2.10 The travel distance requirements of 12.4.2.8 and 
12.4.2.9 shall not apply to outdoor assembly seating facilities 
of Type I or Type II construction, where all portions of the 
means of egress are essentially open to the outside. 

12.4.3 Limited Access or Underground Buildings. 

12.4.3.1 Limited access or underground buildings shall com- 
ply with 12.4.3 and Section 11.7. 

12.4.3.2 Underground buildings or portions of buildings 
having a floor level more than 9140 mm (360 in.) below the 
level of exit discharge shall comply with the requirements of 

12.4.3.3 through 12.4.3.5, unless otherwise permitted by the 
following: 

( 1 ) This requirement shall not apply to areas within buildings 
used only for service to the building, such as boiler/ 
heater rooms, cable vaults, and dead storage. 

(2) This requirement shall not apply to auditoriums without 
intervening occupiable levels. 

12.4.3.3 Each level more than 9140 mm (360 in.) below the 
level of exit discharge shall be divided into not less than two 
smoke compartments by a smoke barrier complying with Sec- 
tion 8.5 and shall have a 1-hour fire resistance rating. 

12.4.3.3.1 Smoke compartments shall comply with the follow- 
ing: 

(1) Each smoke compartment shall have access to not less 
than one exit without passing through the other required 
compartment. 

(2) Any doors connecting required compartments shall be 
tight-fitting, minimum 1-hour rated fire door assemblies 
designed and installed to minimize smoke leakage and to 
close and latch automatically upon detection of smoke. 

12.4.3.3.2 Each smoke compartment shall be provided with a 
mechanical means of moving people vertically, such as an el- 
evator or escalator. 

12.4.3.3.3 Each smoke compartment shall have an indepen- 
dent air supply and exhaust system capable of smoke control 
or smoke exhaust functions that provide a smoke exhaust rate 
of not less than six air changes per hour. 

12.4.3.3.4 Throughout each smoke compartment shall be 
provided an automatic smoke detection system designed such 
that the activation of any two detectors causes the smoke con- 
trol system to operate and the building voice alarm to sound. 

12.4.3.4 Any required smoke control or exhaust system shall 
be provided with a standby power system complying with Ar- 
ticle 701 of NFPA 70, National Electrical Code®. 

12.4.3.5 The building shall be provided with an approved, 
supervised voice alarm system, in accordance with Section 9.6, 
that complies with 9.6.3.10 and provides a prerecorded evacu- 
ation message. 

12.4.4 High-Rise Buildings. High-rise assembly occupancy 
buildings and high-rise mixed occupancy buildings that house 
assembly occupancies in the high-rise portions of the building 
shall comply with Section 11.8. 

12.4.5 Stages and Platforms. (See 3.3.210 and 3.3.166.) 

12.4.5.1 Materials and Design. Materials used in the construc- 
tion of platforms and stages shall conform to the applicable 
requirements of the local building code. 



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12.4.5.2 Platform Construction. 

12.4.5.2.1 Temporary platforms shall be permitted to be con- 
structed of any materials. 

12.4.5.2.2 The space between the floor and the temporary 
platform above shall not be used for any purpose other than 
the electrical wiring to platform equipment. 

12.4.5.2.3 Permanent platforms shall be of the materials re- 
quired for the type of building construction in which the per- 
manent platform is located, except that the finish floor shall 
be permitted to be of wood in all types of construction. 

12.4.5.2.4 Where the space beneath the permanent platform 
is used for storage or any purpose other than equipment wir- 
ing or plumbing, the floor construction shall not be less than 
1-hour fire resistive. 

12.4.5.3 Stage Construction. 

12.4.5.3.1 Regular stages shall be of the materials required 
for the type of building construction in which they are located. 
In all cases, the finish floor shall be permitted to be of wood. 

1 2.4.5.3.2 Legitimate stages shall be constructed of materials 
required for Type I buildings, except that the area extending 
from the proscenium opening to the back wall of the stage, 
and for a distance of 1830 mm (72 in.) beyond the prosce- 
nium opening on each side, shall be permitted to be con- 
structed of steel or heavy timber covered with a wood floor not 
less than 38 mm (VA in.) in actual thickness. 

12.4.5.3.3 Openings through stage floors shall be equipped 
with tight-fitting traps with approved safety locks, and such 
traps shall comply with one of the following: 

(1) The traps shall be of wood having an actual thickness of 
not less than 38 mm (IV2 in.). 

(2) The traps shall be of a material that provides fire and heat 
resistance at least equivalent to that provided by wood 
traps having an actual thickness of not less than 38 mm 
(lVsin.). 

12.4.5.4 Accessory Rooms. 

1 2.4.5.4. 1 Workshops, storerooms, permanent dressing rooms, 
and other accessory spaces contiguous to stages shall be sepa- 
rated from each other and other building areas by 1-hour fire 
resistance-rated construction and protected openings. 

12.4.5.4.2 The separation requirements of 12.4.5.4.1 shall 
not be required for stages having a floor area not exceeding 
93 m 2 (1000 ft 2 ). 

12.4.5.5 Ventilators. Regular stages in excess of 93 m 2 (1000 ft 2 ) 
and legitimate stages shall be provided with emergency ventila- 
tion to provide a means of removing smoke and combustion 
gases directly to the outside in the event of a fire and shall be 
achieved by one or a combination of the methods specified in 
12.4.5.5.1 through 12.4.5.5.3. 

12.4.5.5.1 Smoke Control. 

12.4.5.5.1.1 Ameans complying with Section 9.3 shall be pro- 
vided to maintain the smoke level at not less than 1830 mm 
(72 in.) above the highest level of assembly seating or above 
the top of the proscenium opening where a proscenium wall 
and opening protection are provided. 

12.4.5.5.1.2 The system shall be activated independently by 
each of the following: 



(1) Activation of the sprinkler system in the stage area 

(2) Activation of smoke detectors over the stage area 

(3) Activation by manually operated switch at an approved 
location 

12.4.5.5.1.3 The emergency ventilation system shall be sup- 
plied by both normal and standby power. 

12.4.5.5.1.4 The fan(s) power wiring and ducts shall be lo- 
cated and properly protected to ensure not less than 20 min- 
utes of operation in the event of activation. 

12.4.5.5.2 Roof Vents. 

12.4.5.5.2.1 Two or more vents shall be located near the cen- 
ter of and above the highest part of the stage area. 

12.4.5.5.2.2 The vents shall be raised above the roof and shall 
provide a net-free vent area equal to 5 percent of the stage area. 

12.4.5.5.2.3 Vents shall be constructed to open automatically 
by approved heat-activated devices, and supplemental means 
shall be provided for manual operation and periodic testing of 
the ventilator from the stage floor. 

12.4.5.5.2.4 Vents shall be labeled. 

12.4.5.5.3 Other Means. 

12.4.5.5.3.1 Approved, alternate means of removing smoke 
and combustion gases shall be permitted. 

12.4.5.6 Proscenium Walls. Legitimate stages shall be com- 
pletely separated from the seating area by a proscenium wall of 
not less than 2-hour fire-resistive, noncombustible construction. 

12.4.5.6.1 The proscenium wall shall extend not less than 
1220 mm (48 in.) above the roof of the auditorium in combus- 
tible construction. 

1 2.4.5.6.2 All openings in the proscenium wall of a legitimate 
stage shall be protected by a fire assembly having a lVfe-hour 
fire protection rating. 

12.4.5.6.3 The main proscenium opening used for viewing 
performances shall be provided with an automatic-closing fire- 
resistive curtain as described in 12.4.5.7. 

12.4.5.6.4 Proscenium walls shall not be required in smoke- 
protected assembly seating facilities constructed and operated 
in accordance with 12.4.2. 

12.4.5.7* Proscenium Opening Protection. Where required by 
12.4.5.6, the proscenium opening shall be protected by a fire 
curtain or an approved water curtain complying with NFPA 13, 
Standard for the Installation of Sprinkler Systems. 

12.4.5.7.1 The fire curtain or water curtain shall be designed 
to activate upon automatic detection of a fire and upon 
manual activation. 

12.4.5.7.2 The fire curtain shall be a listed minimum 20-minute 
opening protective assembly or shall be constructed as required 
in 12.4.5.7.2(A) through 12.4.5.7.2(G). 

(A) Fabrics. Curtains shall be made of one or more thick- 
nesses of a noncombustible fabric or a fabric with a noncom- 
bustible base material and shall comply with the following: 

(1) The fabric shall be permitted to be given a coating, pro- 
vided that the modified fabric meets the criteria detailed 
in 12.4.5.7. 

Curtain fabrics shall have a weight of not less than 1.3 
kg/m 2 (2 3 /s lb/yd 2 ). 



(2) 



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(B) Tensile Strength Requirements. Curtain fabric shall have 
tensile strength requirements of not less than 540 N/m 
(400 lbf/in.) in both the warp and fill directions. 

(C) Wire-Insertion Reinforcement Requirements. The fabric 
shall be reinforced with noncorrosive wire intertwined with the 
base fiber at a rate of not less than one wire per yarn. Wire shall 
not be required, and fabric weight shall be permitted to be less 
than 1.3 kg/m 2 (2% lb/yd 2 ) if it can be substantiated by ap- 
proved tests that it is equivalent in strength and durability. 

(D) Fire Test. A sample curtain with not less than two vertical 
seams shall be subjected to the standard fire test specified in 
NFPA251, Standard Methods of Tests of Fire Endurance of Building 
Construction and Materials, as applicable to nonbearing walls 
and partitions for a period of 30 minutes, as follows:. 

(1) The curtain shall overlap the furnace edges by a length 
that is appropriate to seal the top and sides. 

(2) The curtain shall have a bottom pocket containing not 
less than 5 kg/linear m (4 lb/linear ft) of batten. 

(3) The unexposed surface of the curtain shall not glow, and 
neither flame nor smoke shall penetrate the curtain dur- 
ing the test period. 

(4) Unexposed surface temperature and hose stream test re- 
quirements shall not be applicable to this proscenium fire 
safety curtain test. 

(E) Smoke Test. Curtain fabrics shall have a smoke density 
not to exceed 25 where tested in accordance with NFPA 255, 
Standard Method of Test of Surface Burning Characteristics of Build- 
ing Materials, and the curtain fabric shall be tested in the con- 
dition in which it is to be used. 

(F) Curtain Operation. The complete installation of every 
proscenium curtain shall be subjected to operating tests, as 
follows: 

(1) Any theater in which a proscenium curtain is placed shall 
not be open to public performance until after the prosce- 
nium curtain has been accepted and approved by the au- 
thority having jurisdiction. 

(2) The curtain shall be automatic-closing without the use of 
applied power. 

(3) The curtain also shall be capable of manual operation. 

(G) Curtain Position. All proscenium curtains shall be in the 
closed position, except during performances, rehearsals, or 
similar activities. 

12.4.5.8 Gridiron, Fly Galleries, and Pinrails. 

12.4.5.8.1 Structural framing designed only for the attach- 
ment of portable or fixed theater equipment, gridirons, galler- 
ies, and catwalks shall be constructed of materials consistent 
with the building type of construction, and a fire resistance 
rating shall not be required. 

12.4.5.8.2 Combustible materials shall be permitted to be 
used for the floors of galleries and catwalks of all types of 
construction. 

12.4.5.9 Catwalks. The clear width of lighting and access cat- 
walks and the means of egress from galleries and gridirons 
shall be not less than 560 mm (22 in.). 

12.4.5.10 Fire Protection. Every stage shall be protected by an 
approved, supervised automatic sprinkler system in compli- 
ance with Section 9.7. 



12.4.5.10.1 Protection shall be provided throughout the 
stage and in storerooms, workshops, permanent dressing 
rooms, and other accessory spaces contiguous to such stages. 

12.4.5.10.2 Sprinklers shall not be required for stages 93 m 2 
(1000 ft 2 ) or less in area and 15 m (50 ft ) or less in height 
where the following criteria are met: 

(1) Curtains, scenery, or other combustible hangings are not 
retractable vertically. 

(2) Combustible hangings are limited to borders, legs, a 
single main curtain, and a single backdrop. 

12.4.5.10.3 Sprinklers shall not be required under stage areas 
less than 1220 mm (48 in.) in clear height that are used exclu- 
sively for chair or table storage and lined on the inside with 
16-mm ( 5 /8-in.) Type X gypsum wallboard or the approved 
equivalent. 

12.4.5.11 Flame-Retardant Requirements. 

12.4.5.11.1 Combustible scenery of cloth, film, vegetation 
(dry), and similar materials shall meet the requirements of 
NFPA 701, Standard Methods of Fire Tests for Flame Propagation of 
Textiles and Films. 

12.4.5.11.2 Foamed plastics (see definition of cellular or foamed 
plastic in 3.3.30) shall be permitted to be used only by specific 
approval of the authority having jurisdiction. 

12.4.5.11.3 Scenery and stage properties not separated from 
the audience by proscenium opening protection shall be of 
either noncombustible or limited-combustible materials. 

12.4.5.11.4 In theaters, motion picture theaters, and televi- 
sion stage settings, with or without horizontal projections, and 
in simulated caves and caverns of foamed plastic, any single 
fuel package shall have a heat release rate not to exceed 
100 kW where tested in accordance with UL 1975, Standard for 
Fire Tests for Foamed Plastics Used for Decorative Purposes. 

12.4.5.12* Standpipes. 

12.4.5.12.1 Regular stages over 93 m 2 (1000 ft 2 ) in area and 
all legitimate stages shall be equipped with 38-mm (lV^-in.) 
hose lines for first aid fire fighting at each side of the stage. 

12.4.5.12.2 Hose connections shall be in accordance with 
NFPA 13, Standard for the Installation of Sprinkler Systems, unless 
Class II or Class III standpipes in accordance with NFPA 14, 
Standard for the Installation of Standpipe, Private Hydrant, and 
Hose Systems, are used. 

12.4.6 Projection Rooms. 

12.4.6.1 Projection rooms shall comply with 12.4.6.2 through 
12.4.6.10. 

12.4.6.2 Where cellulose nitrate film is used, the projection 
room shall comply with NFPA 40, Standard for the Storage and 
Handling of Cellulose Nitrate Motion Picture Film. 

12.4.6.3 Film or video projectors or spotlights utilizing light 
sources that produce particulate matter, or toxic gases or light 
sources that produce hazardous radiation, without protective 
shielding, shall be located within a projection room comply- 
ing with 12.3.2.1.2. 

12.4.6.4 Every projection room shall be of permanent con- 
struction consistent with the construction requirements for 
the type of building in which the projection room is located 
and shall comply with the following: 



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(1) Openings shall not be required to be protected. 

(2) The room shall have a floor area of not less than 7.4 m 2 
(80 ft 2 ) for a single machine and not less than 3.7 m 2 (40 ft 2 ) 
for each additional machine. 

(3) Each motion picture projector, floodlight, spotlight, or 
similar piece of equipment shall have a clear working 
space of not less than 760 mm (30 in.) on each side and at 
its rear, but only one such space shall be required between 
adjacent projectors. 

12.4.6.5 The projection room and the rooms appurtenant to 
it shall have a ceiling height of not less than 2285 mm (90 in.) . 

12.4.6.6 Each projection room for safety film shall have not 
less than one out-swinging, self-closing door not less than 
760 mm (30 in.) wide and 2030 mm (80 in.) high. 

12.4.6.7 The aggregate of ports and openings for projection 
equipment shall not exceed 25 percent of the area of the wall 
between the projection room and the auditorium, and all 
openings shall be provided with glass or other approved mate- 
rial so as to completely close the opening. 

12.4.6.8 Projection room ventilation shall comply with 
12.4.6.8.1 and 12.4.6.8.2. 

12.4.6.8.1 Supply Air. 

12.4.6.8.1.1 Each projection room shall be provided with ad- 
equate air supply inlets arranged to provide well-distributed 
air throughout the room. 

12.4.6.8.1.2 Air inlet ducts shall provide an amount of air 
equivalent to the amount of air being exhausted by projection 
equipment. 

1 2.4.6.8.1 .3 Air shall be permitted to be taken from the outside; 
from adjacent spaces within the building, provided that the vol- 
ume and infiltration rate is sufficient; or from the building air 
conditioning system, provided that it is arranged to supply suffi- 
cient air whether or not other systems are in operation. 

12.4.6.8.2 Exhaust Air. 

12.4.6.8.2.1 Projection booths shall be permitted to be ex- 
hausted through the lamp exhaust system. 

12.4.6.8.2.2 The lamp exhaust system shall be positively inter- 
connected with the lamp so that the lamp cannot operate un- 
less there is sufficient airflow required for the lamp. 

12.4.6.8.2.3 Exhaust air ducts shall terminate at the exterior 
of the building in such a location that the exhaust air cannot 
be readily recirculated into any air supply system. 

12.4.6.8.2.4 The projection room ventilation system shall be 
permitted also to serve appurtenant rooms, such as the gen- 
erator room and the rewind room. 

12.4.6.9 Each projection machine shall be provided with an 
exhaust duct that draws air from each lamp and exhausts it 
directly to the outside of the building. 

12.4.6.9.1 The lamp exhaust shall be permitted to exhaust air 
from the projection room to provide room air circulation. 

12.4.6.9.2 Such ducts shall be of rigid materials, except for a 
flexible connector approved for the purpose. 

12.4.6.9.3 The projection lamp and projection room exhaust 
systems shall be permitted to be combined but shall not be 
interconnected with any other exhaust system or return-air 
system within the buildings. 



12.4.6.9.4 Specifications for electric arc and xenon projection 
equipment shall comply with 12.4.6.9.4(A) and 12.4.6.9.4(B). 

(A) Electric Arc Projection Equipment. The exhaust capacity 
shall be 0.09 m 3 /s (200 ft 3 /min) for each lamp connected to 
the lamp exhaust system, or as recommended by the equip- 
ment manufacturer, and auxiliary air shall be permitted to be 
introduced into the system through a screened opening to 
stabilize the arc. 

(B) Xenon Projection Equipment. The lamp exhaust system 
shall exhaust not less than 0.14 m s /s (300 ft s /min) per lamp, or 
not less than the exhaust volume required or recommended by 
the equipment manufacturer, whichever is greater. 

12.4.6.10 Miscellaneous equipment and storage shall be pro- 
tected as follows: 

(1) Each projection room shall be provided with rewind and 
film storage facilities. 

(2) Flammable liquids containers shall be permitted in projec- 
tion rooms, provided that the following criteria are met: 

(a) There are not more than four containers per projec- 
tion room. 

(b) No container has capacity exceeding 0.5 L (16 oz). 

(c) Containers are of a nonbreakable type. 

(3) Appurtenant electrical equipment, such as rheostats, 
transformers, and generators, shall be permitted to be lo- 
cated within the booth or in a separate room of equivalent 
construction. 

12.4.7* Special Amusement Buildings. 

12.4.7.1* General. Special amusement buildings, regardless of 
occupant load, shall meet the requirements for assembly occu- 
pancies in addition to the requirements of 12.4.7, unless the 
special amusement building is a multilevel play structure that 
is not more than 3050 mm (120 in.) in height and has aggre- 
gate horizontal projections not exceeding 15 m 2 (160 ft 2 ). 

1 2.4.7.2* Automatic Sprinklers. Every special amusement build- 
ing, other than buildings or structures not exceeding 3050 mm 
(120 in.) in height and not exceeding 15 m 2 (160 ft ) in aggre- 
gate horizontal projection, shall be protected throughout by an 
approved, supervised automatic sprinkler system installed and 
maintained in accordance with Section 9.7. 

12.4.7.3 Temporary Water Supply. Where the special amuse- 
ment building required to be sprinklered by 12.4.7.2 is mov- 
able or portable, the sprinkler water supply shall be permitted 
to be provided by an approved, temporary means. 

12.4.7.4 Smoke Detection. Where the nature of the special 
amusement building is such that it operates in reduced light- 
ing levels, the building shall be protected throughout by an 
approved automatic smoke detection system in accordance 
with Section 9.6. 

12.4.7.5 Alarm Initiation. Actuation of any smoke detection 
system device shall sound an alarm at a constantly attended 
location on the premises. 

12.4.7.6 Illuniination. Actuation of the automatic sprinkler 
system, or any other suppression system, or actuation of a 
smoke detection system having an approved verification or 
cross-zoning operation capability shall provide the following: 

(1) Cause illumination in the means of egress to increase to 
that required by Section 7.8 

(2) Stop any conflicting or confusing sounds and visuals 



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12.4.7.7 Exit Marking. 

12.4.7.7.1 Exit marking shall be in accordance with Section 

7.10. 

12.4.7.7.2 Floor proximity exit signs shall be provided in ac- 
cordance with 7.10.1.6. 

12.4.7.7.3* In special amusement buildings where mazes, mir- 
rors, or other designs are used to confound the egress path, 
approved directional exit marking that becomes apparent in 
an emergency shall be provided. 

12.4.7.8 Interior Finish. Interior wall and ceiling finish mate- 
rials complying with Section 10.2 shall be Class A throughout. 

12.4.8 Grandstands. 

12.4.8.1 General. Grandstands shall comply with the provi- 
sions of this chapter as modified by 12.4.8. 

12.4.8.2 Seating. 

12.4.8.2.1 Where grandstand seating without backs is used 
indoors, rows of seats shall be spaced not less than 560 mm 
(22 in.) back-to-back. 

12.4.8.2.2 The depth of footboards and seat boards in grand- 
stands shall be not less than 230 mm (9 in.); where the same 
level is not used for both seat foundations and footrests, foot- 
rests independent of seats shall be provided. 

12.4.8.2.3 Seats and footrests of grandstands shall be sup- 
ported securely and fastened in such a manner that they cannot 
be displaced inadvertently. 

12.4.8.2.4 Individual seats or chairs shall be permitted only if 
secured in rows in an approved manner, unless seats do not 
exceed 16 in number and are located on level floors and 
within railed-in enclosures, such as boxes. 

12.4.8.2.5 The maximum number of seats permitted between 
the farthest seat in an aisle in grandstands and bleachers shall 
not exceed that shown in Table 12.4.8.2.5. 



Table 12.4.8.2.5 Maximum Number of Seats Between 
Farthest Seat and an Aisle 



Application 



Outdoors 



Indoors 



Grandstands 
Bleachers 

[(see 12.2.5.6.1(1)] 



11 

20 



6 
9 



12.4.8.3 Special Requirements — Wood Grandstands. 

12.4.8.3.1 The distance between an outdoor wood grand- 
stand and a building shall be not less than two-thirds of the 
grandstand height and in no case less than 3050 mm (120 in.) 
of a building, unless otherwise permitted by the following: 

(1) The distance requirement shall not apply to buildings of 
not less than 1-hour fire resistance-rated construction 
with openings protected against the fire exposure hazard 
created by the grandstand. 

(2) The distance requirement shall not apply where a wall of 
not less than 1-hour fire resistance-rated construction 
separates the grandstand from the building. 



12.4.8.3.2 An outdoor wood grandstand unit shall not ex- 
ceed 929 m 2 (10,000 ft 2 ) in ground area or 61 m (200 ft) in 
length, and the following requirements also shall apply: 

( 1 ) Grandstand units of the maximum size shall be placed not 
less than 6100 mm (240 in.) apart or shall be separated by 
walls of 1-hour fire resistance rating. 

(2) The number of grandstand units erected in any one 
group shall not exceed three. 

(3) Each group of grandstand units shall be separated from 
any other group by a wall of 2-hour fire resistance-rated 
construction extending 610 mm (24 in.) above the seat 
platforms or by an open space of not less than 15 m (50 ft) . 

12.4.8.3.3 The ground area or length required by 12.4.8.3.2 
shall be permitted to be doubled where one of the following 
criteria is met: 

(1) Where the grandstand is constructed entirely of labeled 
fire-retardant-treated wood that has passed the standard 
rain test, ASTM D 2898, Test Method for Accelerated Weather- 
ing of Fire-Relardant-Treated Wood for Fire Testing 

(2) Where the grandstand is constructed of members con- 
forming to dimensions for heavy timber construction 
(TypeIV(2HH)) 

12.4.8.3.4 The highest level of seat platforms above the 
ground or the surface at the front of any wood grandstand 
shall not exceed 6100 mm (240 in.). 

12.4.8.3.5 The highest level of seat platforms above the 
ground, or the surface at the front of a portable grandstand 
within a tent or membrane structure, shall not exceed 
3660 mm (144 in.). 

12.4.8.3.6 The height requirements specified in 12.4.8.3.4 
and 12.4.8.3.5 shall be permitted to be doubled where con- 
structed entirely of labeled fire-retardant-treated wood that 
has passed the standard rain test, ASTM D 2898, Test Method for 
Accelerated Weathering of Fire-Retardant-Treated Wood for Fire Test- 
ing, or where constructed of members conforming to dimen- 
sions for heavy timber construction (Type IV (2HH)). 

12.4.8.4 Special Requirements — Portable Grandstands. 

12.4.8.4.1 Portable grandstands shall conform to the require- 
ments of 12.4.8 for grandstands and the requirements of 

12.4.8.4.2 through 12.4.8.4.7. 

12.4.8.4.2 Portable grandstands shall be self-contained and 
shall have within them all necessary parts to withstand and 
restrain all forces that might be developed during human 
occupancy. 

12.4.8.4.3 Portable grandstands shall be designed and manu- 
factured so that, if any structural members essential to the 
strength and stability of the structure have been omitted dur- 
ing erection, the presence of unused connection fittings shall 
make the omissions self-evident. 

1 2.4.8.4.4 Portable grandstand construction shall be skillfully 
accomplished to produce the strength required by the design. 

12.4.8.4.5 Portable grandstands shall be provided with base 
plates, sills, floor runners, or sleepers of such area that the 
permitted bearing capacity of the supporting material is not 
exceeded. 

12.4.8.4.6 Where portable grandstands rest direcdy on a base 
of such character that it is incapable of supporting the load 
without appreciable settlement, mud sills of suitable material, 



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having sufficient area to prevent undue or dangerous settlement, 
shall be installed under base plates, runners, or sleepers. 

12.4.8.4.7 All bearing surfaces of portable grandstands shall 
be in contact with each other. 

12.4.8.5 Spaces Underneath Grandstands. Spaces under- 
neath a grandstand shall be kept free of flammable or combus- 
tible materials, unless protected by an approved, supervised 
automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 9.7, un- 
less otherwise permitted by the following: 

(1) This requirement shall not apply to accessory uses of 
28 m 2 (300 ft 2 ) or less, such as ticket booths, toilet facili- 
ties, or concession booths where constructed of noncom- 
bustible or fire-resistive construction in otherwise non- 
sprinklered facilities. 

(2) This requirement shall not apply to rooms that are enclosed 
in not less than 1-hour fire resistance-rated construction 
and are less than 93 m 2 (1000 ft 2 ) in otherwise nonsprin- 
klered facilities. 

12.4.8.6 Guards and Railings. 

12.4.8.6.1 Railings or guards not less than 1065 mm (42 in.) 
above the aisle surface or footrest or not less than 915 mm 
(36 in.) vertically above the center of the seat or seat board sur- 
face, whichever is adjacent, shall be provided along those por- 
tions of the backs and ends of all grandstands where the seats are 
more than 1220 mm (48 in.) above the floor or ground. 

12.4.8.6.2 The requirement of 12.4.8.6.1 shall not apply 
where an adjacent wall or fence affords equivalent safeguard. 

12.4.8.6.3 Where the front footrest of any grandstand is more 
than 610 mm (24 in.) above the floor, railings or guards not less 
than 825 mm (33 in.) above such footrests shall be provided. 

12.4.8.6.4 The railings required by 12.4.8.6.3 shall be permit- 
ted to be not less than 660 mm (26 in.) high in grandstands or 
where the front row of seats includes backrests. 

12.4.8.6.5 Cross aisles located within the seating area shall be 
provided with rails not less than 660 mm (26 in.) high along 
the front edge of the cross aisle. 

12.4.8.6.6 The railings specified by 12.4.8.6.5 shall not be 
required where the backs of the seats in front of the cross 
aisle project 610 mm (24 in.) or more above the surface of 
the cross aisle. 

12.4.8.6.7 Vertical openings between guardrails and foot- 
boards or seat boards shall be provided with intermediate con- 
struction so that a 100-mm (4-in.) diameter sphere cannot 
pass through the opening. 

12.4.8.6.8 An opening between the seat board and footboard 
located more than 760 mm (30 in.) above grade shall be pro- 
vided with intermediate construction so that a 100-mm (4-in.) 
diameter sphere cannot pass through the opening. 

12.4.9 Folding and Telescopic Seating. 

12.4.9.1 General Folding and telescopic seating shall comply 
with the provisions of this chapter as modified by 12.4.9. 

12.4.9.2 Seating. 

12.4.9.2.1 The horizontal distance of seats, measured back- 
to-back, shall be not less than 560 mm (22 in.) for seats with- 
out backs, and the following requirements shall also apply: 



(1) There shall be a space of not less than 305 mm (12 in.) 
between the back of each seat and the front of each seat 
immediately behind it. 

(2) If seats are of the chair type, the 305-mm (12-in.) dimen- 
sion shall be measured to the front edge of the rear seat in 
its normal unoccupied position. 

(3) All measurements shall be taken between plumb lines. 

12.4.9.2.2 The depth of footboards (footrests) and seat 
boards in folding and telescopic seating shall be not less than 
230 mm (9 in.). 

12.4.9.2.3 Where the same level is not used for both seat 
foundations and footrests, footrests independent of seats shall 
be provided. 

12.4.9.2.4 Individual chair-type seats shall be permitted in 
folding and telescopic seating only if firmly secured in groups 
of not less than three. 

12.4.9.2.5 The maximum number of seats permitted between 
the farthest seat in an aisle in folding and telescopic seating 
shall not exceed that shown in Table 12.4.8.2.5. 

12.4.9.3 Guards and Railings. 

12.4.9.3.1 Railings or guards not less than 1065 mm (42 in.) 
above the aisle surface or footrest or not less than 915 mm 
(36 in.) vertically above the center of the seat or seat board 
surface, whichever is adjacent, shall be provided along those 
portions of the backs and ends of all folding and telescopic 
seating where the seats are more than 1220 mm (48 in.) above 
the floor or ground. 



12.4.9.3.2 

where an adjacent 



The requirement of 12.4.9.3.1 shall not apply 
Ijacent wall or fence affords equivalent safeguard. 

12.4.9.3.3 Where the front footrest of folding or telescopic 
seating is more than 610 mm (24 in.) above the floor, railings 
or guards not less than 825 mm (33 in.) above such footrests 
shall be provided. 

12.4.9.3.4 The railings required by 12.4.9.3.3 shall be permit- 
ted to be not less than 660 mm (26 in.) high where the front 
row of seats includes backrests. 

12.4.9.3.5 Cross aisles located within the seating area shall be 
provided with rails not less than 660 mm (26 in.) high along 
the front edge of the cross aisle. 

12.4.9.3.6 The railings specified by 12.4.9.3.5 shall not be 
required where the backs of the seats in front of the cross 
aisle project 610 mm (24 in.) or more above the surface of 
the cross aisle. 

12.4.9.3.7 Vertical openings between guardrails and foot- 
boards or seat boards shall be provided with intermediate con- 
struction so that a 100-mm (4-in.) diameter sphere cannot 
pass through the opening. 

12.4.9.3.8 An opening between the seat board and footboard 
located more than 760 mm (30 in.) above grade shall be pro- 
vided with intermediate construction so that a 100-mm (4-in.) 
diameter sphere cannot pass through the opening. 

1 2.4. 1 Airport Loading Walkways. 

12.4.10.1 Airport loading walkways shall conform to 
NFPA 415, Standard on Airport Terminal Buildings, Fueling Ramp 
Drainage, andLoading Walkways, and the provisions of 12.4.10.2 
and 12.4.10.3. 



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12.4.10.2 Doors in the egress path from the aircraft through 
the airport loading walkway into the airport terminal building 
shall meet the following criteria: 

(1) They shall swing in the direction of egress from the aircraft. 
(2)*They shall not be permitted to have delayed egress locks. 

12.4.10.3 Exit access shall be unimpeded from the airport 
loading walkway to the non-secured public areas of the airport 
terminal building. 

12.5 Building Services. 

12.5.1 Utilities. Utilities shall comply with the provisions of 
Section 9.1. 

12.5.2 Heating, Ventilating, and Air Conditioning Equipment. 
Heating, ventilating, and air conditioning equipment shall 
comply with the provisions of Section 9.2. 

12.5.3 Elevators, Escalators, and Conveyors. Elevators, esca- 
lators, and conveyors shall comply with the provisions of 
Section 9.4. 

12.5.4 Rubbish Chutes, Incinerators, and Laiindry Chutes. 
Rubbish chutes, incinerators, and laundry chutes shall comply 
with the provisions of Section 9.5. 

12.6 Reserved. 

12.7 Operating Features. 

12.7.1 Special Provisions for Food Service Operations. 

12.7.1.1 All devices in connection with the preparation of 
food shall be installed and operated to avoid hazard to the 
safety of occupants. 

12.7.1.2 All devices in connection with the preparation of 
food shall be of an approved type and shall be installed in an 
approved manner. 

12.7.1.3 Food preparation facilities shall be protected in ac- 
cordance with 9.2.3 and shall not be required to have openings 
protected between food preparation areas and dining areas. 

12.7.1.4 Portable cooking equipment that is not flue- 
connected shall be permitted only as follows: 

(1) Equipment fueled by small heat sources that can be 
readily extinguished by water, such as candles or alcohol- 
burning equipment, including solid alcohol, shall be per- 
mitted to be used, provided that precautions satisfactory 
to the authority having jurisdiction are taken to prevent 
ignition of any combustible materials. 

(2) Candles shall be permitted to be used on tables used for 
food service where securely supported on substantial non- 
combustible bases located to avoid danger of ignition of 
combustible materials and only where approved by the 
authority havingjurisdiction. 

(3) Candle flames shall be protected. 

(4) "Flaming sword" or other equipment involving open flames 
and flamed dishes, such as cherries jubilee or crepe suzette, 
shall be permitted to be used, provided that precautions sub- 
ject to the approval of the authority havingjurisdiction are 
taken. 

(5)*Listed and approved LP-Gas commercial food service ap- 
pliances shall be permitted to be used where in accor- 
dance with NFPA58, Liquefied Petroleum Gas Code. 



12.7.2 Open Flame Devices and Pyrotechnics. No open flame 
devices or pyrotechnic devices shall be used in any assembly 
occupancy, unless otherwise permitted by the following: 

( 1 ) Pyrotechnic special effect devices shall be permitted to be 
used on stages before proximate audiences for ceremo- 
nial or religious purposes, as part of a demonstration in 
exhibits, or as part of a performance, provided that both 
of the following criteria are met: 

(a) Precautions satisfactory to the authority havingjuris- 
diction are taken to prevent ignition of any combus- 
tible material. 

(b) Use of the pyrotechnic device complies with 
NFPA 1126, Standard for the Use of Pyrotechnics before a 
Proximate Audience. 

(2) Flame effects before an audience shall be permitted in 
accordance with NFPA 160, Standard for Flame Effects Before 
an Audience. 

(3) Open flame devices shall be permitted to be used in the 
following situations, provided that precautions satisfac- 
tory to the authority having jurisdiction are taken to 
prevent ignition of any combustible material or injury 
to occupants: 

(a)*For ceremonial or religious purposes 

(b) On stages and platforms where part of a performance 

(c) Where candles on tables are securely supported on 
substantial noncombustible bases and candle flame is 
protected 

(4) This requirement shall not apply to heat-producing 
equipment complying with 9.2.2. 

(5) This requirement shall not apply to food service opera- 
tions in accordance with 12.7.1. 

(6) Gas lights shall be permitted to be used, provided that 
precautions are taken, subject to the approval of the au- 
thority havingjurisdiction, to prevent ignition of any com- 
bustible materials. 

12.7.3 Fuurnishings, Decorations, and Scenery. 

12.7.3.1 Fabrics and films used for decorative purposes, all 
draperies and curtains, and similar furnishings shall be in ac- 
cordance with the provisions of 10.3.1. 

12.7.3.2 The authority havingjurisdiction shall impose con- 
trols on the quantity and arrangement of combustible con- 
tents in assembly occupancies to provide an adequate level of 
safety to life from fire. 

12.7.3.3* Exposed foamed plastic materials and unprotected 
materials containing foamed plastic used for decorative purposes 
or stage scenery shall have a heat release rate not exceeding 
100 kW where tested in accordance with UL 1975, Standard for Fire 
Tests for Foamed Plastics Used for Decorative Purposes. 

12.7.3.4 The requirement of 12.7.3.3 shall not apply to indi- 
vidual foamed plastic items and items containing foamed plas- 
tic where the foamed plastic does not exceed 0.45 kg (1 lb) in 
weight. 

12.7.4 Special Provisions for Exposition Facilities. 

12.7.4.1 General. No display or exhibit shall be installed or op- 
erated to interfere in any way with access to any required exit or 
with the visibility of any required exit or required exit sign; nor 
shall any display block access to fire-fighting equipment. 



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12.7.4.2 Materials Not On Display. A storage room having an 
enclosure consisting of a smoke barrier having a fire resistance 
rating of 1 hour and protected by an automatic extinguishing 
system shall be provided for combustible materials not on dis- 
play, including combustible packing crates used to ship ex- 
hibitors' supplies and products. 

12.7.4.3 Exhibits. 

12.7.4.3.1 Exhibits shall comply with 12.7.4.3.2 through 
12.7.4.3.11. 

12.7.4.3.2 The travel distance within the exhibit booth or 
exhibit enclosure to an exit access aisle shall not exceed 15 m 

(50 ft). 

12.7.4.3.3 The upper deck of multilevel exhibits exceeding 
28 m 2 (300 ft 2 ) shall have not less than two remote means of 
egress. 

12.7.4.3.4 Exhibit booths shall be constructed of the following: 

(1) Noncombustible or limited-combustible materials 

(2) Wood exceeding 6.3 mm (V4 in.) nominal thickness or wood 
not exceeding 6.3 mm ( ] /4 in.) nominal thickness that is 
pressure-treated, fire-retardant wood meeting the require- 
ments of NFPA 703, Standard for Fire Retardant Impregnated 
Wood and Fire Retardant Coatings for Building Materials 

(3)*Flame-retardant materials complying with NFPA 701, 
Standard Methods of Fire Tests for Flame Propagation of Textiles 
and Films 

(4) Textile wall coverings, such as carpeting and similar prod- 
ucts used as wall or ceiling finishes, complying with the 
provisions of 10.2.2 and 10.2.4 

(5) Plastics limited to those that comply with 12.3.3 and Sec- 
tion 10.2 

(6) Foamed plastics and materials containing foamed plastics 
having a heat release rate for any single fuel package that 
does not exceed 100 kW where tested in accordance with 
UL 1975, Standard for Fire Tests for Foamed Plastics Used for 
Decorative Purposes 

(7) Cardboard, honeycombed paper, and other combustible 
materials having a heat release rate for any single fuel 
package that does not exceed 150 kW where tested in ac- 
cordance with UL 1975, Standard for Fire Tests for Foamed 
Plastics Used for Decorative Purposes 

12.7.4.3.5 Curtains, drapes, and decorations shall comply 
with the applicable portions of 10.3.1. 

12.7.4.3.6 Acoustical and decorative material including, but 
not limited to, cotton, hay, paper, straw, moss, split bamboo, 
and wood chips shall be flame-retardant treated to the satisfac- 
tion of the authority having jurisdiction. 

12.7.4.3.6.1 Materials that cannot be treated for flame retar- 
dancy shall not be used. 

12.7.4.3.6.2 Foamed plastics and materials containing 
foamed plastics and used as decorative objects such as, but not 
limited to, mannequins, murals, and signs shall have a heat 
release rate for any single fuel package that does not exceed 
150 kW where tested in accordance with UL 1975, Standard for 
Fire Tests for Foamed Plastics Used for Decorative Purposes. 

12.7.4.3.6.3 Where the aggregate area of acoustical and deco- 
rative materials is less than 10 percent of the individual floor 
or wall area, such materials shall be permitted to be used sub- 
ject to the approval of the authority havingjurisdiction. 



12.7.4.3.7 The following shall be protected by automatic ex- 
tinguishing systems: 

(1) Single-level exhibit booths exceeding 28 m 2 (300 ft 2 ) and 
covered with a ceiling 

(2) Each level of multilevel exhibit booths, including the up- 
permost level where the uppermost level is covered with a 
ceiling 

12.7.4.3.7.1 The requirements of 12.7.4.3.7 shall not apply 
where otherwise permitted by the following: 

(1) Ceilings that are constructed of open grate design or 
listed dropout ceilings in accordance with NFPA 13, Stan- 
dard for the Installation of Sprinkler Systems, shall not be con- 
sidered ceilings within the context of 12.7.4.3.7. 

(2) Vehicles, boats, and similar exhibited products having over 
9.3 m 2 (100 ft 2 ) of roofed area shall be provided with smoke 
detectors acceptable to the authority havingjurisdiction. 

(3)*The requirement of 12.7.4.3.7(2) shall not apply where 
fire protection of multilevel exhibit booths is consistent 
with the criteria developed through a life safety evalua- 
tion of the exhibition hall in accordance with 12.4.1, sub- 
ject to approval of the authority havingjurisdiction. 

12.7.4.3.7.2 A single exhibit or group of exhibits with ceilings 
that do not require sprinklers shall be separated by a distance 
of not less than 3050 mm (120 in.) where the aggregate ceiling 
exceeds 28 m 2 (300 ft 2 ). 

12.7.4.3.7.3 The water supply and piping for the sprinkler 
system shall be permitted to be of an approved, temporary 
means that is provided by a domestic water supply, a standpipe 
system, or a sprinkler system. 

12.7.4.3.8 Open flame devices within exhibit booths shall 
comply with 12.7.2. 

12.7.4.3.9 Cooking and food-warming devices in exhibit 
booths shall comply with 12.7.1 and the following: 



(b) 



(c) 
(d) 



( 1 ) Gas-fired devices shall comply with the following: 
(a) Natural gas-fired devices shall comply with 9.1.1. 

The requirement of 12.7.4.3.9(1) (a) shall not apply 
to compressed natural gas where permitted by the 
authority havingjurisdiction. 
The use of LP-Gas cylinders shall be prohibited. 
Nonrefillable LP-Gas cylinders shall be approved for use 
where permitted by the authority havingjurisdiction. 

(2) The devices shall be isolated from the public by not less 
than 1220 mm (48 in.) or by a barrier between the devices 
and the public. 

(3) Multi-well cooking equipment using combustible oils or 
solids shall comply with 9.2.3. 

(4) Single-well cooking equipment using combustible oils or 
solids shall meet the following criteria: 
(a) They shall have lids available for immediate use. 

They shall be limited to 0.2 m 2 (288 in. 2 ) of cooking 
surface. 

They shall be placed on noncombustible surface 
materials. 

They shall be separated from each other by a horizon- 
tal distance of not less than 610 mm (24 in.), 
(e) The requirement of 12.7.4.3.9(4) (d) shall not apply 
to multiple single-well cooking equipment where the 
aggregate cooking surface area does not exceed 
0.2 m 2 (288 in. 2 ). 



(b) 
(c) 
(d) 



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(f) They shall be kept at a horizontal distance of not less 
than 610 mm (24 in.) from any combustible material. 
(5) A portable fire extinguisher in accordance with 9.7.4.1 shall 
be provided within the booth for each device, or an ap- 
proved automatic extinguishing system shall be provided. 

12.7.4.3.10 Combustible materials within exhibit booths shall 
be limited to a one-day supply. Storage of combustible materials 
behind the booth shall be prohibited. (See 12. 7.3.2 and 12. 7.4.2.) 

12.7.4.3.11 Plans for the exposition, in an acceptable form, 
shall be submitted to the authority having jurisdiction for ap- 
proval prior to setting up any exhibit. 

12.7.4.3.11.1 The plan shall show all details of the proposed 
exposition. 

12.7.4.3.11.2 No exposition shall occupy any exposition facil- 
ity without approved plans. 

12.7.4.4 Vehicles. Vehicles on display within an exposition fa- 
cility shall comply with 12.7.4.4.1 through 12.7.4.4.5. 

12.7.4.4.1 All fuel tank openings shall be locked and sealed 
in an approved manner to prevent the escape of vapors; fuel 
tanks shall not contain in excess of one-half their capacity or 
contain in excess of 38 L (10 gal) of fuel, whichever is less. 

12.7.4.4.2 At least one battery cable shall be removed from 
the batteries used to start the vehicle engine, and the discon- 
nected battery cable shall then be taped. 

12.7.4.4.3 Batteries used to power auxiliary equipment shall 
be permitted to be kept in service. 

12.7.4.4.4 Fueling or defueling of vehicles shall be prohibited. 

12.7.4.4.5 Vehicles shall not be moved during exhibit hours. 

12.7.4.5 Prohibited Materials. 

12.7.4.5.1 The following items shall be prohibited within ex- 
hibit halls: 

(1) Compressed flammable gases 

(2) Flammable or combustible liquids 

(3) Hazardous chemicals or materials 

(4) Class II or greater lasers, blasting agents, and explosives 

12.7.4.5.2 The authority having jurisdiction shall be permit- 
ted to allow the limited use of any items specified in 12.7.4.5.1 
under special circumstances. 

12.7.4.6 Alternatives. See Section 1.4. 
12.7.5* Crowd Managers. 

12.7.5.1 In assembly occupancies having occupant loads ex- 
ceeding 1000, trained crowd managers or crowd manager su- 
pervisors shall be provided at a ratio of 1 crowd manager/ 
supervisor for every 250 occupants, unless otherwise permitted 
by the following: 

( 1 ) This requirement shall not apply to assembly occupancies 
used exclusively for religious worship with an occupant 
load not exceeding 2000. 

(2) The ratio of trained crowd managers to occupants shall be 
permitted to be reduced where, in the opinion of the au- 
thority having jurisdiction, the existence of an approved, 
supervised automatic sprinkler system and the nature of 
the event warrant. 

12.7.5.2 The crowd manager shall receive approved training 
in crowd management techniques. 



12.7.6* Brills. 

12.7.6.1 The employees or attendants of assembly occupancies 
shall be trained and drilled in the duties they are to perform in 
case of fire, panic, or other emergency to effect orderly exiting. 

12.7.6.2 Employees or attendants of assembly occupancies shall 
be instructed in the proper use of portable fire extinguishers and 
other manual fire suppression equipment where provided. 

12.7.6.3* In the following assembly occupancies, an audible 
announcement shall be made, or a projected image shall be 
shown, prior to the start of each program that notifies occu- 
pants of the location of the exits to be used in case of a fire or 
other emergency: 

(1) Theaters 

(2) Motion picture theaters 

(3) Auditoriums 

(4) Other similar assembly occupancies with occupant loads 
exceeding 300 where there are noncontinuous programs 

12.7.6.4 The requirement of 12.7.6.3 shall not apply to assem- 
bly occupancies in schools where used for nonpublic events. 

12.7.7 Smoking. 

12.7.7.1 Smoking in assembly occupancies shall be regulated 
by the authority having jurisdiction. 

12.7.7.2 In rooms or areas where smoking is prohibited, 
plainly visible signs shall be posted that read as follows: 

NO SMOKING 

12.7.7.3 No person shall smoke in prohibited areas that are 
so posted, unless permitted by the authority having jurisdic- 
tion under both of the following conditions: 

(1) Smoking shall be permitted on a stage only where it is a 
necessary and rehearsed part of a performance 

(2) Smoking shall be permitted only where the smoker is a 
regular performing member of the cast. 

12.7.7.4 Where smoking is permitted, suitable ashtrays or re- 
ceptacles shall be provided in convenient locations. 

12.7.8 Seating. 

12.7.8.1 Secured Seating. 

12.7.8.1.1 Seats in assembly occupancies accommodating 
more than 200 persons shall be securely fastened to the floor, 
except where fastened together in groups of not less than 
three and not exceeding seven and as permitted by 12.7.8.2. 

12.7.8.1.2 All seats in balconies and galleries shall be securely 
fastened to the floor, except in places of religious worship. 

12.7.8.2 Unsecured Seating. 

1 2.7.8.2. 1 Seats not secured to the floor shall be permitted in 
restaurants, night clubs, and other occupancies where fasten- 
ing seats to the floor might be impracticable. 

12.7.8.2.2 Unsecured seats shall be permitted, provided that, 
in the area used for seating, excluding such areas as dance 
floors and stages, there is not more than one seat for each 
1.4 m 2 (15 ft 2 ) of net floor area, and adequate aisles to reach 
exits are maintained at all times. 

12.7.8.2.3 Seating diagrams shall be submitted for approval 
by the authority having jurisdiction to permit an increase in 
occupant load per 7.3.1.3. 



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12.7.8.3 Occupant Load Posting. 

12.7.8.3.1 Every room constituting an assembly occupancy and 
not having fixed seats shall have the occupant load of the room 
posted in a conspicuous place near the main exit from the room. 

12.7.8.3.2 Approved signs shall be maintained in a legible 
manner by the owner or authorized agent. 

12.7.8.3.3 Signs shall be durable and shall indicate the num- 
ber of occupants permitted for each room use. 

12.7.9 Maintenance of Outdoor Grandstands. 

12.7.9.1 The owner shall provide for not less than annual 
inspection and required maintenance of each outdoor grand- 
stand to ensure safe conditions. 

12.7.9.2 At least biennially, the inspection shall be performed 
by a professional engineer, registered architect, or individual 
certified by the manufacturer. 

12.7.9.3 Where required by the authority havingjurisdiction, 
the owner shall provide certification that such inspection has 
been performed. 

12.7.10 Maintenance and Operation of Folding and Tele- 
scopic Seating. 

12.7.10.1 Instructions in both maintenance and operation 
shall be transmitted to the owner by the manufacturer of the 
seating or his or her representative. 

12.7.10.2 Maintenance and operation of folding and telescopic 
seating shall be the responsibility of the owner or his or her duly 
authorized representative and shall include the following: 

( 1 ) During operation of the folding and telescopic seats, the 
opening and closing shall be supervised by responsible 
personnel who shall ensure that the operation is in accor- 
dance with the manufacturer's instructions. 

(2) Only attachments specifically approved by the manufacturer 
for the specific installation shall be attached to the seating. 

(3) An annual inspection and required maintenance of each 
grandstand shall be performed to ensure safe conditions. 
At least biennially, the inspection shall be performed by a 
professional engineer, registered architect, or individual 
certified by the manufacturer. 

12.7.11 Clothing Clothing and personal effects shall not be 
stored in corridors, unless otherwise permitted by the following: 

(1) This requirement shall not apply to corridors protected 
by an approved, supervised automatic sprinkler system in 
accordance with Section 9.7. 

(2) This requirement shall not apply to corridor areas pro- 
tected by a smoke detection system in accordance with 
Section 9.6. 

(3) This requirement shall not apply to storage in metal lockers, 
provided that the required egress width is maintained. 



Chapter 13 Existing Assembly Occupancies 

13.1 General Requirements. 

13.1.1 Application. 

13.1.1.1 The requirements of this chapter shall apply to exist- 
ing buildings or portions thereof currently occupied as assem- 
bly occupancies, unless otherwise specified by 13.1.1.2. (See 
3.3.152.2 for definition of assembly occupancy; see also 12.1.1.) 



13.1.1.2 An existing building housing an assembly occupancy 
established prior to the effective date of this Code shall be per- 
mitted to be approved for continued use if it conforms to or is 
made to conform to the provisions of this Code to the extent 
that, in the opinion of the authority havingjurisdiction, rea- 
sonable life safety against the hazards of fire, explosion, and 
panic is provided and maintained. 

13.1.1.3 Additions to existing buildings shall conform to the 
requirements for new construction. 

13.1.1.4 Existing portions of buildings shall be upgraded if the 
addition results in an increase in the required minimum number 
of separate means of egress in accordance with 7.4.1.2. 

13. 1 . 1 .5 Existing portions of the structure shall not be required 
to be modified, provided that both of the following are met: 

(1) The new construction has not diminished the fire safety 
features of the facility. 

(2) The addition does not result in an increase in the re- 
quired minimum number of separate means of egress in 
accordance with 7.4.1.2. 

13.1.1.6 An assembly occupancy in which an occupant load 
increase results in an increase in the required minimum num- 
ber of separate means of egress, in accordance with 7.4.1.2, 
shall meet the requirements for new construction. 

13.1.2 Multiple Occupancies. 

13.1.2.1 General. Multiple occupancies shall be in accor- 
dance with 6.1.14. 

13.1.2.2* Sinieltaneous Occupancy. Exits shall be sufficient 
for simultaneous occupancy of both the assembly occupancy 
and other parts of the building, except where the authority 
havingjurisdiction determines that the conditions are such 
that simultaneous occupancy will not occur. 

13.1.2.3 Assembly and Mercantile Occupancies in Mall 

Buildings. 

13.1.2.3.1 The provisions of Chapter 13 shall apply to the 
assembly occupancy tenant space. 

13.1.2.3.2 The provisions of 37.4.4 shall be permitted to be 
used outside the assembly occupancy tenant space. 

13.1.3* Definitions. A list of terms used in the chapter follows: 

(1) Aisle Accessway. See 3.3.8. 

(2) Exhibit. See 3.3.58. 

(3) Exhibitor. See 3.3.59. 

(4) Exposition. See 3.3.65. 

(5) Exposition Facility. See 3.3.69.1. 

(6) Festival Seating. See 3.3.188.1. 

(7) Flow Time. See 3.3.88. 

(8) Fly Gallery. See 3.3.89. 

(9) Gridiron. See 3.3.96. 

(10) Legitimate Stage. See 3.3.210.1. 

(11) life Safety Evaluation. See 3.3.126. 

(12) Multilevel Play Structure. See 3.3.217.5. 

(13) Pinrafl. See 3.3.165. 

(14) Platform. See 3.3.166. 

(15) Proscenium Wall. See 3.3.229.2. 

(16) Regular Stage. See 3.3.210.2. 

(17) Smoke-Protected Assembly Seating. See 3.3.188.4. 

(18) Special Amusement Building. See 3.3.27.10. 

(19) Stage. See 3.3.210. 

(20) Temporary Platform. See 3.3.166.1. 



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13.1.4* Classification of Occupancy. See 6.1.2. 

13.1.5 Classification of Hazard of Contents. Contents of as- 
sembly occupancies shall be classified in accordance with the 
provisions of Section 6.2. 

13.1.6 Minimum Construction Requirements. The location of 
an assembly occupancy shall be limited as shown in Table 13.1.6, 
unless otherwise permitted by the following (see 8.2.1.): 

(1) This requirement shall not apply to outdoor grandstands 
of Type I or Type II construction. 

(2) This requirement shall not apply to outdoor grandstands 
of Type III, Type IV, or Type V construction and that meet 
the requirements of 13.4.8. 

( 3 ) This requirement shall not apply to grandstands of noncom- 
bustible construction supported by the floor in a building 
meeting the construction requirements of Table 13.1.6. 

(4) This requirement shall not apply to assembly occupancies 
within mall buildings in accordance with 37.4.4. 



13.1.7 Occupant Load. 

13.1.7.1* General. The occupant load, in number of persons 
for whom means of egress and other provisions are required, 
shall be determined on the basis of the occupant load factors 
of Table 7.3.1.2 that are characteristic of the use of the space 
or shall be determined as the maximum probable population 
of the space under consideration, whichever is greater. 

13.1.7.1.1 In areas not in excess of 930 m 2 (10,000 ft 2 ), the 
occupant load shall not exceed one person in 0.46 m 2 (5 ft 2 ). 

13.1.7.1.2 In areas in excess of 930 m 2 (10,000 ft 2 ), the occu- 
pant load shall not exceed one person in 0.65 m 2 (7 ft 2 ). 

13.1.7.1.3 The authority having jurisdiction shall be permit- 
ted to establish the occupant load as the number of persons 
for which the existing means of egress is adequate, provided 
that measures are established to prevent occupancy by a 
greater number of persons. 



Table 13.1.6 


Construction Type Limitations 










Type of 
Construction 


Below LED 


LED 




Number of Levels above LED 




1 


2 


3 


>4 


I(443) tt 
I(332) +t 
II(222) +t 


Any assembly^ 


Any assembly 


Any assembly 


Any assembly 


Any assembly 


Any assembly; 
IfOL>1000 § 


11(111)" 


Any assembly* 5 
Limited to 1 
level below LED 


Any assembly 


Any assembly 


Any assembly; 
IfOL>1000 § 


Assembly with 
OL < 1000 § 


NP 


111(211) 
IV(2HH) 
V(lll) 


Any assembly^ 
Limited to 1 
level below LED 


Any assembly 


Any assembly 


Any assembly; 
IfOL>300 § 


Assembly with 
OL < 1000 § 


NP 



11(000) 


Assembly with 
OL<1000 § 
Limited to 1 
level below LED 


111(200) 
V(000) 


Assembly with 
OL < 1000 s 
Limited to 1 
level below LED 



Any assembly; Assembly with 
IfOL>1000 § OL<300 § 



NP 



NP 



NP 



Any assembly; Assembly with 
IfOL>1000 § OL<300 § 



NP 



NP 



NP 



NP: Not permitted. 

LED: Level of exit discharge. 

OL: Occupant load. 

Note: For the purpose of this table, a mezzanine is not counted as a level. 

HVhere every part of the structural framework of roofs in Type I or Type II construction is 6100 mm (240 in.) 

or more above the floor immediately below, omission of all fire protection of the structural members shall be 

permitted, including protection of trusses, roof framing, decking, and portions of columns above 6100 mm 

(240 in.). 

*In open-air fixed seating facilities, including stadia, omission of fire protection of structural members 

exposed to the outside atmosphere shall be permitted where substantiated by an approved engineering 

analysis. 

^Permitted if all the following are protected throughout by an approved automatic sprinkler system in 

accordance with Section 9.7: 

( 1 ) The level of the assembly occupancy 

(2) Any level intervening between the level of the assembly occupancy and the level of exit discharge 

(3) The level of the exit discharge if there are any openings between the level of exit discharge and the exits 
serving the assembly occupancy 



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13.1.7.2 Waiting Spaces. In theaters and other assembly occu- 
pancies where persons are admitted to the building at times 
when seats are not available, or when the permitted occupant 
load has been reached based on 13.1.7.1 and persons are al- 
lowed to wait in a lobby or similar space until seats or space is 
available, the following requirements shall apply: 

(1) Such use of a lobby or similar space shall not encroach 
upon the required clear width of exits. 

(2) The waiting spaces shall be restricted to areas other than 
the required means of egress. 

(3) Exits shall be provided for the waiting spaces on the basis of 
one person for each 0.28 m 2 (3 ft 2 ) of waiting space area. 

(4) Exits for waiting spaces shall be in addition to the exits 
specified for the main auditorium area and shall conform 
in construction and arrangement to the general rules for 
exits given in this chapter. 

13.1.7.3 life Safety Evaluation. Where the occupant load of 
an assembly occupancy exceeds 6000, a life safety evaluation 
shall be performed in accordance with 13.4.1. 

13.1.7.4 Outdoor Facilities. In outdoor facilities, where ap- 
proved by the authority having jurisdiction the number of oc- 
cupants who are each provided with not less than 1.4 m 2 
(15 ft 2 ) of lawn surface shall be permitted to be excluded from 
the maximum occupant load of 6000 of 13.1.7.3 in determin- 
ing the need for a life safety evaluation. 

13.2 Means of Egress Requirements. 

13.2.1 General. All means of egress shall be in accordance 
with Chapter 7 and this chapter. 

13.2.2 Means of Egress Components. 

13.2.2.1 Components of means of egress shall be limited to 
the types described in 13.2.2.2 through 13.2.2.12. 

13.2.2.2 Doors. 

13.2.2.2.1 Doors complying with 7.2.1 shall be permitted. 

13.2.2.2.2 Assembly occupancies with occupant loads of 300 
or less in malls (see 37. 4. 4. 2. 2) shall be permitted to have hori- 
zontal or vertical security grilles or doors complying with 
7.2.1.4.1.4 on the main entrance/exits. 

13.2.2.2.3 Any door in a required means of egress from an 
area having an occupant load of 100 or more persons shall be 
permitted to be provided with a latch or lock only if the latch 
or lock is panic hardware or fire exit hardware complying with 
7.2.1.7, unless otherwise permitted by the following: 

(1) This requirement shall not apply to delayed-egress locks 
as permitted in 13.2.2.2.5. 

(2) This requirement shall not apply to access-controlled 
egress doors as permitted in 13.2.2.2.6. 

13.2.2.2.4 Locking devices complying with 7.2.1.5.4 shall be 
permitted to be used on a single door or a single pair of doors 
if both of the following conditions apply: 

(1) The door or pair of doors serve as the main exit from 
assembly occupancies having an occupant load not 
greater than 600. 

(2) Any latching devices on such a door(s) from an assembly 
occupancy having an occupant load of 100 or more are 
released by panic hardware or fire exit hardware. 



13.2.2.2.5 Delayed-egress locks complying with 7.2.1.6.1 shall 
be permitted on doors other than main entrance/exit doors. 

13.2.2.2.6 Doors in the means of egress shall be permitted to be 
equipped with an approved access control system complying with 
7.2.1.6.2, and such doors shall not be locked from the egress side 
when the assembly occupancy is occupied. (See 7.2.1.1.3.) 

13.2.2.2.7 Revolving doors complying with the requirements 
of 7.2.1.10 for new construction shall be permitted. 

13.2.2.2.8 The provisions of 7.2.1.11.1.1 to allow turnstiles 
where revolving doors are permitted shall not apply. 

13.2.2.2.9 No turnstiles or other devices that restrict the 
movement of persons shall be installed in any assembly occu- 
pancy in such a manner as to interfere with required means of 
egress facilities. 

13.2.2.3 Stairs. 

13.2.2.3.1 General. Stairs complying with 7.2.2 shall be per- 
mitted, unless one of the following criteria applies: 

(l)*Stairs serving seating that is designed to be repositioned 
shall not be required to comply with 7.2.2.3.1. 

(2) This requirement shall not apply to stages and platforms 
as permitted by 13.4.5. 

13.2.2.3.2 Catwalk, Gallery, and Gridiron Stairs. 

13.2.2.3.2.1 Noncombustible grated stair treads and landing 
floors shall be permitted in means of egress from lighting and 
access catwalks, galleries, and gridirons. 

13.2.2.3.2.2 Spiral stairs complying with 7.2.2.2.3 shall be per- 
mitted in means of egress from lighting and access catwalks, 
galleries, and gridirons. 

13.2.2.4 Smokeproof Enclosures. Smokeproof enclosures 
complying with 7.2.3 shall be permitted. 

13.2.2.5 Horizontal Exits. Horizontal exits complying with 
7.2.4 shall be permitted. 

13.2.2.6 Ramps. Ramps complying with 7.2.5 shall be per- 
mitted. 

13.2.2.7 Exit Passageways. Exit passageways complying with 
7.2.6 shall be permitted. 

13.2.2.8 Escalators and Moving Walks. Escalators and moving 
walks complying with 7.2.7 shall be permitted. 

13.2.2.9 Fire Escape Stairs. Fire escape stairs complying with 
7.2.8 shall be permitted. 

13.2.2.10 Fire Escape Ladders. 

13.2.2.10.1 Fire escape ladders complying with 7.2.9 shall be 
permitted. 

13.2.2.10.2 For ladders serving catwalks, the three-person 
limitation in 7.2.9.1(3) shall be permitted to be increased to 
ten persons. 

13.2.2.11 Alternating Tread Devices. Alternating tread de- 
vices complying with 7.2.11 shall be permitted. 

13.2.2.12 Areas of Refuge. Areas of refuge complying with 
7.2.12 shall be permitted. 



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13.2.3 Capacity of Means of Egress. 

13.2.3.1 The capacity of means of egress shall be in accor- 
dance with one of the following: 

(1) Section 7.3 for other than theater-type seating or smoke- 
protected assembly seating 

(2) 13.2.3.2 for rooms with theater-type seating or similar 
seating arranged in rows 

(3) 13.4.2 for smoke-protected assembly seating 

13.2.3.2* Minimum clear widths of aisles and other means of 
egress serving theater-type seating, or similar seating arranged 
in rows, shall be in accordance with Table 13.2.3.2. 



Table 13.2.3.2 Capacity Factors 



Clear Width per Seat Served 



Stairs 



Passageways, Ramps, 
and Doorways 



No. of Seats 



Unlimited 7.6 AB 0.3 AB 



5.6 C 



0.22 C 



13.2.3.3 The minimum clear widths shown in Table 13.2.3.2 
shall be modified in accordance with all of the following: 

(1) If risers exceed 178 mm in height, the stair width in 
Table 13.2.3.2 shall be multiplied by factor A, where A equals 
the following: 



A = l + 



riser height -178 
125 



(2) If risers exceed 7 in. in height, the stair width in 
Table 13.2.3.2 shall be multiplied by factor A, where A equals 

the following: 



A = l+ 



riser height - 7 



(3) 



Stairs not having a handrail within a 760-mm (30-in.) hori- 
zontal distance shall be 25 percent wider than otherwise 
calculated; that is, their width shall be multiplied by factor 
B, where B equals the following: 

5 = 1.25 



(4) Ramps steeper than 1 in 10 slope where used in ascent 
shall have their width increased by 10 percent; that is, 
their width shall be multiplied by factor C, where C equals 
the following: 

C = 1.10 

13.2.3.4 Lighting and Access Catwalks. The requirements of 
13.2.3.2 and 13.2.3.3 shall not apply to lighting and access 
catwalks as permitted by 13.4.5.9. 

13.2.3.5 Bleachers Aisles. In seating composed entirely of 
bleachers for which the row-to-row dimension is 71 cm (28 in.) 
or less, and from which front egress is not limited, aisles shall 
not be required to exceed 1675 mm (66 in.) in width. 

13.2.3.6 Main Entrance/Exit. Every assembly occupancy shall 
be provided with a main entrance/exit. 



13.2.3.6.1 The main entrance/exit shall be of a width that 
accommodates one-half of the total occupant load and shall 
be at the level of exit discharge or shall connect to a stairway or 
ramp leading to a street. 

13.2.3.6.2 Reserved. 

13.2.3.6.3 Where the main entrance/exit from an assembly 
occupancy is through a lobby or foyer, the aggregate capacity 
of all exits from the lobby or foyer shall be permitted to pro- 
vide the required capacity of the main entrance/exit, regard- 
less of whether all such exits serve as entrances to the building. 

13.2.3.6.4 A bowling establishment shall have a main 
entrance/exit of a capacity that accommodates 50 percent of 
the total occupant load without regard to the number of aisles 

that it serves. 

13.2.3.6.5* In assembly occupancies where there is no well- 
defined main entrance/ exit, exits shall be permitted to be dis- 
tributed around the perimeter of the building, provided that the 
total exit width furnishes not less than 100 percent of the width 
needed to accommodate the permitted occupant load. 

13.2.3.7 Other Exits. Each level of an assembly occupancy 
shall have access to the main entrance/exit and shall be pro- 
vided with additional exits of a width to accommodate not less 
than one-half of the total occupant load served by that level. 

13.2.3.7.1 Additional exits shall discharge in accordance with 
13.2.7. 

13.2.3.7.2 Additional exits shall be located as far apart as prac- 
ticable and as far from the main entrance/exit as practicable. 

13.2.3.7.3 Additional exits shall be accessible from a cross 
aisle or a side aisle. 

13.2.3.7.4 In assembly occupancies where there is no well- 
defined main entrance/exit, exits shall be permitted to be dis- 
tributed around the perimeter of the building, provided that the 
total exit width furnishes not less than 100 percent of the width 
required to accommodate the permitted occupant load. 

13.2.4* Number of Exits. 

13.2.4.1 The number of exits shall be in accordance with 
Section 7.4, other than fenced outdoor assembly occupancies 
in accordance with 13.2.4.4, unless otherwise permitted by 

13.2.4.2 or 13.2.4.3. 

13.2.4.2 Assembly occupancies with occupant loads of 600 or 
fewer shall have two separate means of egress. 

13.2.4.3 Assembly occupancies with occupant loads greater 
than 600 but fewer than 1000 shall have three separate means 
of egress. 

13.2.4.4 Afenced outdoor assembly occupancy shall have not 
less than two widely separated means of egress from the enclo- 
sure, unless otherwise required by one of the following: 

( 1 ) If more than 6000 persons are to be served by such means of 
egress, there shall be not less than three means of egress. 

(2) If more than 9000 persons are to be served by such means 
of egress, there shall be not less than four means of egress. 

13.2.4.5 Balconies or mezzanines having an occupant load 
not exceeding 50 shall be permitted to be served by a single 
means of egress, and such means of egress shall be permitted 
to lead to the floor below. 



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13.2.4.6 Balconies or mezzanines having an occupant load 
exceeding 50 but not exceeding 100 shall have not less than 
two remote means of egress, but both such means of egress 
shall be permitted to lead to the floor below. 

13.2.4.7 Balconies or mezzanines having an occupant load 
exceeding 100 shall have means of egress as described in 7.4.1. 

13.2.4.8 A second means of egress shall not be required from 
lighting and access catwalks, galleries, and gridirons where a 
means of escape to a floor or a roof is provided. Ladders, alter- 
nating tread devices, or spiral stairs shall be permitted in such 
means of escape. 

13.2.5 Amrangemieet of Means of Egress. 

13.2.5.1 General. Means of egress shall be arranged in accor- 
dance with Section 7.5. 

13.2.5.1.1 The common paths of travel shall be permitted for 
the first 6100 mm (240 in.) from any point where the common 
path serves any number of occupants, and for the first 23 m 
(75 ft) from any point where the common path serves not 
more than 50 occupants. 



13.2.5.1.2 
(240 in.). 



Dead-end corridors shall not exceed 6100 mm 



13.2.5.2 Access Through Hazardous Areas. Means of egress 
shall not be permitted through kitchens, storerooms, re- 
strooms, closets, or hazardous areas as described in 13.3.2. 

13.2.5.3 Reserved. 

13.2.5.4 General Requirements for Access and Egress Routes 
WitMn Assembly Areas. 

13.2.5.4.1 Festival seating, as defined in 3.3.188.1, shall be 
prohibited within a building, unless otherwise permitted by 
the following: 

(1) Festival seating shall be permitted in assembly occupan- 
cies having occupant loads of 1000 or less. 

(2) Festival seating shall be permitted in assembly occupancies 
where occupant loads exceed 1000 and where an approved 
life safety evaluation has been performed. (See 13.4.1.) 

13.2.5.4.2* Access and egress routes shall be maintained so 
that any individual is able to move without undue hindrance, 
on personal initiative and at any time, from an occupied posi- 
tion to the exits. 

13.2.5.4.3* Access and egress routes shall be maintained so 
that crowd management, security, and emergency medical 
personnel are able to reach any individual at any time, without 
undue hindrance. 

13.2.5.4.4* The width of aisle accessways and aisles shall pro- 
vide sufficient egress capacity for the number of persons ac- 
commodated by the catchment area served by the aisle access- 
way or aisle in accordance with 13.2.3.2, or for smoke- 
protected assembly seating in accordance with 13.4.2. 

13.2.5.4.5 Where aisle accessways or aisles converge to form a 
single path of egress travel, the required egress capacity of that 
path shall not be less than the combined required capacity of 
the converging aisle accessways and aisles. 

13.2.5.4.6 Those portions of aisle accessways and aisles where 
egress is possible in either of two directions shall be uniform in 
required width unless otherwise permitted by 13.2.5.4.7. 



13.2.5.4.7 The requirement of 13.2.5.4.6 shall not apply to 
those portions of aisle accessways where the required width, 
not including the seat space described by 13.2.5.7.3, does not 
exceed 305 mm (12 in.). 

13.2.5.4.8 In the case of side boundaries for aisle accessways 
or aisles, other than those for nonfixed seating at tables, the 
clear width shall be measured to boundary elements such as 
walls, guardrails, handrails, edges of seating, tables, and side 
edges of treads, and said measurement shall be made horizon- 
tally to the vertical projection of the elements, resulting in the 
smallest width measured perpendicularly to the line of travel. 

13.2.5.5* Aisle Accessways Serving Seating Not at Tables. 

13.2.5.5.1* The required clear width of aisle accesses between 
rows of seating shall be determined as follows: 

( 1 ) Horizontal measurements shall be made, between vertical 
planes, from the back of one seat to the front of the most 
forward projection of the seat immediately behind it. 

(2) Where the entire row consists of automatic or self-rising 
seats that comply with ASTM F 851, Test Method for Self- 
Rising Seat Mechanisms, the measurement shall be permit- 
ted to be made with the seats in the up position. 

13.2.5.5.2 The aisle accessway between rows of seating shall 
have a clear width of not less than 305 mm (12 in.), and this 
minimum shall be increased as a function of row length in 
accordance with 13.2.5.5.4 and 13.2.5.5.5. 

13.2.5.5.3 If used by not more than four persons, no mini- 
mum clear width shall be required for the portion of an aisle 
accessway having a length not exceeding 1830 mm (72 in.), 
measured from the center of the seat farthest from the aisle. 

13.2.5.5.4* Rows of seating served by aisles or doorways at both 
ends shall not exceed 100 seats per row. 

13.2.5.5.4.1 The 305-mm (12-in.) minimum clear width of 
aisle accessway between such rows shall be increased by 
7.6 mm (0.3 in.) for every seat over a total of 14 but shall not 
be required to exceed 560 mm (22 in.). 

13.2.5.5.4.2 The requirement of 13.2.5.5.4.1 shall not apply 
to smoke-protected assembly seating as permitted by 13.4.2.4. 

13.2.5.5.5 Rows of seating served by an aisle or doorway at 
one end only shall have a path of travel not exceeding 
9140 mm (360 in.) in length from any seat to an aisle. 

13.2.5.5.5.1 The 305-mm (12-in.) minimum clear width of 
aisle accessway between rows of seating as specified in 

13.2.5.5.5 shall be increased by 15 mm (0.6 in.) for every seat 
over a total of seven. 

13.2.5.5.5.2 The requirements of 13.2.5.5.5 and 13.2.5.5.5.1 
shall not apply to smoke-protected assembly seating as permit- 
ted by 13.4.2.5 and 13.4.2.6. 

13.2.5.5.6 Rows of seating using tablet-arm chairs shall be 
permitted only if the clear width of aisle accessways complies 
with the requirements of 13.2.5.5 when measured under one 
of the following conditions: 

(1) The clear width is measured with the tablet arm in the 
usable position. 

(2) The clear width is measured with the tablet arm in the 
stored position where the tablet arm automatically re- 
turns to the stored position when raised manually to a 
vertical position in one motion and falls to the stored po- 
sition by force of gravity. 



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13.2.5.5.7 The depth of seat boards shall not be less than 
230 mm (9 in.) where the same level is not used for both seat 
boards and footboards. 

13.2.5.5.8 Footboards, independent of seats, shall be pro- 
vided so that there is no horizontal opening that allows the 
passage of a 13-mm (V^-in.) diameter sphere. 

13.2.5.6 Aisles Serving Seating Not at Tables. 

13.2.5.6.1 General. Aisles shall be provided so that the num- 
ber of seats served by the nearest aisle is in accordance with 

13.2.5.5.2 through 13.2.5.5.4, unless otherwise permitted by 
the following: 

( 1 ) Aisles shall not be required in bleachers, provided that all 
of the following conditions are met: 

(a) Egress from the front row shall not be obstructed by a 
rail, a guard, or other obstruction. 

(b) The row spacing shall be 710 mm (28 in.) or less. 

(c) The rise per row, including the first row, shall be 
150 mm (6 in.) or less. 

(d) The number of rows shall not exceed 16. 

(e) The seat spaces shall not be physically defined. 

(f) Seat boards that are also used as stepping surfaces for 
descent shall provide a walking surface with a width of 
not less than 305 mm (12 in.), and, where a depressed 
footboard exists, the gap between seat boards of adja- 
cent rows shall not exceed 305 mm (12 in.), mea- 
sured horizontally. 

(g) The leading edges of seat boards used as stepping 
surfaces shall be provided with a contrasting marking 
stripe so that the location of the leading edge is 
readily apparent, particularly where viewed in de- 
scent and the following shall also apply: 

i. The marking stripe shall be not less than 25 mm 
(1 in.) wide and shall not exceed 51 mm (2 in.) 
in width. 

ii. The marking stripe shall not be required where 
bleacher surfaces and environmental condi- 
tions, under all conditions of use, are such that 
the location of each leading edge is readily ap- 
parent, particularly when viewed in descent. 

13.2.5.6.2 Dead-End Aisles. Dead-end aisles shall not exceed 
6100 mm (240 in.) in length, unless otherwise permitted by 
the following: 

(1) A dead-end aisle shall be permitted to exceed 6100 mm 
(240 in.) in length where seats served by the dead-end 
aisle are not more than 24 seats from another aisle, mea- 
sured along a row of seats having a clear width of not less 
than 305 mm (12 in.) plus 15 mm (0.6 in.) for each addi- 
tional seat over a total of 7 in the row. 

(2) A 16-row, dead-end aisle shall be permitted in folding and 
telescopic seating and grandstands. 

(3) Aisle termination in accordance with 13.4.2.7 for smoke- 
protected assembly seating shall be permitted. 

(4) Bleacher aisles in accordance with 13.2.3.5 shall not be 
considered as dead-end aisles. 

13.2.5.6.3* Minimum Aisle Width. The minimum clear width 
of aisles shall be sufficient to provide egress capacity in accor- 
dance with 13.2.3.2 but shall be not less than the following: 

(1) 1065 mm (42 in.) for stairs having seating on each side, 
unless otherwise permitted by the following: 



(a) The minimum clear width required by 13.2.5.6.3(1) 
shall be permitted to be not less than 760 mm (30 in.) 
for catchment areas having not more than 60 seats. 

(b) The minimum clear width required by 13.2.5.6.3(1) 
shall be permitted to be not less than 915 mm (36 in.) 
where an aisle does not serve more than 50 seats. 

(2) 915 mm (36 in.) for stairs having seating on only one side, 
or 760 mm (30 in.) for catchment areas having not more 
than 60 seats 

(3) 510 mm (20 in.) between a handrail and seating or be- 
tween a guardrail and seating where the aisle is subdi- 
vided by a handrail 

(4) 1065 mm (42 in.) for level or ramped aisles having seat- 
ing on both sides, unless otherwise permitted by the 
following: 

(a) The minimum clear width required by 13.2.5.6.3(4) 
shall be not less than 760 mm (30 in.) for catchment 
areas having not more than 60 seats. 

(b) The minimum clear width required by 13.2.5.6.3(4) 
shall be not less than 915 mm (36 in.) where an aisle 
does not serve more than 50 seats. 

(5) 915 mm (36 in.) for level or ramped aisles having seating 
on only one side, or 760 mm (30 in.) for catchment areas 
having not more than 60 seats 

(6) 580 mm (23 in.) between a handrail or guardrail and seating 
where aisle does not serve more than five rows on one side 

13.2.5.6.4* Aisle Stairs and Ramps. The following shall apply 
to aisle stairs and ramps: 

(1) Aisles having a gradient steeper than 1 in 20, but not 
steeper than 1 in 8, shall consist of a ramp. 

(2) Aisles having a gradient steeper than 1 in 8 shall consist of 
an aisle stair. 

(3) The marking stripe exemption of 13.2.5.6.8.3 shall not be 
permitted for aisle stairs. 

(4) Aisles in folding and telescopic seating shall be permitted 
to be stepped aisles. 

(5) The limitation on height between landings in Table 
7.2.2.2.1(a) and Table 7.2.2.2.1 (b)shall not apply to aisle 
stairs. 

13.2.5.6.5 Aisle Stair Treads. Aisle stair treads shall meet the 
following criteria: 

(1) There shall be no variation in the depth of adjacent treads 
that exceeds 4.8 mm ( 3 /i6 in.), unless otherwise permitted 
by the following: 

(a)*In aisle stairs where a single intermediate tread is pro- 
vided halfway between seating platforms, such inter- 
mediate treads shall be permitted to be of a relatively 
smaller but uniform depth but shall be not less than 
330 mm (13 in.), 
(b) The following shall apply to grandstands, bleachers, 
and folding and telescopic seating: 

i. Steps shall not be required to be provided in 
aisles to overcome differences in level unless the 
gradient exceeds 1 unit of rise in 10 units of run. 
ii. Where the rise of the seating platform exceeds 
280 mm (11 in.), an intermediate step shall be 
provided for the full width of the aisle and shall 
be proportioned to provide two steps of equal 
rise per platform. 



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iii. Where the rise of the seating platform exceeds 
455 mm (18 in.), two intermediate steps for the 
full width of the aisle shall be provided and pro- 
portioned to provide three steps of equal rise 
per platform that are uniform and not less than 
230 mm (9 in.), 
iv. The full length of the nose of each step in the 
aisle required by 13.2.5.6.5(1) (b)iii shall be con- 
spicuously marked. 

(2)*Treads shall be not less than 280 mm (11 in.). 

(3) All treads shall extend the full width of the aisle. 

13.2.5.6.6 Aisle Stair Misers. Aisle stair risers shall meet the 
following criteria: 

(1) Riser heights shall be not less than 100 mm (4 in.) unless 
otherwise permitted by the following: 

(a) The riser height of aisle stairs in folding and tele- 
scopic seating shall be permitted to be not less than 
90 mm (3Vfcin.). 

(b) Where the gradient of an aisle is steeper than 
205 mm (8 in.) in rise in 280 mm (11 in.) of run for 
the purpose of maintaining necessary sight lines in 
the adjoining seating area, the riser height shall be 
permitted to exceed 205 mm (8 in.) but shall not 
exceed 280 mm (11 in.). 

(2) Riser heights shall not exceed 205 mm (8 in.) unless oth- 
erwise permitted by 13.2.5.6.6(3). 

(3) The riser height of aisle stairs in folding and telescopic 
seating shall be permitted to be not more than 280 mm 
(11 in.). 

(4) Riser heights shall be designed to be uniform in each 
aisle, and the construction-caused nonuniformities shall 
not exceed 4.8 mm (Yis in.) between adjacent risers, un- 
less the following conditions apply: 

(a) Riser height shall be permitted to be nonuniform 
only for the purpose of accommodating changes in 
gradient necessary to maintain sight lines within a 
seating area, in which case the riser height shall be 
permitted to exceed 4.8 mm (Vie, in.) in any flight. 

(b) Where nonuniformities permitted by 13.2.5.6.6(4) (a) 
exceed 4.8 mm (%6 in.) between adjacent risers, the 
exact location of such nonuniformities shall be indi- 
cated by a distinctive marking stripe on each tread at the 
nosing or leading edge adjacent to the nonuniform 
risers. 

13.2.5.6.7* Aisle Handrails. 

13.2.5.6.7.1 Ramped aisles having a gradient exceeding 1 in 
12 and aisle stairs shall be provided with handrails at one side 
or along the centerline and in accordance with 7.2.2.4.4.1, 
7.2.2.4.4.5, and 7.2.2.4.4.6. 

13.2.5.6.7.2 Where seating exists on both sides of the aisle, 
the handrails shall be noncontinuous with gaps or breaks at 
intervals not exceeding five rows to facilitate access to seating 
and to allow crossing from one side of the aisle to the other. 

13.2.5.6.7.3 The gaps or breaks permitted by 13.2.5.6.7.2 
shall have a clear width of not less than 560 mm (22 in.) and 
shall not exceed 915 mm (36 in.), measured horizontally, and 
the handrail shall have rounded terminations or bends. 

13.2.5.6.7.4 Where handrails are provided in the middle of 
aisle stairs, an additional intermediate rail shall be located ap- 
proximately 305 mm (12 in.) below the main handrail. 



13.2.5.6.7.5 Handrails shall not be required where otherwise 
permitted by the following: 

( 1 ) Handrails shall not be required for ramped aisles having a 
gradient not steeper than 1 in 8 and having seating on 
both sides. 

(2) The requirement for a handrail shall be satisfied by the 
use of a guard provided with a rail that complies with the 
graspability requirements for handrails and located at a 
consistent height between 865 mm (34 in.) and 1065 mm 
(42 in.), measured using one of the following methods: 

(a) Vertically from the top of the rail to the leading edge 
(nosing) of stair treads 

(b) Vertically from the top of the rail to the adjacent walk- 
ing surface in the case of a ramp 

(3) Handrails shall not be required where risers do not ex- 
ceed 180 mm (7 in.) in height. 

13.2.5.6.8* Aisle Marking. 

13.2.5.6.8.1 A contrasting marking stripe shall be provided 
on each tread at the nosing or leading edge so that the loca- 
tion of such tread is readily apparent, particularly when viewed 
in descent. 

13.2.5.6.8.2 The marking stripe shall be not less than 25 mm 
(1 in.) wide and shall not exceed 51 mm (2 in.) in width. 

13.2.5.6.8.3 The marking stripe shall not be required where 
tread surfaces and environmental conditions, under all condi- 
tions of use, are such that the location of each tread is readily 
apparent, particularly when viewed in descent. 

13.2.5.7* Aisle Accessways Serving Seating at Tables. 

13.2.5.7.1 The required clear width of an aisle accessway shall 
be not less than 305 mm (12 in.) where measured in accor- 
dance with 13.2.5.7.3 and shall be increased as a function of 
length in accordance with 13.2.5.7.4, unless otherwise permit- 
ted by 13.2.5.7.2. 

13.2.5.7.2* If used by not more than four persons, no mini- 
mum clear width shall be required for the portion of an aisle 
accessway having a length not exceeding 1830 mm (72 in.) 
and located farthest from an aisle. 

13.2.5.7.3* Where nonfixed seating is located between a table 
and an aisle accessway or aisle, the measurement of required 
clear width of the aisle accessway or aisle shall be made to a 
line 485 mm (19 in.), measured perpendicularly to the edge of 
the table, away from the edge of said table. 

13.2.5.7.4* The minimum required clear width of an aisle ac- 
cessway, measured in accordance with 13.2.5.4.8 and 
13.2.5.7.3, shall be increased beyond the 305-mm (12-in.) re- 
quirement of 13.2.5.7.1 by 13 mm (Vz in.) for each additional 
305 mm (12in.) or fraction thereof beyond 3660 mm (144 in.) 
of aisle accessway length, where measured from the center of 
the seat farthest from an aisle. 

13.2.5.7.5 The path of travel along the aisle accessway shall 
not exceed 11m (36 ft) from any seat to the closest aisle or 
egress doorway. 

13.2.5.8 Aisles Serving Seating at Tables. 

13.2.5.8.1* Aisles that contain steps or that are ramped, such 
as aisles serving dinner theater-style configurations, shall 
comply with the requirements of 13.2.5.6. 



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13.2.5.8.2* The width of aisles serving seating at tables shall be 
not less than 1120 mm (44 in.) where serving an occupant 
load exceeding 50, and 915 mm (36 in.) where serving an 
occupant load of 50 or fewer. 

13.2.5.8.3* Where nonfixed seating is located between a table 
and an aisle, the measurement of required clear width of the 
aisle shall be made to a line 485 mm (19 in.), measured per- 
pendicularly to the edge of the table, away from the edge of 
said table. 

13.2.5.9 Approval of Layouts. 

13.2.5.9.1 Where required by the authority having jurisdic- 
tion, plans drawn to scale showing the arrangement of furnish- 
ings or equipment shall be submitted to the authority by the 
building owner, manager, or authorized agent to substantiate 
conformance with the provisions of 13.2.5. 

13.2.5.9.2 The layout plans shall constitute the only accept- 
able arrangement, unless one of the following criteria is met: 

(1) The plans are revised 

(2) Additional plans are submitted and approved. 

(3) Temporary deviations from the specifications of the ap- 
proved plans are used, provided that the occupant load is 
not increased and the intent of 13.2.5.9 is maintained. 

13.2.6 Travel Distance to Exits. Exits shall be arranged so that 
the total length of travel from any point to reach an exit shall 
not exceed 61 m (200 ft) in any assembly occupancy, unless 
otherwise permitted by the following: 

(1) The travel distance shall not exceed 76 m (250 ft) in as- 
sembly occupancies protected throughout by an ap- 
proved automatic sprinkler system in accordance with 
Section 9.7. 

(2) The travel distance requirement shall not apply to smoke- 
protected assembly seating as permitted by 13.4.2.8, 
13.4.2.9, and 13.4.2.10. 

13.2.7 Discharge from Exits. 

13.2.7.1 Exit discharge shall comply with Section 7.7. 

13.2.7.2 The level of exit discharge shall be measured at the 
point of principal entrance to the building. 

13.2.7.3 Where the principal entrance to an assembly occu- 
pancy is via a terrace, either raised or depressed, such terrace 
shall be permitted to be considered to be the level of exit 
discharge for the purposes of Table 13.1.6 where the following 
criteria are met: 

(1) The terrace is at least as long, measured parallel to the 
building, as the total width of the exit(s) it serves but not 
less than 1525 mm (60 in.) long. 

(2) The terrace is at least as wide, measured perpendicularly 
to the building, as the exit(s) it serves but not less than 
1525 mm (60 in.) wide. 

(3) Required stairs leading from the terrace to grade are pro- 
tected in accordance with 7.2.2.6.3 or are not less than 
3050 mm (120 in.) from the building. 

13.2.8 Illumination of Means of Egress. Means of egress, 
other than for private party tents not exceeding 112 m 2 
(1200 ft 2 ) , shall be illuminated in accordance with Section 7.8. 

13.2.9 Emergency Lighting. 

13.2.9.1 Emergency lighting, other than that permitted by 
13.2.9.3, shall be provided in accordance with Section 7.9. 



13.2.9.2 Private party tents not exceeding 112 m 2 (1200 ft 2 ) 
shall not be required to have emergency lighting. 

13.2.9.3 Assembly occupancies with an occupant load not ex- 
ceeding 300 and used exclusively for a place of worship shall 
not be required to have emergency lighting. 

13.2.10 Marking of Means of Egress. 

13.2.10.1 Means of egress shall be provided with signs in ac- 
cordance with Section 7.10. 

13.2.10.2 Exit markings shall not be required on the seating 
side of vomitories from seating areas where exit marking is 
provided in the concourse and where such marking is readily 
apparent from the vomitories. 

13.2.11 Special Means of Egress Features. 

13.2.11.1 Guards and Railings: Boxes, Balconies, and Galler- 
ies. Boxes, balconies, and galleries shall meet the following 
criteria: 

( 1 ) The fasciae of boxes, balconies, and galleries shall rise not 
less than 660 mm (26 in.) above the adjacent floor or shall 
have substantial railings not less than 660 mm (26 in.) 
above the adjacent floor. 

(2) The height of the rail above footrests on the adjacent floor 
immediately in front of a row of seats shall be not less than 
660 mm (26 in.), and the following also shall apply: 

(a) Railings at the ends of aisles shall be not less than 
915 mm (36 in.) high for the full width of the aisle. 

(b) Railings at the end of aisles shall be not less than 
915 mm (36 in.) high at the ends of aisles where steps 
occur. 

(3) Aisle accessways adjacent to orchestra pits and vomitories, 
and all cross aisles, shall be provided with railings not less 
than 660 mm (26 in.) above the adjacent floor. 

(4) The requirement of 13.2.11.1 (3) shall not apply where the 
backs of seats located at the front of the aisle project 610 mm 
(24 in.) or more above the adjacent floor of the aisle. 

(5) Guardrails shall not be required on the audience side of 
stages, raised platforms, and other raised floor areas such 
as runways, ramps, and side stages used for entertainment 
or presentations. 

(6) Permanent guardrails shall not be required at vertical 
openings in the performance area of stages. 

(7) Guardrails shall not be required where the side of an el- 
evated walking surface is required to be open for the nor- 
mal functioning of special lighting or for access and use of 
other special equipment. 

13.3 Protection. 

13.3.1 Protection of Vertical Openings. Any vertical opening 
shall be enclosed or protected in accordance with 8.6, unless 
otherwise permitted by the following: 

(l)*Stairs or ramps shall be permitted to be unenclosed be- 
tween balconies or mezzanines and main assembly areas 
located below, provided that the balcony or mezzanine is 
open to the main assembly area. 

(2) Exit access stairs from lighting and access catwalks, galler- 
ies, and gridirons shall not be required to be enclosed. 



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(3) Assembly occupancies protected by an approved, super- 
vised automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Sec- 
tion 9.7 shall be permitted to have unprotected verdcal 
openings in accordance with 8.6.8.2. 

(4) Use of the following alternative materials shall be permit- 
ted where assemblies constructed of such materials are in 
good repair and free of any condition that would dimin- 
ish their original fire resistance characteristics: 

(a) Existing wood lath and plaster 

(b) Existing 13-mm (V2-in.) gypsum wallbbard 

(c) Existing installations of 6.3-mm (Vi in.) thick wired 
glass that are, or are rendered, inoperative and fixed 
in the closed position 

(d) Other existing materials having similar fire resistance 
capabilities 

13.3.2 Protection from Hazards. 

13.3.2.1 Service Equipment, Hazardous Operations or Pro- 
cesses, amd Storage Facilities. 

13.3.2.1.1 Rooms containing high-pressure boilers, refriger- 
ating machinery of other than the domestic refrigerator type, 
large transformers, or other service equipment subject to ex- 
plosion shall meet the following requirements: 

(1) Such rooms shall not be located directly under or abut- 
ting required exits. 

(2) Such rooms shall be separated from other parts of the 
building by fire barriers in accordance with Section 8.3 
that have a fire resistance rating of not less than 1 hour or 
shall be protected by automatic extinguishing systems in 
accordance with Section 8.7. 

13.3.2.1.2 Rooms or spaces for the storage, processing, or use 
of materials specified in 13.3.2.1.2(1) through 13.3.2.1.2(3) 
shall be protected in accordance with the following: 

( 1 ) Separation from the remainder of the building by fire barri- 
ers having a fire resistance rating of not less than 1 hour or 
protection of such rooms by automatic extinguishing sys- 
tems as specified in Section 8.7 in the following areas: 

(a) Boiler and furnace rooms, unless otherwise protected 
by the following: 

i. The requirement of 13.3.2.1.2(1) (a) shall not 
apply to rooms enclosing furnaces, heating and 
air-handling equipment, or compressor equip- 
ment with a total aggregate input rating less than 
211 MJ (200,000 Btu), provided that such rooms 
are not used for storage, 
ii. The requirement of 13.3.2.1.2(1) (a) shall not 
apply to attic locations of the rooms addressed in 
13.3.2.1.2(1) (a)i provided such rooms comply 
with the draftstopping requirements of 8.6.10. 

(b) Rooms or spaces used for the storage of combustible 
supplies in quantities deemed hazardous by the au- 
thority having jurisdiction. 

(c) Rooms or spaces used for the storage of hazardous ma- 
terials or flammable or combustible liquids in quantities 
deemed hazardous by recognized standards 

(2) Separation from the remainder of the building by fire barri- 
ers having a fire resistance rating of not less than 1 hour and 
protection of such rooms by automatic extinguishing sys- 
tems as specified in Section 8.7 in the following areas: 

(a) Laundries 

(b) Maintenance shops, including woodworking and 
painting areas 



(c) Rooms or spaces used for processing or use of com- 
bustible supplies deemed hazardous by the authority 
having jurisdiction 

(d) Rooms or spaces used for processing or use of hazard- 
ous materials or flammable or combustible liquids in 
quantities deemed hazardous by recognized standards 

(3) Where automatic extinguishing is used to meet the re- 
quirements of 13.3.2, the protection shall be permitted to 
be in accordance with 9.7.1.2. 

13.3.2.2 Cooking Equipment. Cooking equipment shall be 
protected in accordance with 9.2.3 unless the cooking equip- 
ment meets one of the following: 

(1) Outdoor equipment 

(2) Portable equipment not flue connected 

(3) Equipment used only for food warming 

13.3.3 Interior Finish. 

13.3.3.1 Interior finish shall be in accordance with Section 10.2. 

13.3.3.2 Interior wall and ceiling finish materials complying 
with Section 10.2 shall be Class Aor Class B in all corridors and 
lobbies and shall be Class A in enclosed stairways. 

13.3.3.3 Interior wall and ceiling finish materials complying 
with Section 10.2 shall be Class A or Class B in general assem- 
bly areas having occupant loads of more than 300, and shall be 
Class A, Class B, or Class C in assembly areas having occupant 
loads of 300 or fewer. 

13.3.3.4 Screens on which pictures are projected shall com- 
ply with requirements of Class A or Class B interior finish in 
accordance with Section 10.2. 

13.3.3.5 Interior Floor Finish. (No requirements.) 

13.3.4 Detection, Alarni, and Coninmunications Systems. 

13.3.4.1 General. Assembly occupancies with occupant loads 
of more than 300 and all theaters with more than one 
audience-viewing room shall be provided with an approved 
fire alarm system in accordance with 9.6.1 and 13.3.4, unless 
otherwise permitted by the following: 

(1) Assembly occupancies that are a part of a multiple occu- 
pancy protected as a mixed occupancy (see 6.1.14) shall be 
permitted to be served by a common fire alarm system, 
provided that the individual requirements of each occu- 
pancy are met. 

(2) Voice communication or public address systems complying 
with 13.3.4.3.3 shall not be required to comply with 9.6.1. 

(3) This requirement shall not apply to assembly occupancies 
where, in the judgment of the authority having jurisdiction, 
adequate alternative provisions exist or are provided for the 
discovery of a fire and for alerting the occupants prompdy. 

13.3.4.2 Initiation. 

13.3.4.2.1 Initiation of the required fire alarm system shall be 
by manual means in accordance with 9.6.2.1(1), and the sys- 
tem shall be provided with an emergency power source, unless 
otherwise permitted by the following: 

( 1 ) This requirement shall not apply to fire alarm systems ini- 
tiated by means of an approved automatic fire detection 
system in accordance with 9.6.2.1 (2) that provides fire de- 
tection throughout the building. 

(2) This requirement shall not apply to fire alarm systems ini- 
tiated by means of an approved automatic sprinkler sys- 
tem in accordance with 9.6.2.1 (3) that provides fire detec- 
tion and protection throughout the building. 



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13.3.4.2.2 The initiating device shall be capable of transmit- 
ting an alarm to a receiving station, located within the build- 
ing, that is constantly attended when the assembly occupancy 
is occupied. 

13.3.4.2.3* In assembly occupancies with occupant loads of 
more than 300, automatic detection shall be provided in all 
hazardous areas that are not normally occupied, unless such 
areas are protected throughout by an approved automatic 
sprinkler system in accordance with Section 9.7. 

13.3.4.3 Notification. The required fire alarm system shall 
sound an audible alarm in a constantly attended receiving sta- 
tion within the building when occupied for purposes of initi- 
ating emergency action. 

13.3.4.3.1 Positive alarm sequence in accordance with 9.6.3.4 
shall be permitted. 

13.3.4.3.2 A presignal system in accordance with 9.6.3.3 shall 
be permitted. 

13.3.4.3.3 Occupant notification shall be by means of voice 
announcements, either live or prerecorded, initiated by the 
person in the constantly attended location. 

13.3.4.3.4 The announcement shall be made via an approved 
voice communication or public address system that is audible 
above the ambient noise level of the assembly occupancy. 

13.3.4.3.5 Where the authority having jurisdiction deter- 
mines that a constantly attended location is impractical, a fire 
alarm system in accordance with Section 9.6 shall be used that 
meets the following criteria: 

(1) It shall be initiated by manual fire alarm boxes in accor- 
dance with 9.6.2.1(1) or other approved means. 

(2) It shall automatically provide prerecorded evacuation in- 
structions in accordance with 9.6.3.10. 

13.3.5 Extinguishment Requirements. See also 13.1.6, 13.2.6, 
and 13.3.2. 

13.3.5.1 Any assembly occupancy used or capable of being 
used for exhibition or display purposes shall be protected 
throughout by an approved automatic sprinkler system in ac- 
cordance with Section 9.7 where the exhibition or display area 
exceeds 1400 m 2 (15,000 ft 2 ). 

13.3.5.2 The sprinklers specified by 13.3.5.1 shall not be re- 
quired where otherwise permitted by the following: 

(1) In stadia and arenas: 

(a) Over the floor area used for contest, performance, or 
entertainment 

(b) Over the seating areas 

(c) Over open-air concourses where an approved engi- 
neering analysis substantiates the ineffectiveness of 
the sprinkler protection due to building height and 
combustible loading 

(2) In the following areas in unenclosed stadia and arenas: 

(a) Press boxes less than 93 m 2 (1000 ft 2 ) 

(b) Storage facilities less than 1000 ft 2 (93 m 2 ) if enclosed 
with not less than 1-hour fire resistance-rated con- 
struction 

(c) Enclosed areas underneath grandstands that comply 
with 13.4.8.5 

13.3.5.3 Where another provision of this chapter requires an 
automatic sprinkler system, the sprinkler system shall be in- 
stalled in accordance with 9.7.1.1(1). 



13.3.6 Corridors. (No requirements.) 

13.4 Special Provisions. 

13.4.1 Life Safety Evaluation. 

13.4.1.1* Where a life safety evaluation is required by other 
provisions of the Code, it shall comply with the following: 

(1) The life safety evaluation shall be performed by persons 
acceptable to the authority having jurisdiction. 

(2) The life safety evaluation shall include a written assess- 
ment of safety measures for conditions listed in 13.4.1.2. 

(3) The life safety evaluation shall be approved annually by 
the authority having jurisdiction and shall be updated for 
special or unusual conditions. 

13.4.1.2 Life safety evaluations shall include an assessment of 
the following conditions and the related appropriate safety 
measures: 

(1) Nature of the events and the participants and attendees 

(2) Access and egress movement, including crowd density 
problems 

(3) Medical emergencies 

(4) Fire hazards 

(5) Permanent and temporary structural systems 

(6) Severe weather conditions 

(7) Earthquakes 

(8) Civil or other disturbances 

(9) Hazardous materials incidents within and near the facility 
(10) Relationships among facility management, event partici- 
pants, emergency response agencies, and others having 
a role in the events accommodated in the facility 

13.4.1.3* Life safety evaluations shall include assessments of 
both building systems and management features upon which 
reliance is placed for the safety of facility occupants, and such 
assessments shall consider scenarios appropriate to the facility. 

13.4.2* Smoke-Protected Assembly Seating. 

13.4.2.1 To be considered smoke protected, an assembly seat- 
ing facility shall comply with the following: 

(1) All enclosed areas with walls and ceilings in buildings or 
structures containing smoke-protected assembly seating 
shall be protected with an approved automatic sprinkler 
system in accordance with Section 9.7, unless otherwise 
permitted by the following: 

(a) The requirement of 13.4.2.1(1) shall not apply to the 
floor area used for the contest, performance, or en- 
tertainment, provided that the roof construction is 
more than 15 m (50 ft) above the floor level and use is 
restricted to low fire hazard uses. 

(b)*Sprinklers shall not be required to be located over 
the floor area used for contest, performance, or en- 
tertainment and over the seating areas where an ap- 
proved engineering analysis substantiates the ineffec- 
tiveness of the sprinkler protection due to building 
height and combustible loading. 

(2) All means of egress serving a smoke-protected assembly 
seating area shall be provided with smoke-actuated venti- 
lation facilities or natural ventilation designed to main- 
tain the level of smoke at not less than 1830 m (72 in.) 
above the floor of the means of egress. 

13.4.2.2 To use the provisions of smoke-protected assembly 
seating, a facility shall be subject to a life safety evaluation in 
accordance with 13.4.1. 



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13.4.2.3 Where using Table 13.4.2.3, the number of seats 
specified shall be within a single assembly space, and interpo- 
lation shall be permitted between the specific values shown. A 
single seating space shall be permitted to have multiple levels, 
floors, or mezzanines. The minimum clear widths shown shall 
be modified in accordance with all of the following: 

(1) If risers exceed 178 mm in height, the stair width in 
Table 13.4.2.3 shall be multiplied by factor A, where A equals 
the following: 

_ riser height - 1 78 
125 

(2) If risers exceed 7 in. in height, the stair width in 
Table 13.4.2.3 shall be multiplied by factor A, where A equals 
the following: 

, , riser height -7 

A = l + § 

5 

(3) Stairs not having a handrail within a 760-mm (30-in.) hori- 
zontal distance shall be 25 percent wider than otherwise 
calculated; that is, their width shall be multiplied by factor 
B, where B equals the following: 

£ = 1.25 

(4) Ramps steeper than 1 in 10 slope used in ascent shall have 
their width increased by 10 percent; that is, their width shall 
be multiplied by factor C, where C equals the following: 

C = 1.10 



Table 13.4.2.3 Capacity Factors for Smoke-Protected 
Assembly Seating 







Clear Width 


per Seat Served 










Passageways 


, Ramps, 




Stairs 


and Doorways 












Seats 


mm 


in. 


imn 


in. 


2,000 


7.6 AB 


0.300 AB 


5.6 C 


0.220 C 


5,000 


5.1 AB 


0.200 AB 


3.8 C 


0.150 C 


10,000 


3.3 AB 


0.130 AB 


2.5 C 


0.100 C 


15,000 


2.4 AB 


0.096 AB 


1.8 C 


0.070 C 


20,000 


1.9 AB 


0.076 AB 


1.4 C 


0.056 C 


>25,000 


1.5 AB 


0.060 AB 


1.1 C 


0.044 C 



13.4.2.4 Where smoke-protected assembly seating conforms 
to the requirements of 13.4.2, for rows of seats served by aisles 
or doorways at both ends, the number of seats per row shall 
not exceed 100, and the clear width of not less than 305 mm 
(12 in.) for aisle accessways shall be increased by 7.6 mm 
(0.3 in.) for every additional seat beyond the number stipu- 
lated in Table 13.4.2.4; however, the minimum clear width 
shall not be required to exceed 560 mm (22 in.). 

13.4.2.5 Where smoke-protected assembly seating conforms 
with the requirements of 13.4.2, for rows of seats served by an 
aisle or doorway at one end only, the aisle accessway clear width 
of not less than 305 mm (12 in.) shall be increased by 15 mm 
(0.6 in.) for every additional seat beyond the number stipulated 
in Table 13.4.2.4; however, the minimum clear width shall not be 
required to exceed 560 mm (22 in.). 



Table 13.4.2.4 Smoke-Protected Assembly Seating Aisle 
Accessways 

Number of Seats per Row Permitted 

to Have a Clear Width Aisle Accessway 

of Not Less than 305 mm ( 1 2 in.) 





Aisle 


or Doorway 






Total Number of 


at Both Ends of 


Aisle 


or Doorway at 


Seats in the Space 




Row 


One End of Row 


<4,000 




14 




7 


4,000-6,999 




15 




7 


7,000-9,999 




16 




8 


10,000-12,999 




17 




8 


13,000-15,999 




18 




9 


16,000-18,999 




19 




9 


19,000-21,999 




20 




10 


>22,000 




21 




11 



13.4.2.6 Smoke-protected assembly seating conforming with 
the requirements of 13.4.2 shall be permitted to have a com- 
mon path of travel of 15 m (50 ft) from any seat to a point 
where a person has a choice of two directions of egress travel. 

13.4.2.7 Where smoke-protected assembly seating conforms 
to the requirements of 13.4.2, the dead ends in aisle stairs shall 
not exceed a distance of 21 rows, unless both of the following 
criteria are met: 

(1) The seats served by the dead-end aisle are not more than 
40 seats from another aisle. 

(2) The 40-seat distance is measured along a row of seats hav- 
ing an aisle accessway with a clear width of not less than 
305 mm (12 in.) plus 7.6 mm (0.3 in.) for each additional 
seat above 7 in the row. 

13.4.2.8 Where smoke-protected assembly seating conforms 
to the requirements of 13.4.2, the travel distance from each 
seat to the nearest entrance to an egress vomitory portal or 
egress concourse shall not exceed 122 m (400 ft). 

13.4.2.9 Where smoke-protected assembly seating conforms 
to the requirements of 13.4.2, the travel distance from the 
entrance to the vomitory portal or from the egress concourse 
to an approved egress stair, ramp, or walk at the building exte- 
rior shall not exceed 61 m (200 ft) . 

13.4.2.10 The travel distance requirements of 13.4.2.8 and 
13.4.2.9 shall not apply to outdoor assembly seating facilities 
of Type I or Type II construction, where all portions of the 
means of egress are essentially open to the outside. 

13.4.3 Liimited Access or Underground Buildings. Limited ac- 
cess or underground buildings shall comply with Section 11.7. 

13.4.4 High-Rise Buildings. Existing high-rise buildings that 
house assembly occupancies in high-rise portions of the building 
shall have the highest level of the assembly occupancy and all 
levels below protected by an approved, supervised automatic 
sprinkler system in accordance with Section 9.7. (See also 13.1.6.) 

13.4.5 Stages and Platforms. See 3.3.210 and 3.3.166. 

13.4.5.1 Materials and Design. (Reserved) 



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13.4.5.2 Platform Construction. (Reserved) 

13.4.5.3 Stage Construction. (Reserved) 

13.4.5.4 Accessory Rooms. (Reserved) 

13.4.5.5 Ventilators. Regular stages in excess of 93 m 2 (1000 ft 2 ) 
and legitimate stages shall be provided with emergency ventila- 
tion to provide a means of removing smoke and combustion 
gases direcdy to the outside in the event of a fire and shall be 
achieved by one or a combination of the methods specified in 
13.4.5.5.1 through 13.4.5.5.3. 

13.4.5.5.1 Smoke Control. 

13.4.5.5.1.1 Ameans complying with Section 9.3 shall be pro- 
vided to maintain the smoke level at not less than 1830 mm 
(72 in.) above the highest level of assembly seating or above 
the top of the proscenium opening where a proscenium wall 
and opening protection are provided. 

13.4.5.5.1.2 The system shall be activated independently by 
each of the following: 

(1) Activation of the sprinkler system in the stage area 

(2) Activation of smoke detectors over the stage area 

(3) Activation by manually operated switch at an approved 
location 

13.4.5.5.1.3 The emergency ventilation system shall be sup- 
plied by both normal and standby power. 

13.4.5.5.1.4 The fan(s) power wiring and ducts shall be located 
and properly protected to ensure not less than 20 minutes of 
operation in the event of activation. 

13.4.5.5.2 Roof Vents. 

13.4.5.5.2.1 Two or more vents shall be located near the cen- 
ter of and above the highest part of the stage area. 

13.4.5.5.2.2 The vents shall be raised above the roof and shall 
provide a net-free vent area equal to 5 percent of the stage area. 

13.4.5.5.2.3 Vents shall be constructed to open automatically 
by approved heat-activated devices, and supplemental means 
shall be provided for manual operation and periodic testing of 
the ventilator from the stage floor. 

13.4.5.5.2.4 Vents shall be labeled. 

13.4.5.5.2.5 Existing roof vents that are not labeled shall be 
permitted where they conform to the following requirements. 

(1) Vents shall open by spring action or force of gravity suffi- 
cient to overcome the effects of neglect, rust, dirt, frost, 
snow, or expansion by heat or warping of the framework, 
and the following requirements also shall apply: 

(a) Glass, if used in vents, shall be protected against fall- 
ing onto the stage. 

(b) A wire screen, if used under the glass, shall be placed 
so that if clogged, it does not reduce the required 
venting area, interfere with the operating mecha- 
nism, or obstruct the distribution of water from an 
automatic sprinkler. 

(c) Vents shall be arranged to open automatically by the 
use of fusible links. 

(d) The fusible links and operating cable shall hold each 
door closed against a minimum 133-N (30-lb) counter- 
force that shall be exerted on each door through its 
entire arc of travel and for not less than 115 degrees. 

(e) Vents shall be provided with manual control. 



(f) Springs, where employed to actuate vent doors, shall 
be capable of maintaining full required tension. 

(g) Springs shall not be stressed more than 50 percent of 
their rated capacity and shall not be located directly 
in the airstream nor exposed to the outside. 

(h) A fusible link shall be placed in the cable control sys- 
tem on the underside of the vent at or above the roof- 
line, or as approved by the building official. 

(i) The fusible link shall be located so as not to be affected 
by the operation of an automatic sprinkler system. 

(j) Remote, manual, or electric controls shall provide for 
both opening and closing of the vent doors for peri- 
odic testing and shall be located at a point on stage 
designated by the authority havingjurisdiction. 

(k) Where remote control vents are electrical, power fail- 
ure shall not affect instant operation of the vent in 
the event of fire. 

(1) Hand winches shall be permitted to be employed to 
facilitate operation of manually controlled vents. 

13.4.5.5.3 Other Means. Approved, alternate means of re- 
moving smoke and combustion gases shall be permitted. 

13.4.5.6 Proscenium Walls. (Reserved) 

13.4.5.7 Proscenium Curtain. 

13.4.5.7.1 The proscenium opening of every legitimate stage 
shall be provided with a curtain constructed and mounted so 
as to intercept hot gases, flames, and smoke and to prevent 
flame from a fire on the stage from becoming visible from the 
auditorium side for a 5-minute period where the curtain is of 
asbestos. 

13.4.5.7.2 Materials other than asbestos shall be permitted if 
they have passed a 30-minute fire test in a small-scale 915 mm 
x 915 mm (36 in. x 36 in.) furnace with the sample mounted in 
the horizontal plane at the top of the furnace and subjected to 
the standard time-temperature curve. 

13.4.5.7.3 The curtain shall be automatic-closing without the 
use of applied power. 

13.4.5.7.4 All proscenium curtains shall be in the closed po- 
sition, except during performances, rehearsals, or similar 
activities. 

13.4.5.7.5 In lieu of the protection required by 13.4.5.7 
through 13.4.5.7.4, all the following shall be provided: 

(1) A noncombustible opaque fabric curtain shall be ar- 
ranged so that it closes automatically. 

(2) An automatic, fixed waterspray deluge system shall be lo- 
cated on the auditorium side of the proscenium opening 
and shall be arranged so that the entire face of the curtain 
will be wetted, and the following requirements also shall 
apply: 

(a) The system shall be activated by combination of rate- 
of-rise and fixed-temperature detectors located on 
the ceiling of the stage. 

(b) Detectors shall be spaced in accordance with their 
listing. 

(c) The water supply shall be controlled by a deluge valve 
and shall be sufficient to keep the curtain completely 
wet for 30 minutes or until the valve is closed by fire 
department personnel. 

(3) The curtain shall be automatically operated in case of fire 
by a combination of rate-of-rise and fixed-temperature de- 
tectors that also activates the deluge spray system. 



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(4) Stage sprinklers and vents shall be automatically operated 
by fusible elements in case of fire. 

(5) Operation of the stage sprinkler system or spray deluge 
valve shall automatically activate the emergency ventilat- 
ing system and close the curtain. 

(6) The curtain, vents, and spray deluge system valve shall 
also be capable of manual operation. 

13.4.5.7.6 This requirement shall not apply to proscenium 
fire curtains or water curtains complying with 12.4.5.7. 

13.4.5.8 Gridirons, Fly Galleries, and Pinradls. (Reserved) 

13.4.5.9 Catwalks. The clear width of lighting and access cat- 
walks and the means of egress from galleries and gridirons 
shall be not less than 560 mm (22 in.). 

13.4.5.10 Fire Protection. Every stage shall be protected by an 
approved automatic sprinkler system in compliance with Sec- 
tion 9.7. 

13.4.5.10.1 Protection shall be provided throughout the 
stage and in storerooms, workshops, permanent dressing 
rooms, and other accessory spaces contiguous to such stages. 

13.4.5.10.2 Sprinklers shall not be required for stages 93 m 2 
(1000 ft 2 ) or less in area where the following criteria are met: 

(1) Curtains, scenery, or other combustible hangings are not 
retractable vertically. 

(2) Combustible hangings are limited to borders, legs, a 
single main curtain, and a single backdrop. 

13.4.5.10.3 Sprinklers shall not be required under stage areas 
less than 1220 mm (48 in.) in clear height that are used exclu- 
sively for chair or table storage and lined on the inside with 
16-mm (%-in.) Type X gypsum wallboard or the approved 
equivalent. 

13.4.5.11 Hanne-Retardant Requirements. 

13.4.5.11.1 Combustible scenery of cloth, film, vegetation 
(dry), and similar materials shall meet the requirements of 
NFPA 701 , Standard Methods of Fire Tests for Flame Propagation of 
Textiles and Films. 

13.4.5.11.2 Foamed plastics (see definition of cellular or foamed 
plastic in 3.3.30) shall be permitted to be used only by specific 
approval of the authority having jurisdiction. 

13.4.5.11.3 Scenery and stage properties on thrust stages shall 
be of either noncombusuble or limited-combustible materials. 

13.4.5.12* Standpipes. 

13.4.5.12.1 Stages over 93 m 2 (1000 ft 2 ) in area shall be 
equipped with 38-mm (H4-in.) hose lines for first aid fire 
fighting at each side of the stage. 

13.4.5.12.2 Hose connections shall be in accordance with 
NFPA 13, Standard for the Installation of Sprinkler Systems, unless 
Class II or Class III standpipes in accordance with NFPA 14, Stan- 
dard for the Installation ofStandpipe and Hose Systems, are used. 

13.4.6 Projection Rooms. 

13.4.6.1 Projection rooms shall comply with 13.4.6.2 through 
13.4.6.10. 

13.4.6.2 Where cellulose nitrate film is used, the projection 
room shall comply with NFPA 40, Standard for the Storage and 
Handling of Cellulose Nitrate Film. 



13.4.6.3 Film or video projectors or spotlights utilizing light 
sources that produce particulate matter, or toxic gases or light 
sources that produce hazardous radiation without protective 
shielding, shall be located within a projection room comply- 
ing with 13.3.2.1.2. 

13.4.6.4 Every projection room shall be of permanent con- 
struction consistent with the construction requirements for 
the type of building in which the projection room is located 
and shall comply with the following: 

(1) Openings shall not be required to be protected. 

(2) The room shall have a floor area of not less than 7.4 m 2 
(80 ft 2 ) for a single machine and not less than 3.7 m 2 
(40 ft 2 ) for each additional machine. 

(3) Each motion picture projector, floodlight, spotlight, or 
similar piece of equipment shall have a clear working 
space of not less than 760 mm (30 in.) on each side and at 
its rear, but only one such space shall be required between 
adjacent projectors. 

13.4.6.5 The projection room and the rooms appurtenant to 
it shall have a ceiling height of not less than 2285 mm (90 in.). 

13.4.6.6 Each projection room for safety film shall have not 
less than one out-swinging, self-closing door not less than 
760 mm (30 in.) wide and 2030 mm (80 in.) high. 

13.4.6.7 The aggregate of ports and openings for projection 
equipment shall not exceed 25 percent of the area of the wall 
between the projection room and the auditorium, and all 
openings shall be provided with glass or other approved mate- 
rial so as to completely close the opening. 

13.4.6.8 Projection room ventilation shall comply with 
13.4.6.8.1 and 13.4.6.8.2. 

13.4.6.8.1 Supply Air. 

13.4.6.8.1.1 Each projection room shall be provided with ad- 
equate air supply inlets arranged to provide well-distributed 
air throughout the room. 

13.4.6.8.1.2 Air inlet ducts shall provide an amount of air 
equivalent to the amount of air being exhausted by projection 
equipment. 

13.4.6.8.1.3 Air shall be permitted to be taken from the outside; 
from adjacent spaces within the building, provided that the vol- 
ume and infiltration rate is sufficient; or from the building air 
conditioning system, provided that it is arranged to supply suffi- 
cient air whether or not other systems are in operation. 

13.4.6.8.2 Exhaust Air. 

13.4.6.8.2.1 Projection booths shall be permitted to be ex- 
hausted through the lamp exhaust system. 

13.4.6.8.2.2 The lamp exhaust system shall be positively inter- 
connected with the lamp so that the lamp cannot operate un- 
less there is sufficient airflow required for the lamp. 

13.4.6.8.2.3 Exhaust air ducts shall terminate at the exterior 
of the building in such a location that the exhaust air cannot 
be readily recirculated into any air supply system. 

13.4.6.8.2.4 The projection room ventilation system shall be 
permitted also to serve appurtenant rooms, such as the gen- 
erator room and the rewind room. 



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13.4.6.9 Each projection machine shall be provided with an 
exhaust duct that draws air from each lamp and exhausts it 
directly to the outside of the building. 

13.4.6.9.1 The lamp exhaust shall be permitted to exhaust air 
from the projection room to provide room air circulation. 

13.4.6.9.2 Such ducts shall be of rigid materials, except for a 
flexible connector approved for the purpose. 

13.4.6.9.3 The projection lamp and projection room exhaust 
systems shall be permitted to be combined but shall not be 
interconnected with any other exhaust system or return-air 
system within the buildings. 

13.4.6.9.4 Specifications for electric arc and xenon projection 
equipment shall comply with 13.4.6.9.4(A) and 13.4.6.9.4(B). 

(A) Electric Arc Projection Equipment. The exhaust capacity 
shall be 0.09 m 3 /s (200 ft 3 /min) for each lamp connected to 
the lamp exhaust system or as recommended by the equip- 
ment manufacturer, and auxiliary air shall be permitted to be 
introduced into the system through a screened opening to 
stabilize the arc. 

(B) Xenon Projection Equipment. The lamp exhaust system 
shall exhaust not less than 0.14 m 3 /s (300 ft 3 /min) per lamp, or 
not less than the exhaust volume required or recommended by 
the equipment manufacturer, whichever is greater. 

13.4.6.10 Miscellaneous equipment and storage shall be pro- 
tected as follows: 

(1) Each projection room shall be provided with rewind and 
film storage facilities. 

(2) Flammable liquids containers shall be permitted in projec- 
tion rooms, provided that the following criteria are met: 

(a) There are not more than four containers per projec- 
tion room. 

(b) No container has capacity exceeding 0.5 L (16 oz) . 

(c) Containers are of a nonbreakable type. 

(3) Appurtenant electrical equipment, such as rheostats, 
transformers, and generators, shall be permitted to be lo- 
cated within the booth or in a separate room of equivalent 
construction. 

13.4.7* Special Anmusenient Buildings. 

13.4.7.1* General. Special amusement buildings, regardless of 
occupant load, shall meet the requirements for assembly occu- 
pancies in addition to the requirements of 13.4.7, unless the 
special amusement building is a multilevel play structure that 
is not more than 3050 mm (120 in.) in height and has aggre- 
gate horizontal projections not exceeding 15 m 2 (160 ft 2 ). 

1 3.4.7.2* Automatic Sprinklers. Every special amusement build- 
ing, other than buildings or structures not exceeding 3050 mm 
(120 in.) in height and not exceeding 15 m 2 (160 ft ) in aggre- 
gate horizontal projection, shall be protected throughout by an 
approved, supervised automatic sprinkler system installed and 
maintained in accordance with Section 9.7. 

13.4.7.3 Temporary Water Supply. Where the special amuse- 
ment building required to be sprinklered by 13.4.7.2 is mov- 
able or portable, the sprinkler water supply shall be permitted 
to be provided by an approved, temporary means. 

13.4.7.4 Smoke Detection. Where the nature of the special 
amusement building is such that it operates in reduced light- 
ing levels, the building shall be protected throughout by an 
approved automatic smoke detection system in accordance 
with Section 9.6. 



13.4.7.5 Alarm Initiation. Actuation of any smoke detection 
system device shall sound an alarm at a constantly attended 
location on the premises. 

13.4.7.6 Illumination. Actuation of the automatic sprinkler 
system, or any other suppression system, or actuation of a 
smoke detection system having an approved verification or 
cross-zoning operation capability shall provide the following: 

(1) Cause illumination in the means of egress to increase to 
that required by Section 7.8 

(2) Stop any conflicting or confusing sounds and visuals 

13.4.7.7 Exit Marking. 

13.4.7.7.1 Exit marking shall be in accordance with Section 
7.10. 

13.4.7.7.2 Floor proximity exit signs shall be provided in ac- 
cordance with 7.10.1.6. 

13.4.7.7.3* In special amusement buildings where mazes, mir- 
rors, or other designs are used to confound the egress path, 
approved directional exit marking that becomes apparent in 
an emergency shall be provided. 

13.4.7.8 Interior Finish. Interior wall and ceiling finish mate- 
rials complying with Section 10.2 shall be Class A throughout 
in accordance with Section 10.2. 

13.4.8 Grandstands. 

13.4.8.1 General. 

13.4.8.1.1 Grandstands shall comply with the provisions of 
this chapter as modified by 13.4.8. 

13.4.8.1.2 Approved existing grandstands shall be permitted 
to be continued to be used. 

13.4.8.2 Seating. 

13.4.8.2.1 Where grandstand seating without backs is used 
indoors, rows of seats shall be spaced not less than 560 mm 
(22 in.) back-to-back. 

13.4.8.2.2 The depth of footboards and seat boards in grand- 
stands shall be not less than 230 mm (9 in.), where the same 
level is not used for both seat foundations and footrests, foot- 
rests independent of seats shall be provided. 

13.4.8.2.3 Seats and footrests of grandstands shall be sup- 
ported securely and fastened in such a manner that they can- 
not be displaced inadvertently. 

13.4.8.2.4 Individual seats or chairs shall be permitted only if 
secured firmly in rows in an approved manner, unless seats do 
not exceed 16 in number and are located on level floors and 
within railed-in enclosures, such as boxes. 

13.4.8.2.5 The maximum number of seats permitted between 
the farthest seat in an aisle in grandstands and bleachers shall 
not exceed that shown in Table 13.4.8.2.5. 



Table 13.4.8.2.5 Maximum Number of Seats Between 
Farthest Seat and an Aisle 



Outdoors 



Indoors 



Grandstands 1 1 

Bleachers [(see 13.2.5.6.1(1)] 20 



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13.4.8.3 Special Requirements — Wood Grandstands. 

13.4.8.3.1 The distance between an outdoor wood grand- 
stand and a building shall be not less than two-thirds of the 
grandstand height and in no case less than 3050 mm (120 in.) 
of a building, unless otherwise permitted by the following: 

(1) The distance requirement shall not apply to buildings of 
not less than 1-hour fire resistance-rated construction 
with openings protected against the fire exposure hazard 
created by the grandstand. 

(2) The distance requirement shall not apply where a wall of 
not less than 1-hour fire resistance-rated construction 
separates the grandstand from the building. 

13.4.8.3.2 An outdoor wood grandstand unit shall not ex- 
ceed 929 m 2 (10,000 ft 2 ) in ground area or 61 m (200 ft) in 
length, and the following requirements also shall apply. 

( 1 ) Grandstand units of the maximum size shall be placed not 
less than 6100 mm (240 in.) apart or shall be separated by 
walls of 1-hour fire resistance rating. 

(2) The number of grandstand units erected in any one 
group shall not exceed three. 

(3) Each group of grandstand units shall be separated from any 
other group by a wall of 2-hour fire resistance-rated con- 
struction extending 610 mm (24 in.) above the seat plat- 
forms or by an open space of not less than 15 m (50 ft) . 

13.4.8.3.3 The ground area or length required by 13.4.8.3.2 
shall be permitted to be doubled where one of the following 
criteria is met: 

(1) Where the grandstand is constructed entirely of labeled 
fire-retardant-treated wood that has passed the standard 
rain test, ASTM D 2898, Test Method for Accelerated Weather- 
ing of Fire-Retardant-Treated Wood for Fire Testing 

(2) Where the grandstand is constructed of members con- 
forming to dimensions for heavy timber construction 
(TypeIV(2HH)) 

13.4.8.3.4 The highest level of seat platforms above the 
ground or the surface at the front of any wood grandstand 
shall not exceed 6100 mm (240 in.). 

13.4.8.3.5 The highest level of seat platforms above the 
ground, or the surface at the front of a portable grandstand 
within a tent or membrane structure, shall not exceed 
3660 mm (144 in.). 

13.4.8.3.6 The height requirements specified in 13.4.8.3.4 and 
13.4.8.3.5 shall be permitted to be doubled where the grand- 
stand is constructed entirely of labeled fire-retardant-treated 
wood that has passed the standard rain test, ASTM D 2898, Test 
Method for Accelerated Weathering of Fire-Retardant-Treated Wood for Fire 
Testing, or where constructed of members conforming to dimen- 
sions for heavy timber construction (Type IV (2HH)). 

13.4.8.4 Special Requirements — Portable Grandstands. 

13.4.8.4.1 Portable grandstands shall conform to the require- 
ments of 13.4.8 for grandstands and the requirements of 

13.4.8.4.2 through 13.4.8.4.7. 

13.4.8.4.2 Portable grandstands shall be self-contained and 
shall have within them all necessary parts to withstand and 
restrain all forces that might be developed during human oc- 
cupancy. 

13.4.8.4.3 Portable grandstands shall be designed and manu- 
factured so that if any structural members essential to the 



strength and stability of the structure have been omitted dur- 
ing erection, the presence of unused connection fittings shall 
make the omissions self-evident. 

13.4.8.4.4 Portable grandstands construction shall be skillfully 
accomplished to produce the strength required by the design. 

13.4.8.4.5 Portable grandstands shall be provided with base 
plates, sills, floor runners, or sleepers of such area that the 
permitted bearing capacity of the supporting material is not 
exceeded. 

1 3.4.8.4.6 Where portable grandstands rest directly on a base of 
such character that it is incapable of supporting the load without 
appreciable settlement, mud sills of suitable material, having suf- 
ficient area to prevent undue or dangerous setdement, shall be 
installed under base plates, runners, or sleepers. 

13.4.8.4.7 All bearing surfaces shall be in contact with each 
other. 

13.4.8.5 Spaces Underneath Grandstands. Spaces under- 
neath a grandstand shall be kept free of flammable or combus- 
tible materials, unless protected by an approved, supervised 
automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 9.7 or 
unless otherwise permitted by the following: 

( 1 ) This requirement shall not apply to accessory uses of 28 m 2 
(300 ft 2 ) or less such as ticket booths, toilet facilities, or con- 
cession booths, where constructed of noncombustible or 
fire-resistive construction, in materials otherwise nonsprin- 
klered facilities. 

(2) This requirement shall not apply to rooms that are en- 
closed in not less than 1-hour fire resistance-rated con- 
struction and are less than 93 m 2 (1000 ft 2 ) in otherwise 
nonsprinklered facilities. 

13.4.8.6 Guards and Railings. 

13.4.8.6.1 Railings or guards not less than 1065 mm (42 in.) 
above the aisle surface or footrest or not less than 915 mm 
(36 in.) vertically above the center of the seat or seat board sur- 
face, whichever is adjacent, shall be provided along those por- 
tions of the backs and ends of all grandstands where the seats are 
in excess of 1220 mm (48 in.) above the floor or ground. 

13.4.8.6.2 The requirement of 13.4.8.6.1 shall not apply 
where an adjacent wall or fence affords equivalent safeguard. 

13.4.8.6.3 Where the front footrest of any grandstand is more 
than 610 mm (24 in.) above the floor, railings or guards not less 
than 825 mm (33 in.) above such footrests shall be provided. 

13.4.8.6.4 The railings required by 13.4.8.6.3 shall be permit- 
ted to be not less than 660 mm (26 in.) high in grandstands or 
where the front row of seats includes backrests. 

13.4.8.6.5 Cross aisles located within the seating area shall be 
provided with rails not less than 660 mm (26 in.) high along 
the front edge of the cross aisle. 

13.4.8.6.6 The railings specified by 13.4.8.6.5 shall not be 
required where the backs of the seats in front of the cross 
aisle project 610 mm (24 in.) or more above the surface of 
the cross aisle. 

13.4.8.6.7 Vertical openings between guardrails and foot- 
boards or seat boards shall be provided with intermediate con- 
struction so that a 100-mm (4-in.) diameter sphere cannot 
pass through the opening. 



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13.4.8.6.8 An opening between the seat board and footboard 
located more than 760 mm (30 in.) above grade shall be pro- 
vided with intermediate construction so that a 100-mm (4-in.) 
diameter sphere cannot pass through the opening. 

13.4.9 Folding and Telescopic Seating. 

13.4.9.1 General. 

13.4.9.1.1 Folding and telescopic seating shall comply with 
the provisions of this chapter as modified by 13.4.9. 

13.4.9.1.2 Approved existing folding and telescopic seating 
shall be permitted to be continued to be used. 

13.4.9.2 Seating. 

13.4.9.2.1 The horizontal distance of seats, measured back- 
to-back, shall be not less than 560 mm (22 in.) for seats with- 
out backs, and the following requirements shall also apply: 

(1) There shall be a space of not less than 305 mm (12 in.) 
between the back of each seat and the front of each seat 
immediately behind it. 

(2) If seats are of the chair type, the 305-mm (12-in.) dimen- 
sion shall be measured to the front edge of the rear seat in 
its normal unoccupied position. 

(3) All measurements shall be taken between plumb lines. 

13.4.9.2.2 The depth of footboards (footrests) and seat 
boards in folding and telescopic seating shall be not less than 
230 mm (9 in.). 

13.4.9.2.3 Where the same level is not used for both seat 
foundations and footrests, footrests independent of seats shall 
be provided. 

13.4.9.2.4 Individual chair-type seats shall be permitted in 
folding and telescopic seating only if firmly secured in groups 
of not less than three. 

13.4.9.2.5 The maximum number of seats permitted between 
the farthest seat in an aisle in folding and telescopic seating 
shall not exceed that shown in Table 13.4.8.2.5. 

13.4.9.3 Guards and Railings. 

13.4.9.3.1 Railings or guards not less than 1065 mm (42 in.) 
above the aisle surface or footrest or not less than 915 mm 
(36 in.) vertically above the center of the seat or seat board 
surface, whichever is adjacent, shall be provided along those 
portions of the backs and ends of all folding and telescopic 
seating where the seats are more than 1220 mm (48 in.) above 
the floor or ground. 

13.4.9.3.2 The requirement of 13.4.9.3.1 shall not apply 
where an adjacent wall or fence affords equivalent safeguard. 

13.4.9.3.3 Where the front footrest of folding or telescopic 
seating is more than 610 mm (24 in.) above the floor, railings 
or guards not less than 825 mm (33 in.) above such footrests 
shall be provided. 

13.4.9.3.4 The railings required by 13.4.9.3.3 shall be permit- 
ted to be not less than 660 mm (26 in.) high, where the front 
row of seats includes backrests. 

13.4.9.3.5 Cross aisles located within the seating area shall be 
provided with rails not less than 660 mm (26 in.) high along 
the front edge of the cross aisle. 

13.4.9.3.6 The railings specified by 13.4.9.3.5 shall not be 
required where the backs of the seats in front of the cross 
aisle project 610 mm (24 in.) or more above the surface of 
the cross aisle. 



13.4.9.3.7 Vertical openings between guardrails and foot- 
boards or seat boards shall be provided with intermediate con- 
struction so that a 100-mm (4-in.) diameter sphere cannot 
pass through the opening. 

13.4.9.3.8 An opening between the seat board and footboard 
located more than 760 mm (30 in.) above grade shall be pro- 
vided with intermediate construction so that a 100-mm (4-in.) 
diameter sphere cannot pass through the opening. 

13.4.10 Airport Loading Walkways. 

13.4.10.1 Airport loading walkways shall conform with 
NFPA415, Standard on Airport Terminal Buildings, Fueling Ramp 
Drainage, and LoadingWalkways, and the provisions of 13.4.10.2 
and 13.4.10.3. 

13.4.10.2 Doors in the egress path from the aircraft through 
the airport loading walkway into the airport terminal building 
shall meet the following criteria: 

(1) They shall swing in the direction of egress from the air- 
craft. 
(2)*They shall not be permitted to have delayed egress locks. 

13.4.10.3 Exit access shall be unimpeded from the airport 
loading walkway to the non-secured public areas of the airport 
terminal building. 

13.5 Building Services. 

13.5.1 Utilities. Utilities shall comply with the provisions of 
Section 9.1. 

13.5.2 Heating, Ventilating, and Air Conditioning Equipment. 
Heating, ventilating, and air conditioning equipment shall 
comply with the provisions of Section 9.2. 

13.5.3 Elevators, Escalators, and Conveyors. Elevators, esca- 
lators, and conveyors shall comply with the provisions of 
Section 9.4. 

13.5.4 Rubbish Chutes, Incinerators, and Laundry Chutes. 
Rubbish chutes, incinerators, and laundry chutes shall comply 
with the provisions of Section 9.5. 

13.6 Reserved. 

13.7 Operating Features. 

13.7.1 Special Provisions for Food Service Operations. 

13.7.1.1 All devices in connection with the preparation of 
food shall be installed and operated to avoid hazard to the 
safety of occupants. 

13.7.1.2 All devices in connection with the preparation of 
food shall be of an approved type and shall be installed in an 
approved manner. 

13.7.1.3 Food preparation facilities shall be protected in accor- 
dance with 9.2.3 and shall not be required to have openings pro- 
tected between food preparation areas and dining areas. 

13.7.1.4 Portable cooking equipment that is not flue- 
connected shall be permitted only as follows: 

(1) Equipment fueled by small heat sources that can be 
readily extinguished by water, such as candles or alcohol- 
burning equipment, including solid alcohol, shall be per- 
mitted to be used, provided that precautions satisfactory 
to the authority having jurisdiction are taken to prevent 
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(2) Candles shall be permitted to be used on tables used for 
food service where securely supported on substantial non- 
combustible bases located to avoid danger of ignition of 
combustible materials and only where approved by the 
authority havingjurisdiction. 

(3) Candle flames shall be protected. 

(4) "Flaming sword" or other equipment involving open 
flames and flamed dishes, such as cherries jubilee or 
crepe suzette, shall be permitted to be used, provided that 
precautions subject to the approval of the authority hav- 
ingjurisdiction are taken. 

(5)*Listed and approved LP-Gas commercial food service ap- 
pliances shall be permitted to be used where in accor- 
dance with NFPA 58, Liquefied Petroleum Gas Code. 

13.7.2 Open Flanie Devices and Pyrotechnics. No open flame 
devices or pyrotechnic devices shall be used in any assembly 
occupancy, unless otherwise permitted by the following: 

( 1 ) Pyrotechnic special effect devices shall be permitted to be 
used on stages before proximate audiences for ceremo- 
nial or religious purposes, as part of a demonstration in 
exhibits, or as part of a performance, provided that both 
of the following are met: 

(a) Precautions satisfactory to the authority havingjuris- 
diction are taken to prevent ignition of any combus- 
tible material. 

(b) Use of the pyrotechnic device complies with 
NFPA 1126, Standard for the Use of Pyrotechnics before a 
Proximate Audience. 

(2) Flame effects before an audience shall be permitted in 
accordance with NFPA 160, Standard for Flame Effects Before 
an Audience. 

(3) Open flame devices shall be permitted to be used in the 
following situations, provided that precautions satisfactory 
to the authority havingjurisdiction are taken to prevent igni- 
tion of any combustible material or injury to occupants: 

(a) *For ceremonial or religious purposes 

(b) On stages and platforms where part of a performance 

(c) Where candles on tables are securely supported on 
substantial noncombustible bases and candle flame is 
protected 

(4) This requirement shall not apply to heat-producing 
equipment complying with 9.2.2. 

(5) This requirement shall not apply to food service opera- 
tions in accordance with 13.7.1. 

(6) Gas lights shall be permitted to be used, provided that 
precautions are taken, subject to the approval of authority 
having jurisdiction, to prevent ignition of any combus- 
tible materials. 

13.7.3 Furnishings, Decorations, and Scenery. 

13.7.3.1 Fabrics and films used for decorative purposes, all 
draperies and curtains, and similar furnishings shall be in ac- 
cordance with the provisions of 10.3.1. 

13.7.3.2 The authority havingjurisdiction shall impose con- 
trols on the quantity and arrangement of combustible con- 
tents in assembly occupancies to provide an adequate level of 
safety to life from fire. 

13.7.3.3* Exposed foamed plastic materials and unprotected 
materials containing foamed plastic used for decorative purposes 
or stage scenery shall have a heat release rate not exceeding 100 
kW where tested in accordance with UL 1975, Standard for Fire 
Tests for Foamed Plastics Used for Decorative Purposes. 



13.7.3.4 The requirement of 13.7.3.3 shall not apply to indi- 
vidual foamed plastic items and items containing foamed plas- 
tic where the foamed plastic does not exceed 0.45 kg (1 lb) in 
weight. 

13.7.4 Special Provisions for Exposition Facilities. 

13.7.4.1 General. No display or exhibit shall be installed or op- 
erated to interfere in any way with access to any required exit or 
with the visibility of any required exit or required exit sign; nor 
shall any display block access to fire-fighting equipment. 

13.7.4.2 Materials Not on Display. A storage room having an 
enclosure consisting of a smoke barrier having a fire resistance 
rating of 1 hour and protected by an automatic extinguishing 
system shall be provided for combustible materials not on dis- 
play, including combustible packing crates used to ship ex- 
hibitors' supplies and products. 

13.7.4.3 Exhibits. 

13.7.4.3.1 Exhibits shall comply with 13.7.4.3.2 through 
13.7.4.3.11. 

13.7.4.3.2 The travel distance within the exhibit booth or 
exhibit enclosure to an exit access aisle shall not exceed 15 m 
(50 ft). 

13.7.4.3.3 The upper deck of multilevel exhibits greater than 
28 m 2 (300 ft 2 ) shall have not less than two remote means of 
egress. 

13.7.4.3.4 Exhibit booths shall be constructed of the following: 

(1) Noncombustible or limited-combustible materials 

(2) Wood exceeding 6.3 mm (Vi in.) nominal thickness or wood 
not exceeding 6.3 mm (V4 in.) nominal thickness that is 
pressure-treated, fi re-re tardant wood meeting the require- 
ments of NFPA 703, Standard for Fire Retardant Impregnated 
Wood and Fire Retardant Coatings for Building Materials 

(3)*Flame-retardant materials complying with NFPA 701, 
Standard Methods of Fire Tests for Flame Propagation of Textiles 
and Films 

(4) Textile wall coverings, such as carpeting and similar prod- 
ucts used as wall or ceiling finishes, complying with the 
provisions of 10.2.2 and 10.2.4 

(5) Plastics limited to those that comply with 13.3.3 and Sec- 
tion 10.2 

(6) Foamed plastics and materials containing foamed plastics 
having a heat release rate for any single fuel package that 
does not exceed 100 kW where tested in accordance with 
UL 1975, Standard for Fire Tests for Foamed Plastics Used for 
Decorative Purposes 

(7) Cardboard, honeycombed paper, and other combustible 
materials having a heat release rate for any single fuel 
package that does not exceed 150 kW where tested in ac- 
cordance with UL 1975, Standard for Fire Tests for Foamed 
Plastics Used for Decorative Purposes 

13.7.4.3.5 Curtains, drapes, and decorations shall comply 
with the applicable portions of 10.3.1. 

13.7.4.3.6 Acoustical and decorative material including, but 
not limited to, cotton, hay, paper, straw, moss, split bamboo, 
and wood chips shall be flame-retardant treated to the satisfac- 
tion of the authority havingjurisdiction. 

13.7.4.3.6.1 Materials that cannot be treated for flame retar- 
dancy shall not be used. 



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13.7.4.3.6.2 Foamed plastics and materials containing 
foamed plastics and used as decorative objects such as, but not 
limited to, mannequins, murals, and signs shall have a heat 
release rate for any single fuel package that does not exceed 
150 kW where tested in accordance with UL 1975, Standard for 
Fire Tests for Foamed Plastics Used for Decorative Purposes. 

13.7.4.3.6.3 Where the aggregate area of acoustical and deco- 
rative materials is less than 10 percent of the individual floor 
or wall area, such materials shall be permitted to be used sub- 
ject to the approval of the authority having jurisdiction. 

13.7.4.3.7 The following shall be protected by automatic ex- 
tinguishing systems: 

(1) Single-level exhibit booths exceeding 28 m 2 (300 ft 2 ) and 
covered with a ceiling 

(2) Each level of multilevel exhibit booths, protected 
throughout, including the uppermost level where the up- 
permost level is covered with a ceiling 

13.7.4.3.7.1 The requirements of 13.7.4.3.7 shall not apply 
where otherwise permitted by the following: 

( 1 ) Ceilings of open grate design or listed dropout ceilings in 
accordance with NFPA 13, Standard for the Installation of 
Sprinkler Systems, shall not be considered ceilings within 
the context of 13.7.4.3.7. 

(2) Vehicles, boats, and similar exhibited products having 
over 9.3 m 2 (100 ft 2 ) of roofed area shall be provided 
with smoke detectors acceptable to the authority hav- 
ingjurisdiction. 

(3)*The requirement of 13.7.4.3.7(2) shall not apply where 
fire protection of multilevel exhibit booths is consistent 
with the criteria developed through a life safety evalua- 
tion of the exhibition hall in accordance with 13.4.1, sub- 
ject to approval of the authority having jurisdiction. 

13.7.4.3.7.2 Asingle exhibit or group of exhibits with ceilings 
that do not require sprinklers shall be separated by a distance 
not less than 3050 mm (120 in.) where the aggregate ceiling 
exceeds 28 m 2 (300 ft 2 ). 

13.7.4.3.7.3 The water supply and piping for the sprinkler 
system shall be permitted to be of approved, temporary means 
that is provided by a domestic water supply, a standpipe sys- 
tem, or a sprinkler system. 

13.7.4.3.8 Open flame devices within exhibit booths shall 
comply with 13.7.2. 

13.7.4.3.9 Cooking and food-warming devices in exhibit 
booths shall comply with 13.7.1 and the following: 

(1) Gas-fired devices shall comply with the following: 

(a) Natural gas-fired devices shall comply with 9.1.1. 

(b) The requirement of 13.7.4.3.9(1) (a) shall not apply 
to compressed natural gas where permitted by the 
authority having jurisdiction. 

(c) The use of LP-Gas cylinders shall be prohibited. 

(d) Nonrefillable LP-Gas cylinders shall be permitted for 
use where approved by the authority having 
jurisdiction. 

(2) The devices shall be isolated from the public by not less 
than 1220 mm (48 in.) or by a barrier between the devices 
and the public. 

(3) Multi-well cooking equipment using combustible oils or 
solids shall comply with 9.2.3. 



(4) Single-well cooking equipment using combustible oils or 
solids shall meet the following criteria: 

(a) They shall have lids available for immediate use. 

(b) They shall be limited to 0.2 m 2 (288 in. 2 ) of cooking 
surface. 

(c) They shall be placed on noncombustible surface 
materials. 

(d) They shall be separated from each other by a horizon- 
tal distance of not less than 610 mm (24 in.). 

(e) The requirement of 13.7.4.3.9(4) (d) shall not apply 
to multiple single-well cooking equipment where the 
aggregate cooking surface area does not exceed 
0.2 m 2 (288 in. 2 ). 

(f) They shall be kept at a horizontal distance of not less 
than 610 mm (24 in.) from any combustible material. 

(5) Aportable fire extinguisher in accordance with 9.7.4.1 shall 
be provided within the booth for each device, or an ap- 
proved automatic extinguishing system shall be provided. 

13.7.4.3.10 Combustible materials within exhibit booths shall 
be limited to a one-day supply. Storage of combustible materi- 
als behind the booth shall be prohibited. (See 13.7.3.2 and 
13.7.4.2.) 

13.7.4.3.11 Plans for the exposition, in an acceptable form, 
shall be submitted to the authority having jurisdiction for ap- 
proval prior to setting up any exhibit. 

13.7.4.3.11.1 The plan shall show all details of the proposed 
exposition. 

13.7.4.3.11.2 No exposition shall occupy any exposition facil- 
ity without approved plans. 

13.7.4.4 Vehicles. Vehicles on display within an exposition fa- 
cility shall comply with 13.7.4.4.1 through 13.7.4.4.5. 

13.7.4.4.1 All fuel tank openings shall be locked and sealed 
in an approved manner to prevent the escape of vapors; fuel 
tanks shall not contain in excess of one-half their capacity or 
contain in excess of 38 L (10 gal) of fuel, whichever is less. 

13.7.4.4.2 At least one battery cable shall be removed from 
the batteries used to start the vehicle engine, and the discon- 
nected battery cable shall then be taped. 

13.7.4.4.3 Batteries used to power auxiliary equipment shall 
be permitted to be kept in service. 

1 3.7.4.4.4 Fueling or defueling of vehicles shall be prohibited. 

13.7.4.4.5 Vehicles shall not be moved during exhibit hours. 

13.7.4.5 Prohibited Materials. 

13.7.4.5.1 The following items shall be prohibited within ex- 
hibit halls: 

(1) Compressed flammable gases 

(2) Flammable or combustible liquids 

(3) Hazardous chemicals or materials 

(4) Class II or greater lasers, blasting agents, and explosives 

13.7.4.5.2 The authority having jurisdiction shall be permit- 
ted to allow the limited use of any items specified in 13.7.4.5.1 
under special circumstances. 

13.7.4.6 Alternatives. See Section 1.4. 



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13.7.5* Crowd Managers. 

13.7.5.1 In assembly occupancies having occupant loads ex- 
ceeding 1000, trained crowd managers or crowd manager su- 
pervisors shall be provided at a ratio of 1 crowd manager/ 
supervisor for every 250 occupants, unless otherwise permitted 
by the following: 

( 1 ) This requirement shall not apply to assembly occupancies 
used exclusively for religious worship with an occupant 
load not exceeding 2000. 

(2) The ratio of trained crowd managers to occupants shall be 
permitted to be reduced where, in the opinion of the au- 
thority having jurisdiction, the existence of an approved, 
supervised automatic sprinkler system and the nature of 
the event warrant. 

13.7.5.2 The crowd manager shall receive approved training 
in crowd management techniques. 

13.7.6* Drills. 

13.7.6.1 The employees or attendants of assembly occupancies 
shall be trained and drilled in the dudes they are to perform in 
case of fire, panic, or other emergency to effect orderly exiting. 

13.7.6.2 Employees or attendants of assembly occupancies 
shall be instructed in the proper use of portable fire extin- 
guishers and other manual fire suppression equipment where 
provided. 

13.7.6.3* In the following assembly occupancies, an audible 
announcement shall be made, or a projected image shall be 
shown, prior to the start of each program that notifies occu- 
pants of the location of the exits to be used in case of a fire or 
other emergency: 

(1) Theaters 

(2) Motion picture theaters 

(3) Auditoriums 

(4) Other similar assembly occupancies with occupant loads 
exceeding 300 where there are noncontinuous programs 

13.7.6.4 The requirement of 13.7.6.3 shall not apply to assem- 
bly occupancies in schools where used for nonpublic events. 

13.7.7 Smoking. 

13.7.7.1 Smoking in assembly occupancies shall be regulated 
by the authority havingjurisdiction. 

13.7.7.2 In rooms or areas where smoking is prohibited, 
plainly visible signs shall be posted that read as follows: 

NO SMOKING 

13.7.7.3 No person shall smoke in prohibited areas that are 
so posted, unless permitted by the authority having jurisdic- 
tion under both of the following conditions: 

(1) Smoking shall be permitted on a stage only where it is a 
necessary and rehearsed part of a performance 

(2) Smoking shall be permitted only where the smoker is a 
regular performing member of the cast 

13.7.7.4 Where smoking is permitted, suitable ashtrays or re- 
ceptacles shall be provided in convenient locations. 

13.7.8 Seating. 

13.7.8.1 Secured Seating. 

13.7.8.1.1 Seats in assembly occupancies accommodating 
more than 200 persons shall be securely fastened to the floor, 



except where fastened together in groups of not less than 
three and not exceeding seven and as permitted by 13.7.8.2. 

13.7.8.1.2 All seats in balconies and galleries shall be securely 
fastened to the floor, except in places of religious worship. 

13.7.8.2 Unsecured Seating. 

13.7.8.2.1 Seats not secured to the floor shall be permitted in 
restaurants, night clubs, and other occupancies where fasten- 
ing seats to the floor might be impracticable. 

13.7.8.2.2 Unsecured seats shall be permitted, provided that, 
in the area used for seating, excluding such areas of dance 
floors and stages, there is not more than one seat for each 
1.4 m 2 (15 ft 2 ) of net floor area, and adequate aisles to reach 
exits are maintained at all times. 

13.7.8.2.3 Seating diagrams shall be submitted for approval 
by the authority having jurisdiction to permit an increase in 
occupant load per 7.3.1.3. 

13.7.8.3 Occupant Load Posting. 

13.7.8.3.1 Every room constituting an assembly occupancy 
and not having fixed seats shall have the occupant load of the 
room posted in a conspicuous place near the main exit from 
the room. 

13.7.8.3.2 Approved signs shall be maintained in a legible 
manner by the owner or authorized agent. 

13.7.8.3.3 Signs shall be durable and shall indicate the num- 
ber of occupants permitted for each room use. 

13.7.9 Maintenance of Outdoor Grandstands. 

13.7.9.1 The owner shall provide for not less than annual 
inspection and required maintenance of each outdoor grand- 
stand to ensure safe conditions. 

13.7.9.2 At least biennially, the inspection shall be performed 
by a professional engineer, registered architect, or individual 
certified by the manufacturer. 

13.7.9.3 Where required by the authority havingjurisdiction, 
the owner shall provide certification that such inspection has 
been performed. 

13.7.10 Maintenance and Operation of Folding and Tele- 
scopic Seating. 

13.7.10.1 Instructions in both maintenance and operation 
shall be transmitted to the owner by the manufacturer of the 
seating or his or her representative. 

13.7.10.2 Maintenance and operation of folding and tele- 
scopic seating shall be the responsibility of the owner or his 
or her duly authorized representative and shall include the 
following: 

(1) During operation of the folding and telescopic seats, the 
opening and closing shall be supervised by responsible 
personnel who shall ensure that the operation is in accor- 
dance with the manufacturer's instructions. 

(2) Only attachments specifically approved by the manufac- 
turer for the specific installation shall be attached to the 
seating. 

(3) An annual inspection and required maintenance of each 
grandstand shall be performed to ensure safe conditions. 
At least biennially, the inspection shall be performed by a 
professional engineer, registered architect, or individual 
certified by the manufacturer. 



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13.7.11 Clothing. Clothing and personal effects shall not be 
stored in corridors, unless otherwise permitted by the following: 

(1) This requirement shall not apply to corridors protected 
by an approved automatic sprinkler system in accordance 
with Section 9.7. 

(2) This requirement shall not apply to corridor areas pro- 
tected by a smoke detection system in accordance with 
Section 9.6. 

(3) This requirement shall not apply to storage in metal lockers, 
provided that the required egress width is maintained. 



Chapter 14 New Educational Occupancies 

14.1 General Requirements. 

14.1.1 Application. 

14.1.1.1 The requirements of this chapter shall apply to the 
following: 

(1) New buildings or portions thereof used as educational 
occupancies (see 1.3.1) 

(2) Additions made to, or used as, an educational occupancy 
(see 4.6.7) 

(3) Alterations, modernizations, or renovations of existing 
educational occupancies (see 4.6.8) 

(4) Existing buildings or portions thereof upon change of oc- 
cupancy to an educational occupancy (see 4.6.12) 

14. 1 . 1 .2 Educational facilities that do not meet the definition of 
an educational occupancy shall not be required to comply with 
this chapter but shall comply with the following requirements: 

( 1 ) Instructional building — business occupancy 

(2) Classrooms under 50 persons — business occupancy 

(3) Classrooms, 50 persons and over — assembly occupancy 

(4) Laboratories, instructional — business occupancy 

(5) Laboratories, noninstructional — industrial 

14.1.2 Multiple Occupancies. 

14.1.2.1 Multiple occupancies shall be in accordance with 
6.1.14. 

14.1.2.2 Assembly and Educational. 

14.1.2.2.1 Spaces subject to assembly occupancy shall comply 
with Chapter 12, including 12.1.2, which provides that, where 
auditorium and gymnasium egress lead through corridors or 
stairways also serving as egress for other parts of the building, 
the egress capacity shall be sufficient to allow simultaneous 
egress from auditorium and classroom sections. 

14.1.2.2.2 In the case of an assembly occupancy of a type 
suitable for use only by the school occupant load and there- 
fore not subject to simultaneous occupancy, the same egress 
capacity shall be permitted to serve both sections. 

14.1.2.3 Dormitory and Classrooms. 

14.1.2.3.1 Any building used for both classroom and dormi- 
tory purposes shall comply with the applicable provisions of 
Chapter 28 in addition to complying with Chapter 14. 

14.1.2.3.2 Where classroom and dormitory sections are not 
subject to simultaneous occupancy, the same egress capacity 
shall be permitted to serve both sections. 

14.1.3 Definitions. A list of terms used in this chapter follows: 



( 1 ) Comimon Atmosphere. See 3.3.20. 1 . 

(2) Flexible Plan and Open Plan Educational or Day-Care 
Building. See 3.3.27.6. 

(3) Separate Atmosphere. See 3.3.20.2. 

14.1.4 Classification of Occupancy. See 6.1.3. 

14.1.4.1 Educational occupancies shall include all buildings 
used for educational purposes through the twelfth grade by 
six or more persons for 4 or more hours per day or more than 
12 hours per week. 

14.1.4.2 Educational occupancies shall include part-day pre- 
schools, kindergartens, and other schools whose purpose is 
primarily educational, even though the children who attend 
such schools are of preschool age. 

14.1.4.3 In cases where instruction is incidental to some 
other occupancy, the section of this Code governing such other 
occupancy shall apply. 

14. 1 .4.4 Other occupancies associated with educational insti- 
tutions shall be in accordance with the appropriate parts of 
this Code. (See Chapters 18, 20, 26, 28, 30, 40, and 42 and 6.1.14.) 

14.1.5 Classification of Hazard of Contents. The contents of 
educational occupancies shall be classified in accordance with 
the provisions of Section 6.2. 

14.1.6 Minimum Construction Requirements. (No require- 
ments) 

14.1.7 Occupant Load. 

14.1.7.1 The occupant load, in number of persons for whom 
means of egress and other provisions are required, shall be 
determined on the basis of the occupant load factors of 
Table 7.3.1.2 that are characteristic of the use of the space or 
shall be determined as the maximum probable population of 
the space under consideration, whichever is greater. 

14.1.7.2 The occupant load of an educational occupancy, or a 
portion thereof, shall be permitted to be modified from that 
specified in 14.1.7.1 if the necessary aisles and exits are provided. 

14.1.7.3 An approved aisle or seating diagram shall be re- 
quired by the authority having jurisdiction to substantiate the 
modification permitted in 14.1.7.2. 

14.2 Means of Egress Requirements. 

14.2.1 General. 

14.2.1.1 Means of egress shall be in accordance with Chapter 7 
and Section 14.2. 

14.2.1.2 Rooms normally occupied by preschool, kindergar- 
ten, or first-grade students shall be located on a level of exit 
discharge, unless otherwise permitted by 14.2.1.4. 

14.2.1.3 Rooms normally occupied by second-grade students 
shall not be located more than one story above a level of exit 
discharge, unless otherwise permitted by 14.2.1.4. 

14.2.1.4 Rooms or areas located on floor levels other than as 
specified in 14.2.1.2 and 14.2.1.3 shall be permitted to be used 
where provided with independent means of egress dedicated 
for use by the preschool, kindergarten, first-grade, or second- 
grade students. 

14.2.2 Means of Egress Components. 

14.2.2.1 Components of means of egress shall be limited to 
the types described in 14.2.2.2 through 14.2.2.10. 



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14.2.2.2 Doors. 

14.2.2.2.1 Doors complying with 7.2.1 shall be permitted. 

14.2.2.2.2 Any door in a required means of egress from an area 
having an occupant load of 100 or more persons shall be permit- 
ted to be provided with a latch or lock only if the latch or lock is 
panic hardware or fire exit hardware complying with 7.2.1.7. 

14.2.2.2.3 Special locking arrangements complying with 7.2.1.6 
shall be permitted. 

14.2.2.3* Stairs. Stairs complying with 7.2.2 shall be permit- 
ted. 

14.2.2.4 Smokeproof Enclosures. Smokeproof enclosures 
complying with 7.2.3 shall be permitted. 

14.2.2.5 Horizontal Exits. Horizontal exits complying with 
7.2.4 shall be permitted. 

14.2.2.6 Ramps. Ramps complying with 7.2.5 shall be per- 
mitted. 

14.2.2.7 Exit Passageways. Exit passageways complying with 
7.2.6 shall be permitted. 

14.2.2.8 Fire Escape Ladders. Fire escape ladders complying 
with 7.2.9 shall be permitted. 

14.2.2.9 Alternating Tread Devices. Alternating tread devices 
complying with 7.2.11 shall be permitted. 

14.2.2.10 Areas of Refuge. Areas of refuge complying with 
7.2.12 shall be permitted. 

14.2.3 Capacity of Means of Egress. 

14.2.3.1 Capacity of means of egress shall be in accordance 
with Section 7.3. 



14.2.3.2 Minimum Corridor Width. Exit access corridors shall 
have not less than 1830 mm (72 in.) of clear width. 

14.2.4 Number of Exits. Not less than two separate exits shall 
be as follows: 

(1) Provided on every story 

(2) Accessible from every part of every story and mezzanine 

14.2.5 Arrangement of Means of Egress. See also Section 7.5. 

14.2.5.1 Means of egress shall be arranged in accordance 
with Section 7.5. 

14.2.5.2 No dead-end corridor shall exceed 6100 mm 
(240 in.), other than in buildings protected throughout by an 
approved, supervised automatic sprinkler system in accor- 
dance with Section 9.7, in which case dead-end corridors shall 
not exceed 15 m (50 ft). 

14.2.5.3 No common path of travel shall exceed 23 m (75 ft), 
other than for the first 30 m (100 ft) in a building protected 
throughout by an approved, supervised automatic sprinkler 
system in accordance with Section 9.7. 

14.2.5.4 Every room that is normally subject to student oc- 
cupancy shall have an exit access door leading directly to an 
exit access corridor or exit, unless otherwise permitted by 
the following: 

(1) This requirement shall not apply where an exit door 
opens directly to the outside or to an exterior balcony or 
corridor as described in 14.2.5.8. 



(2) One room shall be permitted to intervene between a nor- 
mally occupied student room and an exit access corridor, 
provided that all of the following criteria are met: 

(a) The travel from a room served by an intervening 
room to the corridor door or exit shall not exceed 
23 m (75 ft). 

(b) Clothing, personal effects, or other materials deemed 
hazardous by the authority having jurisdiction shall 
be stored in metal lockers, provided that they do not 
obstruct the exit access, or the intervening room shall 
be sprinklered in accordance with Section 9.7. 

(c) One of the following means of protection shall be 
provided: 

i. The intervening room shall have approved fire 
detection that activates the building alarm. 

ii. The building shall be protected by an approved, 
supervised automatic sprinkler system in accor- 
dance with Section 9.7. 

14.2.5.5 Doors that swing into an exit access corridor shall be 
arranged to prevent interference with corridor travel. (See also 
7.2.1.4.4.) 

14.2.5.6 Aisles shall be not less than 760 mm (30 in.) wide. 

14.2.5.7 The space between parallel rows of seats shall not be 
subject to the minimum aisle width, provided that the number 
of seats that intervene between any seat and an aisle does not 
exceed six. 

14.2.5.8* Exterior Corridors or Balconies. Exterior exit access 
shall comply with 7.5.3. 

14.2.6 Travel Distance to Exits. 

14.2.6.1 Travel distance to an exit shall not exceed 46 m 
(150 ft) from any point in a building. (See also Section 7.6.) 

14.2.6.2 Travel distance shall not exceed 61 m (200 ft) in 
educational occupancies protected throughout by an ap- 
proved, supervised automatic sprinkler system in accordance 
with Section 9.7. 

14.2.7 Discharge from Exits. Discharge from exits shall be ar- 
ranged in accordance with Section 7.7. 

14.2.8 Ilhunniation of Means of Egress. Means of egress shall 
be illuminated in accordance with Section 7.8. 

14.2.9 Emergency Lighting. Emergency lighting shall be pro- 
vided in accordance with Section 7.9. 

14.2.10 Marking of Means of Egress. Means of egress shall 
have signs in accordance with Section 7.10. 

14.2.11 Special Means of Egress Features. 

14.2.11.1* Windows for Rescue. 

14.2.11.1.1 Every room or space greater than 23.2 m 2 (250 ft 2 ) 
and used for classroom or other educational purposes or nor- 
mally subject to student occupancy shall have not less than one 
outside window for emergency rescue that complies with the fol- 
lowing unless otherwise permitted by 14.2.11.1.2: 

(1) Such windows shall be openable from the inside without 
the use of tools and shall provide a clear opening of not 
less than 510 mm (20 in.) in width, 610 mm (24 in.) in 
height, and 0.5 m 2 (5.7 ft 2 ) in area. 

(2) The bottom of the opening shall be not more than 
1120 mm (44 in.) above the floor, and any latching device 
shall be capable of being operated from not more than 
1370 mm (54 in.) above the finished floor. 



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(3) The clear opening shall allow a rectangular solid, with a 
width and height that provides not less than the required 
0.5-m 2 (5.7-ft ) opening and a depth of not less than 
510 mm (20 in.), to pass fully through the opening. 

(4) Such windows shall be accessible by the fire department 
and shall open into an area having access to a public way. 

14.2.11.1.2 The requirements of 14.2.11.1.1 shall not apply to 
the following: 

(1 ) Buildings protected throughout by an approved, supervised 
automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 9.7 

(2) Where the room or space has a door leading direcdy to 
the outside of the building 

(3) Rooms located higher than three stories above grade 

14.3 Protection. 

14.3.1 Protection of Vertical Openings. 

14.3.1.1 Any vertical opening, other than unprotected verti- 
cal openings in accordance with 8.6.8.2, shall be enclosed or 
protected in accordance with Section 8.6. 

14.3.1.2 Where the provisions of 8.6.6 are used, the require- 
ments of 14.3.5.4 shall be met. 

14.3.2 Protection from Hazards. 

14.3.2.1 Rooms or spaces for the storage, processing, or use of 
materials shall be protected in accordance with the following: 

(1) Separation from the remainder of the building by fire 
barriers having a fire resistance rating of not less than 
1 hour or protection of such rooms by automatic extin- 
guishing systems as specified in Section 8.7 in the follow- 
ing areas: 

(a) Boiler and furnace rooms, unless such rooms enclose 
only air-handling equipment 

(b) Rooms or spaces used for the storage of combustible 
supplies in quantities deemed hazardous by the au- 
thority havingjurisdiction 

(c) Rooms or spaces used for the storage of hazardous ma- 
terials or flammable or combustible liquids in quantities 
deemed hazardous by recognized standards 

(d) Janitor closets (see also 14.3.2.1(4).) 

(2) Separation from the remainder of the building by fire barri- 
ers having a fire resistance rating of not less than 1 hour and 
protection of such rooms by automatic extinguishing sys- 
tems as specified in Section 8.7 in the following areas: 

(a) Laundries 

(b) Maintenance shops, including woodworking and 
painting areas 

(c) Rooms or spaces used for processing or use of com- 
bustible supplies deemed hazardous by the authority 
havingjurisdiction 

(d) Rooms or spaces used for processing or use of hazard- 
ous materials or flammable or combustible liquids in 
quantities deemed hazardous by recognized standards 

(3) Where automatic extinguishing is used to meet the re- 
quirements of 14.3.2.1(1) or (2), the protection shall be 
permitted in accordance with 9.7.1.2. 

(4) Wherejanitor closets addressed in 14.3.2.1 (l)(d) are pro- 
tected in accordance with the sprinkler option of 
14.3.2.1(1), the janitor closet doors shall be permitted to 
have ventilating louvers. 

14.3.2.2 Cooking facilities shall be protected in accordance 
with 9.2.3. Openings shall not be required to be protected 
between food preparation areas and dining areas. 



14.3.2.3 Stages shall be protected in accordance with Chap- 
ter 12. 

14.3.3 Interior Finish. 

14.3.3.1 General. Interior finish shall be in accordance with 
Section 10.2. 

14.3.3.2 Interior Wall and Ceiling Finish. Interior wall and 
ceiling finish materials complying with Section 10.2 shall be 
permitted as follows: 

(1) Exits — Class A 

(2) Other than exits — Class A or Class B 

(3) Low-height partitions not exceeding 1525 mm (60 in.) 
and used in locations other than exits — Class A, Class B, 
or Class C 

14.3.3.3 Interior Floor Finish. 

14.3.3.3.1 Interior floor finish shall comply with Section 10.2. 

14.3.3.3.2 Interior floor finish in exit enclosures and exit ac- 
cess corridors and spaces not separated from them by walls 
complying with 14.3.6 shall be not less than Class II. 

14.3.3.3.3 Interior floor finish shall comply with 10.2.7.1 or 
10.2.7.2 as applicable. 

14.3.4 Detection, Alarm, and Coinmniiinications Systems. 

14.3.4.1 General. 

14.3.4.1.1 Educational occupancies shall be provided with a 
fire alarm system in accordance with Section 9.6. 

14.3.4.1.2 The requirement of 14.3.4.1.1 shall not apply to 
buildings meeting all of the following criteria: 

(1) Buildings having an area not exceeding 93 m 2 (1000 ft 2 ) 

(2) Buildings containing a single classroom 

(3) Buildings located not less than 15 m (50 ft) from another 
building 

14.3.4.2 Initiation. 

14.3.4.2.1 General. Initiation of the required fire alarm sys- 
tem, other than as permitted by 14.3.4.2.3, shall be by manual 
means in accordance with 9.6.2.1(1). 

14.3.4.2.2 Automatic Initiation. In buildings provided with 
automatic sprinkler protection, the operation of the sprinkler 
system shall automatically activate the fire alarm system in ad- 
dition to the initiation means required in 14.3.4.2.1. 

14.3.4.2.3 Alternative Protection System. Manual fire alarm 
boxes shall be permitted to be eliminated in accordance with 
14.3.4.2.3.1 or 14.3.4.2.3.2. 

14.3.4.2.3.1* Manual fire alarm boxes pull stations shall be 
permitted to be eliminated where all of the following condi- 
tions apply: 

( 1 ) Interior corridors are protected by smoke detectors using 
an alarm verification system as described in NFPA 72®, 
National Fire Alarm Code . 

(2) Auditoriums, cafeterias, and gymnasiums, etc., are pro- 
tected by heat or other approved detection devices. 

(3) Shops and laboratories involving dusts or vapors are pro- 
tected by heat or other approved detection devices. 

(4) Provision is made at a central point to manually activate 
the evacuation signal or to evacuate only affected areas. 

14.3.4.2.3.2* Manual fire alarm boxes shall be permitted to be 
eliminated where all of the following conditions apply: 



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(1) The building is protected throughout by an approved, 
supervised automatic sprinkler system in accordance with 
Section 9.7. 

(2) Provision is made at a central point to manually activate 
the evacuation signal, or to evacuate only affected areas. 

14.3.4.3 Notification. 

14.3.4.3.1 Occupant Notification. 

14.3.4.3.1.1* Occupant notification shall be accomplished au- 
tomatically in accordance with 9.6.3. 

14.3.4.3.1.2 Positive alarm sequence shall be permitted in 
accordance with 9.6.3.4. 

14.3.4.3.1.3 Where acceptable to the authority having jurisdic- 
tion, the fire alarm system shall be permitted to be used for other 
emergency signaling or for class changes, provided that the fire 
alarm is distinctive in signal and overrides all other use. 

14.3.4.3.1.4 To prevent students from being returned to a 
building that is burning, the recall signal shall be separate and 
distinct from any other signals, and such signal shall be permitted 
to be given by use of distinctively colored flags or banners. 

14.3.4.3.1.5 If the recall signal required by 14.3.4.3.1.4 is elec- 
tric, the push buttons or other controls shall be kept under 
lock, the key for which shall be in the possession of the princi- 
pal or another designated person in order to prevent a recall 
at a time when there is an actual fire. 

14.3.4.3.1.6 Regardless of the method of recall signal, the 
means of giving the recall signal shall be kept under lock. 

14.3.4.3.2 Emergency Forces Notification. Fire department 
notification shall be accomplished in accordance with 9.6.4. 

14.3.5 Extinguishment Requirements. 

14.3.5.1 Every portion of educational buildings below the 
level of exit discharge shall be protected throughout by an 
approved, supervised automatic sprinkler system in accor- 
dance with Section 9.7. 

14.3.5.2 Reserved. 

14.3.5.3 Reserved. 

14.3.5.4 Buildings with unprotected openings in accordance 
with 8.6.6 shall be protected throughout by an approved, su- 
pervised automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Sec- 
tion 9.7. 

14.3.5.5 Where another provision of this chapter requires an 
automatic sprinkler system, the sprinkler system shall be in- 
stalled in accordance with 9.7.1.1(1). 

14.3.6 Corridors. Corridors shall be separated from other 
parts of the story by walls having a 1-hour fire resistance rating 
in accordance with Section 8.3, unless otherwise permitted by 
the following: 

( 1 ) Corridor protection shall not be required where all spaces 
normally subject to student occupancy have not less than 
one door opening directly to the outside or to an exterior 
exit access balcony or corridor in accordance with 7.5.3. 

(2) In buildings protected throughout by an approved, super- 
vised automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Sec- 
tion 9.7, corridor walls shall not be required to be rated, 
provided that such walls form smoke partitions in accor- 
dance with Section 8.4. 



(3) Where the corridor ceiling is an assembly having a 1-hour 
fire resistance rating where tested as a wall, the corridor walls 
shall be permitted to terminate at the corridor ceiling. 

(4) Lavatories shall not be required to be separated from cor- 
ridors, provided that they are separated from all other 
spaces by walls having not less than a 1-hour fire resistance 
rating in accordance with Section 8.3. 

(5) Lavatories shall not be required to be separated from cor- 
ridors, provided the building is protected throughout by 
an approved, supervised automatic sprinkler system in ac- 
cordance with Section 9.7. 

14.3.7 Subdivision of Building Spaces. 

14.3.7.1 Educational occupancies shall be subdivided into 
compartments by smoke partitions having not less than a 
1-hour fire resistance rating and complying with Section 8.4 
where one or both of the following conditions exist: 

( 1 ) The maximum floor area, including the aggregate area of 
all floors having a common atmosphere, exceeds 2800 m 2 
(30,000 ft 2 ). 

(2) The length or width of the building exceeds 91 m (300 ft). 

14.3.7.2 The requirement of 14.3.7.1 shall not apply to the 
following: 

(1) Where all spaces normally subject to student occupancy 
have not less than one door opening directly to the out- 
side or to an exterior or exit access balcony or corridor in 
accordance with 7.5.3 

(2) Buildings protected throughout by an approved, super- 
vised automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Sec- 
tion 9.7 

14.3.7.3 The area of any smoke compartment required by 
14.3.7.1 shall not exceed 2800 m 2 (30,000 ft 2 ), with no dimen- 
sion exceeding 91 m (300 ft). 

14.4 Special Provisions. 

14.4.1 Limited Access Buildings and Underground Buildings. 
Limited access buildings and underground buildings shall 
comply with Section 11.7. 

14.4.2 High-Rise Buildings. High-rise buildings shall comply 
with Section 11.8. 

14.4.3 Flexible Plan and Open Plan Buildings. 

14.4.3.1 Flexible plan and open plan buildings shall comply 
with the requirements of this chapter as modified by 14.4.3.2 
through 14.4.3.5. 

14.4.3.2 Each room occupied by more than 300 persons shall 
have two or more means of egress entering into separate atmo- 
spheres. 

14.4.3.3 Where three or more means of egress are required, 
the number of means of egress permitted to enter into the 
same atmosphere shall not exceed two. 

14.4.3.4 Flexible plan buildings shall be permitted to have 
walls and partitions rearranged periodically only if revised 
plans or diagrams have been approved by the authority having 
jurisdiction. 

14.4.3.5 Flexible plan buildings shall be evaluated while all 
folding walls are extended and in use as well as when they are 
in the retracted position. 



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14.5 Building Services. 

14.5.1 Utilities. Utilities shall comply with the provisions of 
Section 9.1. 

14.5.2 Heating, Ventilating, and Air Conditioning Equipment. 

14.5.2.1 Heating, ventilating, and air conditioning equip- 
ment shall comply with the provisions of Section 9.2. 

14.5.2.2 Unvented fuel-fired heating equipment, other than 
gas space heaters in compliance with NFPA54/ANSI Z223.1, 
National Fuel Gas Code, shall be prohibited. 

14.5.3 Elevators, Escalators, and Conveyors. Elevators, esca- 
lators, and conveyors shall comply with the provisions of 
Section 9.4. 

14.5.4 Rubbish Chutes, Incinerators, and Laundry Chutes. 
Rubbish chutes, incinerators, and laundry chutes shall comply 
with the provisions of Section 9.5. 

14.6 Reserved. 

14.7 Operating Features. 

14.7.1 Emergency Plan. Emergency plans shall be provided in 
accordance with Section 4.8. 

14.7.2 Emergency Egress and Relocation Drills. 

14.7.2.1* Emergency egress and relocation drills shall be con- 
ducted in accordance with Section 4.7 and the applicable pro- 
visions of 14.7.2.2. 

14.7.2.2 Emergency egress and relocation drills shall be con- 
ducted as follows: 

(1) Not less than one emergency egress and relocation drill 
shall be conducted every month the facility is in session, 
unless both of the following criteria are met: 

(a) In climates where the weather is severe, the monthly 
emergency egress and relocation drills shall be per- 
mitted to be deferred. 

(b) The required number of emergency egress and reloca- 
tion drills shall be conducted, and not less than four 
shall be conducted before the drills are deferred. 

(2) All occupants of the building shall participate in the drill. 

(3) One additional emergency egress and relocation drill, 
other than for educational occupancies that are open on 
a year-round basis, shall be required within the first 
30 days of operation. 

14.7.2.3 All emergency and relocation drill alarms shall be 
sounded on the fire alarm system. 

14.7.3 Inspection. 

14.7.3.1* It shall be the duty of principals and teachers to 
inspect all exit facilities daily to ensure that all stairways, doors, 
and other exits are in proper condition. 

14.7.3.2 Open plan buildings shall require extra surveillance 
to ensure that exit paths are maintained clear of obstruction 
and are obvious. 

14.7.4 Furnishings and Decorations. 

14.7.4.1 Draperies, curtains, and other similar furnishings 
and decorations in educational occupancies shall be in accor- 
dance with the provisions of 10.3.1. 



14.7.4.2 Clothing and personal effects shall not be stored in 
corridors, unless otherwise permitted by the following: 

(1) This requirement shall not apply to corridors protected 
by an automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Sec- 
tion 9.7. 

(2) This requirement shall not apply to corridor areas pro- 
tected by a smoke detection system in accordance with 
Section 9.6. 

(3) This requirement shall not apply to storage in metal lock- 
ers, provided that the required egress width is 
maintained. 

14.7.4.3 Artwork and teaching materials shall be permitted to 
be attached direcdy to the walls in accordance with the following: 

(1) The artwork and teaching materials shall not exceed 
20 percent of the wall area in a building that is not pro- 
tected throughout by an approved, supervised automatic 
sprinkler system in accordance with Section 9.7 

(2) The artwork and teaching materials shall not exceed 
50 percent of the wall area in a building that is protected 
throughout by an approved, supervised automatic sprin- 
kler system in accordance with Section 9.7 

14.7.5 Open Flames. Approved open flames shall be permit- 
ted in laboratories and vocational/technical areas. 



Chapter 15 Existing Educational Occupancies 

15.1 General Requirements. 

15.1.1 Application. 

15.1.1.1 The requirements of this chapter shall apply to exist- 
ing buildings or portions thereof currently occupied as educa- 
tional occupancies. (See also 14.1.1.) 

15.1.1.2 Educational facilities that do not meet the definition of 
an educational occupancy shall not be required to comply with 
this chapter but shall comply with the following requirements: 

( 1 ) Instructional building — business occupancy 

(2) Classrooms under 50 persons — business occupancy 

(3) Classrooms, 50 persons and over — assembly occupancy 

(4) Laboratories, instructional — business occupancy 

(5) Laboratories, noninstructional — industrial 

15.1.2 Multiple Occupancies. 

15.1.2.1 Multiple occupancies shall be in accordance with 
6.1.14. 

15.1.2.2 Assembly and Educational. 

15.1 .2.2. 1 Spaces subject to assembly occupancy shall comply 
with Chapter 13, including 13.1.2, which provides that, where 
auditorium and gymnasium egress lead through corridors or 
stairways also serving as egress for other parts of the building, 
the egress capacity shall be sufficient to allow simultaneous 
egress from auditorium and classroom sections. 

15.1.2.2.2 In the case of an assembly occupancy of a type 
suitable for use only by the school occupant load and there- 
fore not subject to simultaneous occupancy, the same egress 
capacity shall be permitted to serve both sections. 



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15.1.2.3 Dormitory and Classrooms. 

15.1.2.3.1 Any building used for both classroom and dormi- 
tory purposes shall comply with the applicable provisions of 
Chapter 29 in addition to complying with Chapter 15. 

15.1.2.3.2 Where classroom and dormitory sections are not 
subject to simultaneous occupancy, the same egress capacity 
shall be permitted to serve both sections. 

15.1.3 Definitions. A list of terms used in this chapter follows: 

(1) Common Atmosphere. See 3.3.20.1. 

(2) Flexible Plan and Open Plan Educational or Day-Care 
Building. See 3.3.27.6. 

(3) Separate Atmosphere. See 3.3.20.2. 

15.1.4 Classification of Occupancy. See 6.1.3. 

15.1.4.1 Educational occupancies shall include all buildings 
used for educational purposes through the twelfth grade by 
six or more persons for 4 or more hours per day or more than 
12 hours per week. 

15.1.4.2 Educational occupancies shall include part-day pre- 
schools, kindergartens, and other schools whose purpose is 
primarily educational, even though the children who attend 
such schools are of preschool age. 

15.1.4.3 In cases where instruction is incidental to some 
other occupancy, the section of this Code governing such other 
occupancy shall apply. 

15.1.4.4 Other occupancies associated with educational insti- 
tutions shall be in accordance with the appropriate parts of 
this Code. (See Chapter 19, Chapter 21, Chapter 26, Chapter 29, 
Chapter 31, Chapter 40, Chapter 42, and 6.1.14.) 

15.1.5 Classification of Hazard of Contents. The contents of 
educational occupancies shall be classified in accordance with 
the provisions of Section 6.2. 

15.1.6 Minimum Construction Requirements. (No require- 
ments) 

15.1.7 Occupant Load. 

15.1.7.1 The occupant load, in number of persons for whom 
means of egress and other provisions are required, shall be deter- 
mined on the basis of the occupant load factors of Table 7.3.1.2 
that are characteristic of the use of the space or shall be deter- 
mined as the maximum probable population of the space under 
consideration, whichever is greater. 

15.1.7.2 The occupant load of an educational occupancy, or a 
portion thereof, shall be permitted to be modified from that 
specified in 15.1.7.1 if the necessary aisles and exits are provided. 

15.1.7.3 An approved aisle or seating diagram shall be re- 
quired by the authority having jurisdiction to substantiate the 
modification permitted in 15.1.7.2. 

15.2 Means of Egress Requirements. 

15.2.1 General. 

15.2.1.1 Means of egress shall be in accordance with Chapter 7 
and Section 15.2. 

15.2.1.2 Rooms normally occupied by preschool, kindergar- 
ten, or first-grade students shall be located on a level of exit 
discharge, unless otherwise permitted by 15.2.1.4. 



15.2.1.3 Rooms normally occupied by second-grade students 
shall not be located more than one story above a level of exit 
discharge, unless otherwise permitted by 15.2.1.4. 

15.2.1.4 Rooms or areas located on floor levels other than as 
specified in 15.2.1.2 and 15.2.1.3 shall be permitted to be used 
where provided with independent means of egress dedicated 
for use by the preschool, kindergarten, first-grade, or second- 
grade students. 

15.2.2 Means of Egress Components. 

15.2.2.1 Components of means of egress shall be limited to 
the types described in 15.2.2.2 through 15.2.2.10. 

15.2.2.2 Doors. 

15.2.2.2.1 Doors complying with 7.2.1 shall be permitted. 

15.2.2.2.2 Any required exit door subject to use by 100 or 
more persons shall be permitted to be provided with a latch or 
lock only if the latch or lock is panic hardware or fire exit 
hardware complying with 7.2.1.7. 

15.2.2.2.3 Special locking arrangements complying with 
7.2.1.6 shall be permitted. 

15.2.2.3* Stairs. 

15.2.2.3.1 Stairs complying with 7.2.2 shall be permitted. 

15.2.2.3.2 Existing Class A stairs shall be permitted. 

15.2.2.3.3 Existing Class B stairs shall be permitted where not 
used for student access. 

15.2.2.4 Smokeproof Enclosures. Smokeproof enclosures 
complying with 7.2.3 shall be permitted. 

15.2.2.5 Horizontal Exits. Horizontal exits complying with 
7.2.4 shall be permitted. 

15.2.2.6 Ramps. Ramps complying with 7.2.5 shall be per- 
mitted. 

15.2.2.7 Exit Passageways. Exit passageways complying with 
7.2.6 shall be permitted. 

15.2.2.8 Fire Escape Ladders. Fire escape ladders complying 
with 7.2.9 shall be permitted. 

15.2.2.9 Alternating Tread Devices. Alternating tread devices 
complying with 7.2.11 shall be permitted. 

15.2.2.10 Areas of Refuge. Areas of refuge complying with 
7.2.12 shall be permitted. 

15.2.3 Capacity of Means of Egress. 

15.2.3.1 Capacity of means of egress shall be in accordance 
with Section 7.3. 

15.2.3.2 Minimum Corridor Width. Exit access corridors shall 
have not less than 1830 mm (72 in.) of clear width. 

15.2.4 Number of Exits. Not less than two separate exits shall 
be as follows: 

(1) Provided on every story 

(2) Accessible from every part of every story and mezzanine 

15.2.5 Arrangement of Means of Egress. 

15.2.5.1 Means of egress shall be arranged in accordance 
with Section 7.5. 

15.2.5.2 No dead-end corridor shall exceed 6100 mm 
(240 in.) , other than in buildings protected throughout by an 



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approved, supervised automatic sprinkler system in accor- 
dance with Section 9.7, in which case dead-end corridors shall 
not exceed 15 m (50 ft). 

15.2.5.3 No common path of travel shall exceed 23 m (75 ft) , 
other than for the first 30 m (100 ft ) in a building protected 
throughout by an approved, supervised automatic sprinkler 
system in accordance with Section 9.7. 

15.2.5.4 Every room that is normally subject to student oc- 
cupancy shall have an exit access door leading directly to an 
exit access corridor or exit, unless otherwise permitted by 
the following: 

(1) This requirement shall not apply where an exit door 
opens directly to the outside or to an exterior balcony or 
corridor as described in 15.2.5.8. 

(2) One room shall be permitted to intervene between a nor- 
mally occupied student room and an exit access corridor, 
provided that all of the following criteria are met: 

(a) The travel from a room served by an intervening 
room to the corridor door or exit shall not exceed 
23 m (75 ft). 

(b) Clothing, personal effects, or other materials deemed 
hazardous by the authority having jurisdiction shall 
be stored in metal lockers, provided that they do not 
obstruct the exit access, or the intervening room shall 
be sprinklered in accordance with Section 9.7. 

(c) One of the following means of protection shall be 
provided: 

i. The intervening room shall have approved fire 

detection that activates the building alarm, 
ii. The building shall be protected by an approved 
automatic sprinkler system in accordance with 
Section 9.7. 

(3) Approved existing arrangements shall be permitted to 
continue in use. 

15.2.5.5 Doors that swing into an exit access corridor shall be 
arranged to prevent interference with corridor travel. (See also 
7.2.1.4.4.) 

15.2.5.6 Aisles shall be not less than 760 mm (30 in.) wide. 

15.2.5.7 The space between parallel rows of seats shall not be 
subject to the minimum aisle width, provided that the number 
of seats that intervene between any seat and an aisle does not 
exceed six. 

15.2.5.8* Exterior Corridors or Balconies. Exterior exit access 
shall comply with 7.5.3. 

15.2.6 Travel Distance to Exits. 

15.2.6.1 Travel distance to an exit shall not exceed 46 m 
(150 ft ) from any point in a building, unless otherwise permit- 
ted by 15.2.6.2 or 15.2.6.3 (see also Section 7.6). 

15.2.6.2 Travel distance shall not exceed 61 m (200 ft) in edu- 
cational occupancies protected throughout by an approved auto- 
matic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 9.7. 

15.2.6.3 Approved existing travel distances shall be permit- 
ted to continue in use. 

15.2.7 Discharge from Exits. Discharge from exits shall be ar- 
ranged in accordance with Section 7.7. 



15.2.8 Illumination of Means of Egress. Means of egress shall 
be illuminated in accordance with Section 7.8. 

15.2.9 Emergency Lighting. 

15.2.9.1 Emergency lighting shall be provided in accordance 
with Section 7.9 unless otherwise permitted by 15.2.9.2. 

15.2.9.2 Approved existing emergency lighting installations 
shall be permitted to be continued in use. 

15.2.10 Marking of Means of Egress. Means of egress shall 
have signs in accordance with Section 7.10. 

15.2.11 Special Means of Egress Features. 
15.2.11.1* "Windows for Rescue. 

15.2.11.1.1 Every room or space greater than 23.2 m 2 (250 ft 2 ) 
and used for classroom or other educational purposes or nor- 
mally subject to student occupancy shall have not less than one 
outside window for emergency rescue that complies with the fol- 
lowing, unless otherwise permitted by 15.2.11.1.2: 

(1) Such windows shall be openable from the inside without 
the use of tools and shall provide a clear opening of not 
less than 510 mm (20 in.) in width, 610 mm (24 in.) in 
height, and 0.5 m 2 (5.7 ft 2 ) in area. 

(2) The bottom of the opening shall be not more than 
1120 mm (44 in.) above the floor, and any latching device 
shall be capable of being operated from not more than 
1370 mm (54 in.) above the finished floor. 

(3) The clear opening shall allow a rectangular solid, with a 
width and height that provides not less than the required 
0.5-m 2 (5.7-ft ) opening and a depth of not less than 
510 mm (20 in.), to pass fully through the opening. 

15.2.11.1.2 The requirements of 15.2.11.1.1 shall not apply to 
the following: 

(1) Buildings protected throughout by an approved auto- 
matic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 9.7. 

(2) Where the room or space has a door leading directly to 
the outside of the building. 

(3) Rooms located higher than three stories above grade. 

(4) Where awning-type or hopper-type windows that are hinged 
or subdivided to provide a clear opening of not less than 
0.38 m 2 (4 ft 2 ) or any dimension of not less than 560 mm 
(22 in.), the following shall apply: 

(a) Such windows shall be permitted to continue in use. 

(b) Screen walls or devices located in front of required 
windows shall not interfere with rescue requirements. 

(5) Where the room or space complies with the following: 

(a) Doors shall exist that allow travel between adjacent 
classrooms. 

(b) Where doors are used to travel from classroom to 
classroom, they shall provide one of the following: 

i. Direct access to exits in both directions 
ii. Direct access to an exit in one direction and to a 
separate smoke compartment that provides ac- 
cess to another exit in the other direction 

(c) The corridor shall be separated from the classrooms 
by a wall that resists the passage of smoke, and all 
doors between the classrooms and the corridor shall 
be self-closing or automatic-closing in accordance 
with 7.2.1.8. 

(d) The length of travel to exits along such paths shall not 
exceed 46 m (150 ft). 



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(e) Each communicating door shall be marked in accor- 
dance with Section 7.10. 

(f) No locking device shall be permitted on the commu- 
nicating doors. 

15.3 Protection. 

15.3.1 Protection off Vertical Openings. 

15.3.1.1 Any vertical opening, other than unprotected verti- 
cal openings in accordance with 8.6.8.2, shall be enclosed or 
protected in accordance with Section 8.6. 

15.3.1.2 Where the provisions of 8.6.6 are used, the require- 
ments of 15.3.5.2 shall be met. 

15.3.1.3 Stairway enclosures shall not be required under the 
following conditions: 

(1) Where a stairway serves only one adjacent floor, other 
than a basement 

(2) Where a stairway is not connected with stairways serving 
other floors 

(3) Where a stairway is not connected with corridors serving 
other than the two floors involved 

15.3.2 Protection from Hazards. 

15.3.2.1 Rooms or spaces for the storage, processing, or use of 
materials shall be protected in accordance with the following: 

( 1 ) Separation from the remainder of the building by fire barri- 
ers having a fire resistance rating of not less than 1 hour or 
protection of such rooms by automatic extinguishing sys- 
tems as specified in Section 8.7 in the following areas: 

(a) Boiler and furnace rooms, unless such rooms enclose 
only air-handling equipment 

(b) Rooms or spaces used for the storage of combustible 
supplies in quantities deemed hazardous by the au- 
thority having jurisdiction 

(c) Rooms or spaces used for the storage of hazardous ma- 
terials or flammable or combustible liquids in quantities 
deemed hazardous by recognized standards 

(d) Janitor closets [see also 15.3.2.1(4)] 

(2) Separation from the remainder of the building by fire 
barriers having a fire resistance rating of not less than 
1 hour and protection of such rooms by automatic extin- 
guishing systems as specified in Section 8.7 in the follow- 
ing areas: 

(a) Laundries 

(b) Maintenance shops, including woodworking and 
painting areas 

(c) Rooms or spaces used for processing or use of com- 
bustible supplies deemed hazardous by the authority 
having jurisdiction 

(d) Rooms or spaces used for processing or use of hazard- 
ous materials or flammable or combustible liquids in 
quantities deemed hazardous by recognized standards 

(3) Where automatic extinguishing is used to meet the re- 
quirements of 15.3.2.1(1) or 15.3.2.1(2), the protection 
shall be permitted in accordance with 9.7.1.2. 

(4) Where janitor closets addressed in 15.3.2.1 (1) (d) are pro- 
tected in accordance with the sprinkler option of 
15.3.2.1(1), the janitor closet doors shall be permitted to 
have ventilating louvers. 

15.3.2.2 Cooking facilities shall be protected in accordance 
with 9.2.3. Openings shall not be required to be protected 
between food preparation areas and dining areas. 



15.3.2.3 Stages shall be protected in accordance with Chap- 
ter 13. 

15.3.3 Interior Finish. 

15.3.3.1 General. Interior finish shall be in accordance with 
Section 10.2. 

15.3.3.2 Interior Wall and Ceiling Finish. Interior wall and 
ceiling finish materials complying with Section 10.2 shall be 
permitted as follows: 

(1) Exits — Class A 

(2) Corridors and lobbies — Class A or Class B 

(3) Low-height partitions not exceeding 1525 mm (60 in.) 
and used in locations other than exits — Class A, Class B, 
or Class C 

15.3.3.3 Interior Floor Finish. (No requirements.) 

15.3.4 Detection, Alarum, and Connniieiications Systems. 

15.3.4.1 General. 

15.3.4.1.1 Educational occupancies shall be provided with a 
fire alarm system in accordance with Section 9.6. 

15.3.4.1.2 The requirement of 15.3.4.1.1 shall not apply to 
buildings meeting all of the following criteria: 

(1) Buildings having an area not exceeding 93 m 2 (1000 ft 2 ) 

(2) Buildings containing a single classroom 

(3) Buildings located not less than 15 m (50 ft) from another 
building 

15.3.4.2 Initiation. 

15.3.4.2.1 General. Initiation of the required fire alarm sys- 
tem shall be by manual means in accordance with 9.6.2.1 (1), 
unless otherwise permitted by the following: 

(1) Manual fire alarm boxes shall not be required where per- 
mitted by 15.3.4.2.3. 

(2) In buildings where all normally occupied spaces are pro- 
vided with a two-way communication system between such 
spaces and a constandy attended receiving station from 
where a general evacuation alarm can be sounded, the 
manual fire alarm boxes shall not be required, except in 
locations specifically designated by the authority having 
jurisdiction. 

15.3.4.2.2 Automatic Initiation. In buildings provided with 
automatic sprinkler protection, the operation of the sprinkler 
system shall automatically activate the fire alarm system in ad- 
dition to the initiation means required in 15.3.4.2.1. 

15.3.4.2.3 Alternative Protection System. Manual fire alarm 
boxes shall be permitted to be eliminated in accordance with 
15.3.4.2.3.1 or 15.3.4.2.3.2. 

15.3.4.2.3.1* Manual fire alarm boxes shall be permitted to be 
eliminated where all of the following conditions apply: 

(1) Interior corridors are protected by smoke detectors using 
an alarm verification system as described in NFPA 72®, 
National Fire Alarm Code®. 

(2) Auditoriums, cafeterias, and gymnasiums are protected 
by heat or other approved detection devices. 

(3) Shops and laboratories involving dusts or vapors are pro- 
tected by heat or other approved detection devices. 

(4) Provision is made at a central point to manually activate 
the evacuation signal or to evacuate only affected areas. 



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15.3.4.2.3.2* Manual fire alarm boxes shall be permitted to be 
eliminated where all of the following conditions apply: 

(1) The building is protected throughout by an approved, 
supervised automatic sprinkler system in accordance with 
Section 9.7. 

(2) Provision is made at a central point to manually activate 
the evacuation signal, or to evacuate only affected areas. 

15.3.4.3 Notification. 

15.3.4.3.1 Occupant Notification. 

15.3.4.3.1.1* Occupant notification shall be accomplished au- 
tomatically in accordance with 9.6.3. 

15.3.4.3.1.2 Positive alarm sequence shall be permitted in 
accordance with 9.6.3.4. 

15.3.4.3.1.3 Where acceptable to the authority havingjurisdic- 
tion, the fire alarm system shall be permitted to be used for other 
emergency signaling or for class changes, provided that the fire 
alarm is distinctive in signal and overrides all other use. 

15.3.4.3.1.4 To prevent students from being returned to a 
building that is burning, the recall signal shall be separate and 
distinct from any other signals and such signal shall be permit- 
ted to be given by use of distinctively colored flags or banners. 

15.3.4.3.1.5 If the recall signal required by 15.3.4.3.1.4 is elec- 
tric, the push buttons or other controls shall be kept under 
lock, the key for which shall be in the possession of the princi- 
pal or another designated person in order to prevent a recall 
at a time when there is an actual fire. 

15.3.4.3.1.6 Regardless of the method of recall signal, the 
means of giving the recall signal shall be kept under lock. 

15.3.4.3.2 Emergency Forces Notification. Wherever any of 
the school authorities determine that an actual fire exists, they 
shall immediately call the local fire department using the pub- 
lic fire alarm system or other available facilities. 

15.3.5 Extinguishment Requirements. 

15.3.5.1 Where student occupancy exists below the level of 
exit discharge, every portion of such floor shall be protected 
throughout by an approved automatic sprinkler system in ac- 
cordance with Section 9.7. 

15.3.5.2 Where student occupancy does not exist on floors 
below the level of exit discharge, such floors shall be separated 
from the rest of the building by 1-hour fire resistance-rated 
construction or shall be protected throughout by an approved 
automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 9.7. 

15.3.5.3 Automatic sprinkler protection shall not be required 
where student occupancy exists below the level of exit dis- 
charge, provided that both of the following criteria are met: 

( 1 ) The approval of the authority having jurisdiction shall be 
required. 

(2) Windows for rescue and ventilation shall be provided in 
accordance with 15.2.11.1. 

15.3.5.4 Buildings with unprotected openings in accordance 
with 8.6.6 shall be protected throughout by an approved, super- 
vised automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 9.7. 

15.3.5.5 Where another provision of this chapter requires an 
automatic sprinkler system, the sprinkler system shall be in- 
stalled in accordance with 9.7.1.1(1). 



15.3.6 Corridors. Corridors shall be separated from other 
parts of the story by walls having a Vi-hour fire resistance rating 
in accordance with Section 8.3, unless otherwise permitted by 
the following. 

( 1 ) Corridor protection shall not be required where all spaces 
normally subject to student occupancy have not less than 
one door opening directly to the outside or to an exterior 
exit access balcony or corridor in accordance with 7.5.3. 

(2)*In buildings protected throughout by an approved auto- 
matic sprinkler system with valve supervision in accor- 
dance with Section 9.7, corridor walls shall not be re- 
quired to be rated, provided that such walls form smoke 
partitions in accordance with Section 8.4. 

(3) Where the corridor ceiling is an assembly having a V4-hour 
fire resistance rating where tested as a wall, the corridor wall 
shall be permitted to terminate at the corridor ceiling. 

(4) Lavatories shall not be required to be separated from cor- 
ridors, provided that they are separated from all other 
spaces by walls having not less than a V^-hour fire resis- 
tance rating in accordance with Section 8.3. 

(5) Lavatories shall not be required to be separated from cor- 
ridors, provided the building is protected throughout by 
an approved, supervised automatic sprinkler system in ac- 
cordance with Section 9.7. 

(6) Existing doors in Vfc-hour fire resistance-rated corridor 
walls shall be permitted to be 44-mm (134-in.) thick solid- 
bonded wood core doors or the equivalent. 

15.3.7 Subdivision of Building Spaces. 

15.3.7.1 Educational occupancies shall be subdivided into 
compartments by smoke partitions having not less than a 
1-hour fire resistance rating and complying with Section 8.4 
where one or both of the following conditions exist: 

(1) The maximum area of a compartment, including the ag- 
gregate area of all floors having a common atmosphere, 
exceeds 2800 m 2 (30,000 ft 2 ). 

(2) The length or width of the building exceeds 91 m (300 ft). 

15.3.7.2 The requirements of 15.3.7.1 shall not apply to the 
following: 

(1) Where all classrooms have exterior exit access in accor- 
dance with 7.5.3. 

(2) Buildings protected throughout by an approved auto- 
matic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 9.7 

15.3.7.3 The area of any smoke compartment required by 
15.3.7.1 shall not exceed 2800 m 2 (30,000 ft 2 ), with no dimen- 
sion exceeding 91 m (300 ft). 

15.4 Special Provisions. 

15.4.1 Limited Access Buildings and Underground Buildings. 
Limited access buildings and underground buildings shall 
comply with Section 11.7. 

15.4.2 High-Rise Buildings. High-rise buildings shall comply 
with 11.8.2.1. 

15.4.3 Flexible Plan and Open Plan Buildings. 

15.4.3.1 Flexible plan and open plan buildings shall comply 
with the requirements of this chapter as modified by 15.4.3.2 
through 15.4.3.5. 

15.4.3.2 Each room occupied by more than 300 persons 
shall have two or more means of egress entering into sepa- 
rate atmospheres. 



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15.4.3.3 Where three or more means of egress are required, 
the number of means of egress permitted to enter into the 
same atmosphere shall not exceed two. 

15.4.3.4 Flexible plan buildings shall be permitted to have 
walls and partitions rearranged periodically only if revised 
plans or diagrams have been approved by the authority having 
jurisdiction. 

15.4.3.5 Flexible plan buildings shall be evaluated while all 
folding walls are extended and in use as well as when they are 
in the retracted position. 

15.5 Building Services. 

15.5.1 Utilities. Utilities shall comply with the provisions of 
Section 9.1. 

15.5.2 Heating, Ventilating, and Air Conditioning Equipment. 

15.5.2.1 Heating, ventilating, and air conditioning equip- 
ment shall comply with the provisions of Section 9.2. 

15.5.2.2 Unvented fuel-fired heating equipment, other than 
gas space heaters in compliance with NFPA54/ANSI Z223.1, 
National Fuel Gas Code, shall be prohibited. 

15.5.3 Elevators, Escalators, and Conveyors. Elevators, es- 
calators, and conveyors shall comply with the provisions of 
Section 9.4. 

15.5.4 Rubbish Chutes, Incinerators, and Laundry Chutes. 
Rubbish chutes, incinerators, and laundry chutes shall comply 
with the provisions of Section 9.5. 

15.6 Reserved. 

15.7 Operating Features. 

15.7.1 Emergency Plan. Emergency plans shall be provided in 
accordance with Section 4.8. 

15.7.2 Emergency Egress and Relocation Drills. 

15.7.2.1* Emergency egress and relocation drills shall be con- 
ducted in accordance with Section 4.7 and the applicable pro- 
visions of 15.7.2.2. 

15.7.2.2 Emergency egress and relocation drills shall be con- 
ducted as follows: 

(1) Not less than one emergency egress and relocation drill 
shall be conducted every month the facility is in session, 
unless both of the following criteria are met: 

(a) In climates where the weather is severe, the monthly 
emergency egress and relocation drills shall be per- 
mitted to be deferred. 

(b) The required number of emergency egress and reloca- 
tion drills shall be conducted, and not less than four 
shall be conducted before the drills are deferred. 

(2) All occupants of the building shall participate in the drill. 

(3) One additional emergency egress and relocation drill, other 
than for educational occupancies that are open on a year- 
round basis, shall be required within the first 30 days of 
operation. 

15.7.2.3 All emergency and relocation drill alarms shall be 
sounded on the fire alarm system. 

15.7.3 Inspection. 

15.7.3.1* It shall be the duty of principals and teachers to 
inspect all exit facilities daily to ensure that all stairways, doors, 
and other exits are in proper condition. 



15.7.3.2 Open plan buildings shall require extra surveillance 
to ensure that exit paths are maintained clear of obstruction 
and are obvious. 

15.7.4 Furnishings and Decorations. 

15.7.4.1 Draperies, curtains, and other similar furnishings 
and decorations in educational occupancies shall be in accor- 
dance with the provisions of 10.3.1. 

15.7.4.2 Clothing and personal effects shall not be stored in 
corridors, unless otherwise permitted by the following: 

(1) This requirement shall not apply to corridors protected 
by an automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Sec- 
tion 9.7. 

(2) This requirement shall not apply to corridor areas pro- 
tected by a smoke detection system in accordance with 
Section 9.6. 

(3) This requirement shall not apply to storage in metal lockers, 
provided that the required egress width is maintained. 

15.7.4.3 Artwork and teaching materials shall be permitted to 
be attached directly to the walls in accordance with the following: 

(1) The artwork and teaching materials shall not exceed 
20 percent of the wall area in a building that is not pro- 
tected throughout by an approved automatic sprinkler 
system in accordance with Section 9.7. 

(2) The artwork and teaching materials shall not exceed 
50 percent of the wall area in a building that is protected 
throughout by an approved automatic sprinkler system in 
accordance with Section 9.7. 

15.7.5 Open Flames. Approved open flames shall be permit- 
ted in laboratories and vocational/ technical areas. 



Clhapter 16 New Day-Care Occupancies 

16.1 General Requirements. 
16.1.1* Application. 

16.1.1.1 The requirements of this chapter shall apply to the 
following: 

(1) New buildings or portions thereof used as day-care occu- 
pancies (see 1.3.1) 

(2) Additions made to, or used as, a day-care occupancy (see 
4.6.7) 

(3) Alterations, modernizations, or renovations of existing 
day-care occupancies (see 4.6.8) 

(4) Existing buildings or portions thereof upon change of oc- 
cupancy to a day-care occupancy (see 4.6.12) 

16.1.1.2 The requirements of Section 16.1 through Section 
16.5 and Section 16.7 shall apply to day-care occupancies in 
which more than 12 clients receive care, maintenance, and 
supervision by other than their relative (s) or legal guardian (s) 
for less than 24 hours per day. 

16.1.1.3 The requirements of Section 16.1 (other than 
16.1.6) and Section 16.4 through Section 16.7 shall apply to 
day-care homes as defined in 16.1.3. 

16.1.1.4 Where a facility houses more than one age group or 
self-preservation capability, the strictest requirements applicable 
to any group present shall apply throughout the day-care occu- 
pancy or building, as appropriate to a given area, unless the area 
housing such a group is maintained as a separate fire area. 



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16.1.1.5 Places of religious worship shall not be required to 
meet the provisions of this chapter where providing day care 
while services are being held in the building. 

16.1.2 Multiple Occupancies. 



Table 16.1.6.1 Location and Construction Type Limitations 



16.1.2.1 
6.1.14. 



Multiple occupancies shall be in accordance with 



16.1.2.2 Where the mixed occupancies provisions of 6.1.14.3 
are utilized, the following provisions shall also apply: 

(1) General. The day-care occupancy shall be separated from 
the other occupancies by not less than 1-hour fire 
resistance-rated barriers constructed in accordance with 
Section 8.3. 

(2) Day-Care Occupancies in Apartment Buildings. If the two 
exit accesses from a day-care occupancy enter the same 
corridor as an apartment occupancy, the exit accesses 
shall be separated in the corridor by a smoke partition 
complying with both of the following: 

(a) Having not less than a 1-hour fire resistance rating 
and constructed in accordance with Section 8.4 

(b) Located so that it has an exit on each side 

16.1.3 Definitions. A list of terms used in this chapter follows: 

(1) Day-Care Home. See 3.3.110.1. 

(2) Flexible Han and Open Plan Educational or Day-Care 
Building. See 3.3.27.6. 

(3) Self-Preservation (Day-Care Occupancy). See 3.3.191. 

(4) Separate Atmosphere. See 3.3.20.2. 

16.1.4 Classification of Occupancy. See 6.1.4. 

16.1.4.1 General. Occupancies that include part-day pre- 
schools, kindergartens, and other schools whose purpose is 
primarily educational, even though the children who attend 
such schools are of preschool age, shall comply with the provi- 
sions of Chapter 14. 

16.1.4.2 Adult-Day-Care Occupancies. 

16.1.4.2.1 Adult day-care occupancies shall include any 
building or portion thereof used for less than 24 hours per day 
to house more than three adults requiring care, maintenance, 
and supervision by other than their relative (s). 

16.1.4.2.2 Clients in adult day-care occupancies shall be am- 
bulatory or semiambulatory and shall not be bedridden. 

16.1.4.2.3 Clients in adult day-care occupancies shall not ex- 
hibit behavior that is harmful to themselves or to others. 

16.1.4.3* Conversions. A conversion from a day-care home to 
a day-care occupancy with more than 12 clients shall be per- 
mitted only if the day-care occupancy conforms to the require- 
ments of this chapter for new day-care occupancies with more 
than 12 clients. 

16.1.5 Classification of Hazard of Contents. The contents of 
day-care occupancies shall be classified as ordinary hazard in 
accordance with Section 6.2. 

16.1.6 Location and Construction. 

16.1.6.1 Day-care occupancies, other than day-care homes, 
shall be limited to the locations, construction types, and sprin- 
kler protection features specified in Table 16.1.6.1. 

16.1.6.2 Where day-care occupancies, other than day-care 
homes, with clients who are 24 months or less in age or who are 
incapable of self-preservation are located one or more stories 



Location of 

Day-Care 

Occupancy 



Sprinklered 
Building 



Construction 
Type 



1 story below LED 



Yes 



No 



1(443), 1(332), 

11(222), 11(111), 

11(000), 111(211), 

IV(2HH),or 

V(lll) 

Not permitted 



Level of exit 
discharge 



Yes 

No 



Any type 
Any type 



1 story above LED 



Yes 

No 



Any type 
1(443), 1(332), 
11(222) 



2 or 3 stories above 
LED 



Yes 



1(443), 1(332), 
11(222), 11(111), 
11(000), 111(211), 
orV(lll) 





No 


Not permitted 


>3 stories above 
LED but not 
high-rise 


Yes 

No 


1(443), 1(332), 
11(222), or 11(111) 
Not permitted 


High-rise 


Yes 

No 


1(443), 1(332), or 

11(222) 

Not permitted 



LED: Level of exit discharge. 



above the level of exit discharge, or where day-care occupancies 
are located two or more stories above the level of exit discharge, 
smoke partitions shall be provided to divide such stories into not 
less than two compartments. The smoke partitions shall be con- 
structed in accordance with Section 8.4 but shall not be required 
to have a fire resistance rating. 

16.1.7 Occupant Load. 

16.1.7.1 The occupant load, in number of persons for whom 
means of egress and other provisions are required, either shall 
be determined on the basis of the occupant load factors of 
Table 7.3.1.2 that are characteristic of the use of the space or 
shall be determined as the maximum probable population of 
the space under consideration, whichever is greater. 

16.1.7.2 Where the occupant load is determined as the maxi- 
mum probable population of the space in accordance with 
16.1.7.1, an approved aisle, seating, and exiting diagram shall 
be required by the authority having jurisdiction to substanti- 
ate such a modification. 

16.2 Means of Egress Requirements. 

16.2.1 General. Means of egress shall be in accordance with 
Chapter 7 and Section 16.2. 

16.2.2 Means of Egress Components. 

16.2.2.1 General. Components of means of egress shall be 
limited to the types described in 16.2.2.2 through 16.2.2.10. 



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16.2.2.2 Doors. 

16.2.2.2.1 General. Doors complying with 7.2.1 shall be per- 
mitted. 

16.2.2.2.2 Panic Hardware or Fire Exit Hardware. Any door in 
a required means of egress from an area having an occupant 
load of 100 or more persons shall be permitted to be provided 
with a latch or lock only if the latch or lock is panic hardware 
or fire exit hardware complying with 7.2.1.7. 

16.2.2.2.3 Special LocMng Arrangements. Special locking ar- 
rangements complying with 7.2.1.6 shall be permitted. 

16.2.2.2.4* Closet Boors. Every closet door latch shall be such 
that clients can open the door from inside the closet. 

16.2.2.2.5 Bathroom Doors. Every bathroom door lock shall 
be designed to allow opening of the locked door from the 
outside by an opening device that shall be readily accessible to 
the staff. 

16.2.2.3* Stairs. Stairs complying with 7.2.2 shall be permitted. 

16.2.2.4 Sinokeproof Enclosures. Smokeproof enclosures 
complying with 7.2.3 shall be permitted. 

16.2.2.5 Horizontal Exits. Horizontal exits complying with 
7.2.4 shall be permitted. 

16.2.2.6 Ramps. Ramps complying with 7.2.5 shall be per- 
mitted. 

16.2.2.7 Exit Passageways. Exit passageways complying with 
7.2.6 shall be permitted. 

16.2.2.8 Fire Escape Ladders. Fire escape ladders complying 
with 7.2.9 shall be permitted. 

16.2.2.9 Alternating Tread Devices. Alternating tread devices 
complying with 7.2.11 shall be permitted. 

16.2.2.10 Areas of Refuge. Areas of refuge complying with 
7.2.12 shall be permitted. 

16.2.3 Capacity of Means of Egress. Capacity of means of 
egress shall be in accordance with Section 7.3. 

16.2.4 Number of Exits. Not less than two separate exits shall 
be as follows: 

(1 ) Provided on every story 

(2) Accessible from every part of every story and mezzanine 

16.2.5 Arrangement of Means of Egress. See also 16.1.6.2. 

16.2.5.1 Means of egress shall be arranged in accordance 
with Section 7.5. 

16.2.5.2 No dead-end corridor shall exceed 6100 mm 
(240 in.), other than in buildings protected throughout by an 
approved, supervised automatic sprinkler system in accor- 
dance with Section 9.7, in which case dead-end corridors shall 
not exceed 15 m (50 ft). 

16.2.5.3 No common path of travel shall exceed 23 m (75 ft), 
other than for the first 30 m (100 ft) in a building protected 
throughout by an approved, supervised automatic sprinkler 
system in accordance with Secdon 9.7. 

16.2.6 Travel Distance to Exits. 

16.2.6.1 Travel distance shall be measured in accordance 
with Section 7.6. 



16.2.6.2 Travel distance shall meet the following criteria un- 
less otherwise permitted by 16.2.6.3: 

( 1 ) The travel distance between any room door intended as 
an exit access and an exit shall not exceed 30 m (100 ft). 

(2) The travel distance between any point in a room and an 
exit shall not exceed 46 m (150 ft) . 

(3) The travel distance between any point in a sleeping room 
and an exit access door in that room shall not exceed 15 m 
(50 ft). 

16.2.6.3 The travel distance required by 16.2.6.2(1) and 
16.2.6.2(2) shall be permitted to be increased by 15 m (50 ft) 
in buildings protected throughout by an approved, supervised 
automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 9.7. 

16.2.7 Discharge from Exits. Discharge from exits shall be ar- 
ranged in accordance with Section 7.7. 

16.2.8 ffluinminatiom of Means of Egress. Means of egress shall 
be illuminated in accordance with Section 7.8. 

16.2.9 Emergency Lighting. Emergency lighting shall be pro- 
vided in accordance with Section 7.9 in the following areas: 

( 1 ) Interior stairs and corridors 

(2) Assembly use spaces 

(3) Flexible and open plan buildings 

(4) Interior or limited access portions of buildings 

(5) Shops and laboratories 

16.2.10 Marking of Means of Egress. Means of egress shall 
have signs in accordance with Secdon 7.10. 

16.2.11 Special Means of Egress Features. 
16.2.11.1 Windows for Rescue. 

16.2.11. 1.1 Every room or space normally subject to client 
occupancy, other than bathrooms, shall have not less than one 
outside window for emergency rescue that complies with the 
following unless otherwise permitted by 16.2.11.1.2: 

(1) Such windows shall be openable from the inside without 
the use of tools and shall provide a clear opening of not 
less than 510 mm (20 in.) in width, 610 mm (24 in.) in 
height, and 0.5 m 2 (5.7 ft 2 ) in area. 

(2) The bottom of the opening shall be not more than 
1120 mm (44 in.) above the floor. 

(3) The clear opening shall allow a rectangular solid, with a 
width and height that provides not less than the required 
0.5-m 2 (5.7-ft ) opening and a depth of not less than 
510 mm (20 in.), to pass fully through the opening. 

16.2.11.1.2 The requirements of 16.2.11.1.1 shall not apply to 
the following: 

(1) Buildings protected throughout by an approved, super- 
vised automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Sec- 
tion 9.7 

(2) Where the room or space has a door leading directly to 
the outside of the building 

16.3 Protection. 

16.3.1 Protection of Vertical Openings. Any vertical opening, 
other than unprotected vertical openings in accordance with 
8.6.8.2, shall be enclosed or protected in accordance with Sec- 
tion 8.6. 

16.3.2 Protection from Hazards. 



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16.3.2.1 Rooms or spaces for the storage, processing, or use 
of materials specified in 16.3.2.1(1) through 16.3.2.1(3) shall 
be protected in accordance with the following: 

( 1 ) Separation from the remainder of the building by fire barri- 
ers having a fire resistance rating of not less than 1 hour, or 
protection of such rooms by automatic extinguishing sys- 
tems as specified in Section 8.7, in the following areas: 

(a) Boiler and furnace rooms, unless such rooms enclose 
only air-handling equipment 

(b) Rooms or spaces used for the storage of combustible 
supplies in quantities deemed hazardous by the au- 
thority having jurisdiction 

(c) Rooms or spaces used for the storage of hazardous ma- 
terials or flammable or combustible liquids in quantities 
deemed hazardous by recognized standards 

(d) Janitor closets 

(2) Separation from the remainder of the building by fire barri- 
ers having a fire resistance rating of not less than 1 hour and 
protection of such rooms by automatic extinguishing sys- 
tems as specified in Section 8.7 in the following areas: 
(a)*Laundries 

(b) Maintenance shops, including woodworking and 
painting areas 

(c) Rooms or spaces used for processing or use of com- 
bustible supplies deemed hazardous by the authority 
having jurisdiction 

(d) Rooms or spaces used for processing or use of hazard- 
ous materials or flammable or combustible liquids in 
quantities deemed hazardous by recognized standards 

(3) Where automatic extinguishing is used to meet the re- 
quirements of 16.3.2.1(1) and 16.3.2.1(2), the protection 
shall be permitted in accordance with 9.7.1.2. 

16.3.2.2 Janitor closets protected in accordance with 
16.3.2.1(1) (d) shall be permitted to have doors fitted with 
ventilating louvers where the space is protected by auto- 
matic sprinklers. 

16.3.2.3 Cooking facilities shall be protected in accordance 
with 9.2.3 unless otherwise permitted by 16.3.2.4 or 16.3.2.5. 

16.3.2.4 Openings shall not be required to be protected be- 
tween food preparation areas and dining areas. 

16.3.2.5 Approved domestic cooking equipment used for 
food warming or limited cooking shall not be required to be 
protected. 

16.3.3 Interior Finish. 

16.3.3.1 General. Interior finish shall be in accordance with 
Section 10.2. 

16.3.3.2 Interior Wall and Ceiling Finish. Interior wall and 
ceiling finish materials complying with Section 10.2 shall be 
Class A in stairways, corridors, and lobbies; in all other occu- 
pied areas, interior wall and ceiling finish shall be Class A or 
Class B. 

16.3.3.3 Interior Floor Finish. 

16.3.3.3.1 Interior floor finish shall complywith Section 10.2. 

16.3.3.3.2 Interior floor finish in exit enclosures and exit ac- 
cess corridors and spaces not separated from them by walls 
complying with 14.3.6 shall be not less than Class II. 

16.3.3.3.3 Interior floor finish shall comply with 10.2.7.1 or 
10.2.7.2 as applicable. 



16.3.4 Detection, Alarm, and Coinniunications Systems. 

16.3.4.1 General. Day-care occupancies, other than day-care 
occupancies housed in one room, shall be provided with a fire 
alarm system in accordance with Section 9.6. 

16.3.4.2 Initiation. Initiation of the required fire alarm system 
shall be by manual means and by operation of any required 
smoke detectors and required sprinkler systems. (See 16.3.4.5.) 

16.3.4.3 Occupant Notification. 

16.3.4.3.1 Occupant notification shall be in accordance 
with 9.6.3. 

16.3.4.3.2 Positive alarm sequence shall be permitted in ac- 
cordance with 9.6.3.4. 

16.3.4.3.3 Where occupant notification appliances are pro- 
vided in all occupied rooms and corridors, the private operat- 
ing mode as described in NFPA 7.2®, National Fire Alarm Code®, 
shall be permitted to be used in either or both of the following 
locations: 

(1) The occupied rooms 

(2) The corridors 

16.3.4.4 Emergency Forces Notification. Fire department no- 
tification shall be accomplished in accordance with 9.6.4. 

16.3.4.5 Detection. A smoke detection system in accordance 
with Section 9.6 shall be installed in day-care occupancies, 
other than those housed in one room, and such system shall 
comply with both of the following: 

(1) Detectors shall be installed on each story in front of the 
doors to the stairways and in the corridors of all floors 
occupied by the day-care occupancy. 

(2) Detectors also shall be installed in lounges, recreation ar- 
eas, and sleeping rooms in the day-care occupancy. 

16.3.5 Extinguishment Requirements. 

16.3.5.1 Any required sprinkler systems shall be in accor- 
dance with Section 9.7. 

16.3.5.2 Required sprinkler systems shall be installed in ac- 
cordance with 9.7.1.1(1). 

16.3.5.3 Buildings with unprotected openings in accordance 
with 8.6.6 shall be protected throughout by an approved, su- 
pervised automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Sec- 
tion 9.7. 

16.3.6 Corridors. Every interior corridor shall be constructed 
of walls having not less than a 1-hour fire resistance rating in 
accordance with Section 8.3, unless otherwise permitted by 
the following: 

( 1 ) Corridor protection shall not be required where all spaces 
normally subject to client occupancy have not less than 
one door opening directly to the outside or to an exterior 
exit access balcony or corridor in accordance with 7.5.3. 

(2) In buildings protected throughout by an approved, super- 
vised automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Sec- 
tion 9.7, corridor walls shall not be required to be rated, 
provided that such walls form smoke partitions in accor- 
dance with Section 8.4. 

(3) Where the corridor ceiling is an assembly having a 1-hour 
fire resistance rating where tested as a wall, the corridor walls 
shall be permitted to terminate at the corridor ceiling. 



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(4) Lavatories shall not be required to be separated from cor- 
ridors, provided that they are separated from all other 
spaces by walls having not less than a 1-hour fire resistance 
rating in accordance with Section 8.3. 

(5) Lavatories shall not be required to be separated from cor- 
ridors, provided the building is protected throughout by 
an approved, supervised automatic sprinkler system in ac- 
cordance with Section 9.7. 

16.4 Special Provisions. 

16.4.1 limited Access Buildings and Underground Buildings. 
Limited access buildings and underground buildings shall 
comply with Section 11.7. 

16.4.2 Higfa-Rise Buildings. High-rise buildings that house 
day-care occupancies on floors more than 23 m (75 ft) above 
the lowest level of fire department vehicle access shall comply 
with Section 11.8. 

16.4.3 Flexible Plan and Open Plan Buildings. 

16.4.3.1 Flexible plan and open plan buildings shall comply 
with the requirements of this chapter as modified by 16.4.3.2 
through 16.4.3.5. 

16.4.3.2 Flexible plan buildings shall be permitted to have 
walls and partitions rearranged periodically only if revised 
plans or diagrams have been approved by the authority having 
jurisdiction. 

16.4.3.3 Flexible plan buildings shall be evaluated while all 
folding walls are extended and in use as well as when they are 
in the retracted position. 

16.4.3.4 Each room occupied by more than 300 persons 
shall have two or more means of egress entering into sepa- 
rate atmospheres. 

16.4.3.5 Where three or more means of egress are required 
from a single room, the number of means of egress permitted 
to enter into a common atmosphere shall not exceed two. 

16.5 Building Services. 

16.5.1 Utilities. 

16.5.1.1 Utilities shall comply with the provisions of Section 9.1. 

16.5.1.2 Special protective covers for all electrical receptacles 
shall be installed in all areas occupied by clients. 

16.5.2 Heating, Ventilating, and Air Conditioning Equipment. 

16.5.2.1 Heating, ventilating, and air conditioning equip- 
ment shall be in accordance with Section 9.2. 

16.5.2.2 Unvented fuel-fired heating equipment, other than 
gas space heaters in compliance with NFPA54/ANSI Z223.1, 
National Fuel Gas Code, shall be prohibited. 

1 6.5.2.3 Any heating equipment in spaces occupied by clients 
shall be provided with partitions, screens, or other means to 
protect clients from hot surfaces and open flames; if solid par- 
titions are used to provide such protection, provisions shall be 
made to ensure adequate air for combustion and ventilation 
for the heating equipment. 

16.5.3 Elevators, Escalators, and Conveyors. Elevators, escala- 
tors, and conveyors, other than those in day-care homes, shall 
comply with the provisions of Section 9.4. 

16.5.4 Rubbish Chutes, Incinerators, and Laundry Chutes. Rub- 
bish chutes, incinerators, and laundry chutes, other than 



those in day-care homes, shall comply with the provisions of 
Section 9.5. 

16.6 Day-Care Hoinmes. 

16.6.1 General Requirements. 

16.6.1.1 AppEcation. 

16.6.1.1.1 The requirements of Section 16.6 shall apply to 
the following: 

( 1 ) New buildings or portions thereof used as day-care homes 
(see 1.3.1) 

(2) Additions made to, or used as, a day-care home (see 4.6. 7) 

(3) Alterations, modernizations, or renovations of existing 
day-care homes (see 4.6.8) 

(4) Existing buildings or portions thereof upon change of oc- 
cupancy to a day-care home (see 4.6.12) 

16.6.1.1.2 The requirements of Section 16.6 shall apply to day- 
care homes in which more than 3, but not more than 12, clients 
receive care, maintenance, and supervision by other than their 
relative(s) or legal guardian(s) for less than 24 hours per day, 
generally within a dwelling unit. (See also 16.6.1.4.) 

16.6.1.1.3 Where a facility houses more than one age group 
or one self-preservation capability, the strictest requirements 
applicable to any group present shall apply throughout the 
day-care home or building, as appropriate to a given area, 
unless the area housing such a group is maintained as a sepa- 
rate fire area. 

16.6.1.1.4 Facilities that supervise clients on a temporary ba- 
sis with a parent or guardian in close proximity shall not be 
required to meet the provisions of Section 16.6. 

1 6.6. 1 . 1 .5 Places of religious worship shall not be required to 
meet the provisions of Section 16.6 where operating a nursery 
while services are being held in the building. 

16.6.1.2 Multiple Occupancies. See 16.1.2. 

16.6.1.3 Definitions. See 16.1.3. 

16.6.1.4 Classification of Occupancy. 

16.6.1.4.1 Subclassification of Day-Care Homes. Subclassifi- 
cation of day-care homes shall comply with 16.6.1.4.1(A) and 
16.6.1.4.1(B). 

(A) Family Day-Care Home. A family day-care home shall be a 
day-care home in which more than three, but fewer than 
seven, clients receive care, maintenance, and supervision by 
other than their relative (s) or legal guardian (s) for less than 
24 hours per day, generally within a dwelling unit. 

(B) Group Day-Care Home. A group day-care home shall be a 
day-care home in which not less than 7, but not more than 12, 
clients receive care, maintenance, and supervision by other 
than their relative(s) or legal guardian(s) for less than 24 
hours per day, generally within a dwelling unit. 

16.6.1.4.2* Conversions. A conversion from a day-care home 
to a day-care occupancy with more than 12 clients shall be 
permitted only if the day-care occupancy conforms with the 
requirements of Chapter 16 for new day-care occupancies with 
more than 12 clients. 

16.6.1.5 Classification of Hazard of Contents. See 16.1.5. 

16.6.1.6 Location and Construction. No day-care home shall 
be located more than one story below the level of exit dis- 
charge. 



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16.6.1.7 Occupant Load. 

16.6.1.7.1 In family day-care homes, the following shall apply: 

(1) The minimum staff-to-client ratio shall be not less than 
one staff for up to six clients, including the caretaker's 
own children under age six. 

(2) There shall be not more than two clients incapable of 
self-preservation. 

16.6.1.7.2 In group day-care homes the following shall apply: 

(1) The minimum staff-to-client ratio shall be not less than 
two staff for up to 12 clients. 

(2) There shall be not more than three clients incapable of 
self-preservation. 

(3) The staff-to-client ratio shall be permitted to be modified 
by the authority having jurisdiction where safeguards in 
addition to those specified by Section 16.6 are provided. 

16.6.2 Means of Escape Requirements. 

16.6.2.1 General. Means of escape shall comply with Section 
24.2. 

16.6.2.2 Reserved. 

16.6.2.3 Reserved. 

16.6.2.4 Number of Means of Escape. The number of means 
of escape shall comply with Section 24.2 and 16.6.2.4.1 
through 16.6.2.4.4. 

16.6.2.4.1 In group day-care homes, every story occupied by 
clients shall have not less than two remotely located means of 
escape. 

16.6.2.4.2 Every room used for sleeping, living, or dining pur- 
poses shall comply with the following: 

(1) There shall be not less than two means of escape, not less 
than one of which shall be a door or stairway providing a 
means of unobstructed travel to the outside of the build- 
ing at street or ground level. 

(2) The second means of escape shall be permitted to be a 
window in accordance with 16.2.11.1. 

(3) No room or space that is accessible only by a ladder or 
folding stairs or through a trap door shall be occupied for 
living or sleeping purposes. 

16.6.2.4.3 In group day-care homes where spaces on the story 
above the level of exit discharge are used by clients, not less 
than one means of escape shall be an exit discharging directly 
to the outside, and the second means of escape shall be per- 
mitted to be a window in accordance with 16.2.11.1. 

16.6.2.4.4 Where clients occupy a story below the level of exit 
discharge, not less than one means of escape shall be an exit 
discharging directly to the outside, the vertical travel to 
ground level shall not exceed 2440 mm (96 in.), and the sec- 
ond means of escape shall be permitted to be a window in 
accordance with 16.2.11.1. 

16.6.2.5 Arrangement of Means of Egress. 

16.6.2.5.1 A story used above or below the level of exit dis- 
charge shall be in accordance with 16.6.2.4.3 and 16.6.2.4.4. 

16.6.2.5.2 For group day-care homes, means of egress shall 
be arranged in accordance with Section 7.5. 

16.6.2.5.3 No dead-end corridors shall exceed 6100 mm 
(240 in.). 



16.6.2.6 Travel Distance. 

16.6.2.6.1 Travel distance shall meet the following criteria 
unless otherwise permitted by 16.6.2.6.2: 

(1) The travel distance between any room door intended as 
an exit access and an exit shall not exceed 30 m (100 ft). 

(2) The travel distance between any point in a room and an 
exit shall not exceed 46 m (150 ft). 

(3) The travel distance between any point in a sleeping room 
and an exit access to that room shall not exceed 15 m 
(50 ft). 

16.6.2.6.2 The travel distance in 16.6.2.6(1) and 16.6.2.6(2) 
shall be permitted to be increased by 15 m (50 ft) in buildings 
protected throughout by an approved, supervised automatic 
sprinkler system in accordance with Section 9.7. 

16.6.2.7 Discharge from Exits. See 16.6.2.4. 

16.6.2.8 IMernination of Means of Egress Means of egress 
shall be illuminated in accordance with Section 7.8. 

16.6.2.9 Emergency Lighting. (No requirements.) 

16.6.2.10 Marking of Means of Egress. (No requirements.) 
16.6.3 Protection. 

16.6.3.1 Protection of Vertical Openings. 

16.6.3.1.1 For group day-care homes, the doorway between 
the level of exit discharge and any story below shall be 
equipped with a fire door assembly having a 20-minute fire 
protection rating. 

16.6.3.1.2 Where the story above the level of exit discharge is 
used for sleeping purposes, there shall be a fire door assembly 
having a 20-minute fire protection rating at the top or bottom 
of each stairway. 

16.6.3.2 Protection from Hazards. (No requirements.) 

16.6.3.3 Interior Finish. 

16.6.3.3.1 General. Interior finish shall be in accordance with 
Section 10.2. 

16.6.3.3.2 Interior Wall and Ceiling Finish. 

16.6.3.3.2.1 Interior wall and ceiling finish materials comply- 
ing with Section 10.2 shall be Class A or Class B in corridors, 
stairways, lobbies, and exits. In the exits of family day-care 
homes, interior wall and ceiling finish materials in accordance 
with Section 10.2 shall be Class A or Class B. 

16.6.3.3.2.2 Interior wall and ceiling finish materials comply- 
ing with Section 10.2 shall be Class A, Class B, or Class C in 
occupied spaces. 

16.6.3.3.3 Interior Floor Finish. 

16.6.3.3.3.1 Interior floor finish shall comply with Section 
10.2. 

16.6.3.3.3.2 Interior floor finish in exit enclosures shall be 
not less than Class II. 

16.6.3.3.3.3 Interior floor finish shall comply with 10.2.7.1 or 
10.2.7.2 as applicable. 

16.6.3.4 Detection, Alarm, and Communications Systems. 

16.6.3.4.1 Smoke alarms shall be installed within day-care 
homes in accordance with 9.6.2.10. 



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16.6.3.4.2 Where a day-care home is located within a building 
of another occupancy, such as in an apartment building or 
office building, any corridors serving the day-care home shall 
be provided with a smoke detection system in accordance with 
Section 9.6. 

16.6.3.4.3 One of the following shall be provided in all rooms 
used for sleeping: 

(1) Single-station or multiple-station smoke alarms in accor- 
dance with 9.6.2.10 that are powered by the building elec- 
trical system 

(2) System detectors with integral sounding devices in accor- 
dance with 9.6.1.3 

16.6.3.5 Extinguishment Requirements. Any required sprin- 
kler systems shall be in accordance with Section 9.7 and shall 
be installed in accordance with 9.7.1.1(1), 9.7.1.1(2), or 
9.7.1.1 (3), as appropriate with respect to the scope of the in- 
stallation standard. 

16.7 Operating Features. 

16.7.1* Emergency Plans. Emergency plans shall be provided 
in accordance with Section 4.8. 

16.7.2 Emergency Egress and Relocation Brills. 

16.7.2.1* Emergency egress and relocation drills shall be con- 
ducted in accordance with Section 4.7 and the applicable pro- 
visions of 16.7.2.2. 

16.7.2.2 Emergency egress and relocation drills shall be con- 
ducted as follows: 

(1) Not less than one emergency egress and relocation drill 
shall be conducted every month the facility is in session, 
unless both of the following criteria are met: 

(a) In climates where the weather is severe, the monthly 
emergency egress and relocation drills shall be per- 
mitted to be deferred. 

(b) The required number of emergency egress and relo- 
cation drills shall be conducted, and not less than 
four shall be conducted before the drills are 
deferred. 

(2) All occupants of the building shall participate in the drill. 

(3) One additional emergency egress and relocation drill, 
other than for day-care occupancies that are open on a 
year-round basis, shall be required within the first 30 days 
of operation. 

16.7.3 Inspections. 

16.7.3.1 Fire prevention inspections shall be conducted 
monthly by a trained senior member of the staff, after which a 
copy of the latest inspection report shall be posted in a con- 
spicuous place in the day-care facility. 

16.7.3.2* It shall be the duty of site administrators and staff 
members to inspect all exit facilities daily to ensure that all 
stairways, doors, and other exits are in proper condition. 

16.7.3.3 Open plan buildings shall require extra surveillance 
to ensure that exit paths are maintained clear of obstruction 
and are obvious. 

16.7.4 Furnishings and Decorations. 

16.7.4.1 Draperies, curtains, and other similar furnishings 
and decorations in day-care occupancies shall be in accor- 
dance with the provisions of 10.3.1. 



16.7.4.2 Clothing and personal effects shall not be stored in 
corridors, unless otherwise permitted by the following: 

(1) This requirement shall not apply to corridors protected 
by an automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Sec- 
tion 9.7. 

(2) This requirement shall not apply to corridor areas pro- 
tected by a smoke detection system in accordance with 
Section 9.6. 

(3) This requirement shall not apply to storage in metal lockers, 
provided that the required egress width is maintained. 

16.7.4.3 Artwork and teaching materials shall be permitted 
to be attached directly to the walls in accordance with the 
following: 

(1) The artwork and teaching materials shall not exceed 
20 percent of the wall area in a building that is not pro- 
tected throughout by an approved, supervised automatic 
sprinkler system in accordance with Section 9.7. 

(2) The artwork and teaching materials shall not exceed 
50 percent of the wall area in a building that is protected 
throughout by an approved, supervised automatic sprin- 
kler system in accordance with Section 9.7. 

16.7.5* Day-Care Staff. Adequate adult staff shall be on duty, 
alert, awake, and in the facility at all times where clients are 
present. 



Chapter 17 Existing Day-Care Occupancies 

17.1 General Requirements. 
17.1.1*. 



17.1.1.1 The requirements of this chapter shall apply to exist- 
ing buildings or portions thereof currently occupied as day- 
care occupancies. (See also 16.1.1.1.) 

17.1.1.2 The requirements of Section 17.1 through Section 
17.5 and Section 17.7 shall apply to existing day-care occupan- 
cies in which more than 12 clients receive care, maintenance, 
and supervision by other than their relative (s) or legal guard- 
ian (s) for less than 24 hours per day. An existing day-care oc- 
cupancy shall be permitted the option of meeting the require- 
ments of Chapter 16 in lieu of Chapter 17. An existing day-care 
occupancy thatmeets the requirements of Chapter 16 shall be 
judged as meeting the requirements of Chapter 17. 

17.1.1.3 The requirements of Section 17.1 (other than 
17.1.6) and Section 17.4 through Section 17.7 shall apply to 
existing day-care homes as defined in 17.1.3. An existing day- 
care home shall be permitted the option of meeting the re- 
quirements of Chapter 16 in lieu of Chapter 17. An existing 
day-care home that meets the requirements of Chapter 16 
shall be judged as meeting the requirements of Chapter 17. 

17.1.1.4 Where a facility houses clients of more than one 
self-preservation capability, the strictest requirements appli- 
cable to any group present shall apply throughout the day-care 
occupancy or building, as appropriate to a given area, unless 
the area housing such a group is maintained as a separate fire 
area. 

17.1.1.5 Places of religious worship shall not be required to 
meet the provisions of this chapter where providing day care 
while services are being held in the building. 



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17.1.2 Mixed Occupancies. 

17.1.2.1 Multiple occupancies shall be in accordance with 
6.1.14. 

17.1.2.2 Where the mixed occupancies provisions of 6.1.14.3 
are utilized, the following provisions shall also apply: 

(1) General. The day-care occupancy shall be separated from 
the other occupancies by not less than 1-hour fire 
resistance-rated barriers constructed in accordance with 
Section 8.3. 

(2) Day-Care Occupancies in Apartment Buildings. If the two 
exit accesses from a day-care occupancy enter the same 
corridor as an apartment occupancy, the exit accesses 
shall be separated in the corridor by a smoke partition 
complying with both of the following: 

(a) Having not less than a 1-hour fire resistance rating 
and constructed in accordance with Section 8.4 

(b) Located so that it has an exit on each side. 

17.1.3 Definitions. A list of terms used in this chapter follows: 

(1) Day-Care Home. See 3.3.110.1. 

(2) Flexible Plan and Open Plan Educational or Day-Care 
Building. See 3.3.27.6. 

(3) Self-Preservation (Day-Care Occupancy). See 3.3.191. 

(4) Separate Atmosphere. See 3.3.20.2. 

17.1.4 Classification of Occupancy. See 6.1.4. 

17.1.4.1 General. Occupancies that include part-day pre- 
schools, kindergartens, and other schools whose purpose is 
primarily educational, even though the children who attend 
such schools are of preschool age, shall comply with the provi- 
sions of Chapter 15. 

17.1.4.2 Adult Day-Care Occupancies. 

17.1.4.2.1 Adult day-care occupancies shall include any 
building or portion thereof used for less than 24 hours per day 
to house more than three adults requiring care, maintenance, 
and supervision by other than their relative (s). 

17.1.4.2.2 Clients in adult day-care occupancies shall be am- 
bulatory or semiambulatory and shall not be bedridden. 

17.1.4.2.3 Clients in adult day-care occupancies shall not ex- 
hibit behavior that is harmful to themselves or to others. 

17.1.4.3* Conversions. Aconversion from a day-care home to 
a day-care occupancy with more than 12 clients shall be per- 
mitted only if the day-care occupancy conforms to the require- 
ments of Chapter 16 for new day-care occupancies with more 
than 12 clients. 

17.1.5 Classification of Hazard of Contents. The contents of 
day-care occupancies shall be classified as ordinary hazard in 
accordance with Section 6.2. 

17.1.6 Location and Construction. Day-care occupancies, 
other than day-care homes, shall be limited to the locations, 
construction types, and sprinkler protection features specified 
in Table 17.1.6. 

17.1.7 Occupant Load. 

17.1.7.1 The occupant load, in number of persons for whom 
means of egress and other provisions are required, either shall 
be determined on the basis of the occupant load factors of 
Table 7.3.1.2 that are characteristic of the use of the space or 



Table 17.1.6 Location and Construction Type Limitations 



Location of 






Day-Care 


Sprinklered 




Occupancy 


Building 


Construction Type 


1 story below LED 


Yes 


1(443), 1(332), 
11(222), 11(111), 
11(000), 111(211), 
rV(2HH),V(lll) 




No 


1(443), 1(332), 
11(222), 11(111), 
111(211), 
rV(2HH),V(lll) 


Level of exit 


Yes 


Any type 


discharge 


No 


Any type 


1 story above LED 


Yes 


Any type 




No 


1(443), 1(332), 
11(222) 




No 


11(111)*, 111(211)*, 
V(lll)* 


2 stories above LED 


Yes 


1(443), 1(332), 
11(222) 




Yes 


11(111)*, 111(211)*, 
V(lll)* 




No 


1(443), 1(332), 
11(222) 


>3 stories above 


Yes 


1(443), 1(332), 


LED but not 




11(222) 


high-rise 


Yes 


11(111)* 




No 


1(443), 1(332), 
11(222) 


High-rise 


Yes 


1(443), 1(332), 
11(222) 




No 


Not permitted 



LED: Level of exit discharge. 

"Permitted only if clients capable of self-preservation. 



shall be determined as the maximum probable population of 
the space under consideration, whichever is greater. 

17.1.7.2 Where the occupant load is determined as the maxi- 
mum probable population of the space in accordance with 
17.1.7.1, an approved aisle, seating, and exiting diagram shall 
be required by the authority having jurisdiction to substanti- 
ate such a modification. 

17.2 Means of Egress Requirements. 

17.2.1 General. Means of egress shall be in accordance with 
Chapter 7 and Section 17.2. 

17.2.2 Means of Egress Components. 

17.2.2.1 General. Components of means of egress shall be 
limited to the types described in 17.2.2.2 through 17.2.2.10. 

17.2.2.2 Doors. 

17.2.2.2.1 General. Doors complying with 7.2.1 shall be per- 
mitted. 



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17.2.2.2.2 Panic Hardware or Fire Exit Hardware. Any door in 
a required means of egress from an area having an occupant 
load of 100 or more persons shall be permitted to be provided 
with a latch or lock only if the latch or lock is panic hardware 
or fire exit hardware complying with 7.2.1.7. 

17.2.2.2.3 Special Locking Arrangements. Special locking ar- 
rangements complying with 7.2.1.6 shall be permitted. 

17.2.2.2.4* Closet Doors. Every closet door latch shall be such 
that clients can open the door from inside the closet. 

17.2.2.2.5 Bathroom Doors. Every bathroom door lock shall 
be designed to allow opening of the locked door from the 
outside by an opening device that shall be readily accessible to 
the staff. 

17.2.2.3* Stairs. 

17.2.2.3.1 Stairs complying with 7.2.2 shall be permitted. 

17.2.2.3.2 Existing Class A stairs shall be permitted. 

17.2.2.3.3 Existing Class B stairs shall be permitted where not 
used by clients. 

17.2.2.4 Smokeproof Enclosures. Smokeproof enclosures 
complying with 7.2.3 shall be permitted. 

17.2.2.5 Horizontal Exits. 

17.2.2.5.1 Horizontal exits complying with 7.2.4 shall be 
permitted. 

17.2.2.5.2 Areas of refuge, other than in buildings provided 
with smokeproof enclosures or buildings protected through- 
out by an approved, supervised automatic sprinkler system in 
accordance with Section 9.7, shall be provided by horizontal 
exits for occupants of day-care occupancies located above the 
fifth story. 

17.2.2.6 Ramps. Ramps complying with 7.2.5 shall be permitted. 

17.2.2.7 Exit Passageways. Exit passageways complying with 
7.2.6 shall be permitted. 

17.2.2.8 Fire Escape Ladders. Fire escape ladders complying 
with 7.2.9 shall be permitted. 

17.2.2.9 Alternating Tread Devices. Alternating tread devices 
complying with 7.2.11 shall be permitted. 

17.2.2.10 Areas of Refuge. Areas of refuge complying with 
7.2.12 shall be permitted. 

17.2.3 Capacity of Means of Egress. Capacity of means of 
egress shall be in accordance with Section 7.3. 

17.2.4 Number of Exits. 

17.2.4.1 Not less than two separate exits shall be as follows: 

(1) Provided on every story 

(2) Accessible from every part of every story and mezzanine 

17.2.4.2 Where the story below the level of exit discharge is 
occupied as a day-care occupancy, 17.2.4.2.1 and 17.2.4.2.2 
shall apply. 

17.2.4.2.1 One means of egress shall be an outside or interior 
stair in accordance with 7.2.2. An interior stair, if used, shall 
serve only the story below the level of exit discharge. The inte- 
rior stair shall be permitted to communicate with the level of 
exit discharge; however, the exit route from the level of exit 
discharge shall not pass through the stair enclosure. 



17.2.4.2.2 The second means of egress shall be permitted to 
be via an unenclosed stairway separated from the level of exit 
discharge in accordance with 8.6.5. 

17.2.4.2.3 The path of egress travel on the level of exit dis- 
charge shall be protected in accordance with 7.1.3.1, unless 
one of the following criteria is met: 

(1) The path of egress on the level of exit discharge shall be 
permitted to be unprotected if the level of exit discharge 
and the level below the level of exit discharge are pro- 
tected throughout by a smoke detection system 

(2) The path of egress on the level of exit discharge shall be 
permitted to be unprotected if the level of exit discharge 
and the level below the level of exit discharge are protected 
throughout by an approved automatic sprinkler system. 

17.2.5 Arrangement of Means of Egress. 

17.2.5.1 Means of egress shall be arranged in accordance 
with Section 7.5. 

17.2.5.2 No dead-end corridor shall exceed 6100 mm (240 in.), 
other than in buildings protected throughout by an approved, 
supervised automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Sec- 
tion 9.7, in which case dead-end corridors shall not exceed 15 m 

(50 ft). 

17.2.5.3 No common path of travel shall exceed 23 m (75 ft), 
other than for the first 30 m (100 ft) in a building protected 
throughout by an approved, supervised automatic sprinkler 
system in accordance with Section 9.7. 

17.2.5.4 The story used below the level of exit discharge shall 
be in accordance with 17.2.4.2. 

17.2.6 Travel Distance to Exits. 

17.2.6.1 Travel distance shall be measured in accordance 
with Section 7.6. 

17.2.6.2 Travel distance shall meet the following criteria un- 
less otherwise permitted by 17.2.6.3: 

(1) The travel distance between any room door intended as 
an exit access and an exit shall not exceed 30 m (100 ft). 

(2) The travel distance between any point in a room and an 
exit shall not exceed 46 m (150 ft). 

(3) The travel distance between any point in a sleeping room 
and an exit access door in that room shall not exceed 
15 m (50 ft). 

17.2.6.3 The travel distance required by 17.2.6.2(1) and 
17.2.6.2(2) shall be permitted to be increased by 15 m (50 ft) 
in buildings protected throughout by an approved automatic 
sprinkler system in accordance with Section 9.7. 

17.2.7 Discharge from Exits. Discharge from exits shall be ar- 
ranged in accordance with Section 7.7, unless otherwise pro- 
vided in 17.2.4.2. 

1 7.2.8 lUumination of Means of Egress. Means of egress shall 
be illuminated in accordance with Section 7.8. 

17.2.9 Emergency Lighting. Emergency lighting shall be pro- 
vided in accordance with Section 7.9 in the following areas: 

( 1 ) Interior stairs and corridors 

(2) Assembly use spaces 

(3) Flexible and open plan buildings 

(4) Interior or limited access portions of buildings 

(5) Shops and laboratories 



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17.2.10 Marking of Means of Egress. Means of egress shall 
have signs in accordance with Section 7.10. 

17.2.11 Special Means of Egress Features. 
17.2.11.1 Windows for Rescue. 

17.2.11.1.1 Every room or space greater than 23.2 m 2 (250 ft 2 ) 
and normally subject to client occupancy shall have not less than 
one outside window for emergency rescue that complies with the 
following unless otherwise permitted by 17.2.11.1.2: 

(1) Such windows shall be openable from the inside without 
the use of tools and shall provide a clear opening of not 
less than 510 mm (20 in.) in width, 610 mm (24 in.) in 
height, and 0.5 m 2 (5.7 ft 2 ) in area. 

(2) The bottom of the opening shall be not more than 
1120 mm (44 in.) above the floor. 

(3) The clear opening shall allow a rectangular solid, with a 
width and height that provides not less than the required 
0.5 m 2 (5.7 ft 2 ) opening and a depth of not less than 
510 mm (20 in.), to pass fully through the opening. 

17.2.11.1.2 The requirements of 17.2. 11. 1.1 shall not apply to 
the following: 

(1) Buildings protected throughout by an approved, super- 
vised automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Sec- 
tion 9.7 

(2) Where the room or space has a door leading directly to 
the outside of the building 

(3) Rooms located higher than three stories above grade 

(4) Where awning-type or hopper-type windows that are 
hinged or subdivided to provide a clear opening of not 
less than 0.38 m 2 (4 ft 2 ) or any dimension of not less than 
560 mm (22 in.), the following shall apply: 

(a) Such windows shall be permitted to continue to be 
used. 

(b) Screen walls or devices in front of required windows 
shall not interfere with normal rescue requirements. 

(5) Where the room or space complies with the following: 

(a) Doors shall exist that allow travel between adjacent 
classrooms. 

(b) Where doors are used to travel from classroom to 
classroom, they shall provide one of the following: 

i. Direct access to exits in both directions 
ii. Direct access to an exit in one direction and to a 
separate smoke compartment that provides ac- 
cess to another exit in the other direction 

(c) The corridor shall be separated from the classrooms 
by a wall that resists the passage of smoke, and all 
doors between the classrooms and the corridor shall 
be self-closing in accordance with 7.2.1.8. 

(d) The length of travel to exits along such paths shall not 
exceed 46 m (150 ft). 

(e) Each communicating door shall be marked in accor- 
dance with Section 7.10. 

(f) No locking device shall be permitted on the commu- 
nicating doors. 

17.3 Protection. 

17.3.1 Protection of Vertical Openings. Any vertical opening, 
other than unprotected vertical openings in accordance with 
8.6.8.2, shall be enclosed or protected in accordance with Sec- 
tion 8.6. 



17.3.2 Protection from Hazards. 

17.3.2.1 Rooms or spaces for the storage, processing, or use 
of materials specified in 17.3.2.1(1) through 17.3.2.1(3) shall 
be protected in accordance with the following: 

(1) Separation from the remainder of the building by fire 
barriers having a fire resistance rating of not less than 1 
hour or protection of such rooms, by automatic extin- 
guishing systems as specified in Section 8.7, in the follow- 
ing areas: 

(a) Boiler and furnace rooms, unless such rooms enclose 
only air-handling equipment 

(b) Rooms or spaces used for the storage of combustible 
supplies in quantities deemed hazardous by the au- 
thority havingjurisdiction 

(c) Rooms or spaces used for the storage of hazardous ma- 
terials or flammable or combustible liquids in quantities 
deemed hazardous by recognized standards 

(d) Janitor closets 

(2) Separation from the remainder of the building by fire 
barriers having a fire resistance rating of not less than 
1 hour and protection of such rooms by automatic extin- 
guishing systems as specified in Section 8.7 in the follow- 
ing areas: 

(a)*Laundries 

(b) Maintenance shops, including woodworking and 
painting areas 

(c) Rooms or spaces used for processing or use of com- 
bustible supplies deemed hazardous by the authority 
havingjurisdiction 

(d) Rooms or spaces used for processing or use of hazard- 
ous materials or flammable or combustible liquids in 
quantities deemed hazardous by recognized standards 

(3) Where automatic extinguishing is used to meet the re- 
quirements of 17.3.2.1(1) and 17.3.2.1(2), the protection 
shall be permitted in accordance with 9.7.1.2. 

17.3.2.2 Janitor closets protected in accordance with 
17.3.2.1(1) (d) shall be permitted to have doors fitted with ven- 
tilating louvers where the space is protected by automatic 
sprinklers. 

17.3.2.3 Cooking facilities shall be protected in accordance 
with 9.2.3 unless otherwise permitted by 17.3.2.4 or 17.3.2.5. 

17.3.2.4 Openings shall not be required to be protected be- 
tween food preparation areas and dining areas. 

17.3.2.5 Approved domestic cooking equipment used for 
food warming or limited cooking shall not be required to be 
protected. 

17.3.3 Interior Finish . 

17.3.3.1 General. Interior finish shall be in accordance with 
Section 10.2. 

17.3.3.2 Interior Wall and Ceiling Finish. Interior wall and 
ceiling finish materials complying with Section 10.2 shall be 
Class A or Class B throughout. 

17.3.3.3 Interior Floor Finish. (No requirements.) 

17.3.4 Detection, Alarm, and Communications Systems. 

17.3.4.1 General. Day-care occupancies, other than day-care 
occupancies housed in one room, shall be provided with a fire 
alarm system in accordance with Section 9.6. 



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17.3.4.2 Initiation. Initiation of the required fire alarm system 
shall be by manual means and by operation of any required 
smoke detectors and required sprinkler systems. (See 17.3.4.5.) 

17.3.4.3 Occupant Notification. 

17.3.4.3.1 Occupant notification shall be in accordance with 
9.6.3. 

17.3.4.3.2 Positive alarm sequence shall be permitted in ac- 
cordance with 9.6.3.4. 

17.3.4.3.3 Where occupant notification appliances are pro- 
vided in all occupied rooms and corridors, the private operat- 
ing mode as described in NFPA T^ ', National Fire Alarm Code®, 
shall be permitted to be used in either or both of the following 
locations: 

(1) The occupied rooms 

(2) The corridors 

17.3.4.4 Emergency Forces Notification. Fire department no- 
tification, other than for day-care occupancies with not more 
than 100 clients, shall be accomplished in accordance with 
9.6.4. 

17.3.4.5 Detection. A smoke detection system in accordance 
with Section 9.6 shall be installed in day-care occupancies, other 
than those housed in one room or those housing clients capable 
of self-preservation if no sleeping facilities are provided, and such 
system shall comply with both of the following: 

( 1 ) Detectors shall be installed on each story in front of the 
doors to the stairways and in the corridors of all floors 
occupied by the day-care occupancy. 

(2) Detectors shall be installed in lounges, recreation areas, 
and sleeping rooms in the day-care occupancy. 

17.3.5 Extinguishment Requirements. 

17.3.5.1 Any required sprinkler system shall be in accordance 
with Section 9.7. 

17.3.5.2 Required sprinkler systems, other than approved ex- 
isting systems, shall be installed in accordance with 9.7.1.1(1). 

17.3.5.3 Buildings with unprotected openings in accordance 
with 8.6.6 shall be protected throughout by an approved, su- 
pervised automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Sec- 
tion 9.7. 

17.3.6 Corridors. Every interior corridor shall be constructed 
of walls having not less than a Vfc-hour fire resistance rating in 
accordance with Section 8.3, unless otherwise permitted by 
the following: 

( 1 ) Corridor protection shall not be required where all spaces 
normally subject to student occupancy have not less than 
one door opening directly to the outside or to an exterior 
exit access balcony or corridor in accordance with 7.5.3. 

(2) In buildings protected throughout by an approved auto- 
matic sprinkler system with valve supervision in accor- 
dance with Section 9.7, corridor walls shall not be re- 
quired to be rated, provided that such walls form smoke 
partitions in accordance with Section 8.4. 

(3) Where the corridor ceiling is an assembly having a 
V^-hour fire resistance rating where tested as a wall, the 
corridor walls shall be permitted to terminate at the cor- 
ridor ceiling. 

(4) Lavatories shall not be required to be separated from cor- 
ridors, provided that they are separated from all other 



spaces by walls having not less than a M>-hour fire resis- 
tance rating in accordance with Section 8.3. 

(5) Lavatories shall not be required to be separated from cor- 
ridors, provided the building is protected throughout by 
an approved, supervised automatic sprinkler system in ac- 
cordance with Section 9.7. 

(6) Existing doors in V2-hour fire resistance-rated corridors 
shall be permitted to be 44-mm (1%-in.) thick, solid- 
bonded wood core doors or the equivalent. 

17.4 Special Provisions. 

1 7.4. 1 Limited Access Buildings and Underground Buildings. 
Limited access buildings and underground buildings shall 
comply with Section 11.7. 

17.4.2 High-Rise Buildings. High-rise buildings that house 
day-care occupancies on floors more than 23 m (75 ft) above 
the lowest level of fire department vehicle access shall comply 
with Section 11.8. 

17.4.3 Flexible Plan and Open Plan Buildings. 

17.4.3.1 Flexible plan and open plan buildings shall comply 
with the requirements of this chapter as modified by 17.4.3.2 
and 17.4.3.3. 

17.4.3.2 Flexible plan buildings shall be permitted to have 
walls and partitions rearranged periodically only if revised 
plans or diagrams have been approved by the authority having 
jurisdiction. 

17.4.3.3 Flexible plan buildings shall be evaluated while all 
folding walls are extended and in use as well as when they are 
in the retracted position. 

17.5 Building Services. 

17.5.1 Utilities. 

17.5.1.1 Utilities shall comply with the provisions of Sec- 
tion 9.1. 

17.5.1.2 Special protective covers for all electrical receptacles 
shall be installed in all areas occupied by clients. 

1 7.5.2 Heating, Ventilating, and Air Conditioning Equipment. 

17.5.2.1 Heating, ventilating, and air conditioning equip- 
ment shall be in accordance with Section 9.2. 

17.5.2.2 Unvented fuel-fired heating equipment, other than 
gas space heaters in compliance with NFPA 54/ ANSI Z 223.1, 
National Fuel Gas Code, shall be prohibited. 

17.5.2.3 Any heating equipment in spaces occupied by clients 
shall be provided with partitions, screens, or other means to 
protect clients from hot surfaces and open flames; if solid par- 
titions are used to provide such protection, provisions shall be 
made to ensure adequate air for combustion and ventilation 
for the heating equipment. 

17.5.3 Elevators, Escalators, and Conveyors. Elevators, escala- 
tors, and conveyors, other than those in day-care homes, shall 
comply with the provisions of Section 9.4. 

17.5.4 Rubbish Chutes, Incinerators, and Laundry Chutes. 
Rubbish chutes, incinerators, and laundry chutes, other than 
those in day-care homes, shall comply with the provisions of 
Section 9.5. 



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17.6 Day-Care Homes. 
17.6.1 General Requirements. 

17.6.1.1 Application. 

17.6.1.1.1 Reserved. 

17.6.1.1.2* The requirements of Section 17.6 shall apply to 
existing day-care homes in which more than 3, but not more 
than 12, clients receive care, maintenance, and supervision by 
other than their relative (s) or legal guardian (s) for less than 
24 hours per day, generally within a dwelling unit. An existing 
day-care home shall be permitted the option of meeting the 
requirements of Section 16.6 in lieu of Section 17.6. Any exist- 
ing day-care home that meets the requirements of Chapter 16 
shall be judged as meeting the requirements of this chapter. 
(See also 17.6.1.4.) 

17.6.1.1.3 Where a facility houses clients of more than one 
self-preservation capability, the strictest requirements appli- 
cable to any group present shall apply throughout the day-care 
home or building, as appropriate to a given area, unless the 
area housing such a group is maintained as a separate fire 
area. 

17.6.1.1.4 Facilities that supervise clients on a temporary ba- 
sis with a parent or guardian in close proximity shall not be 
required to meet the provisions of Section 17.6. 

1 7.6. 1 . 1 .5 Places of religious worship shall not be required to 
meet the provisions of Section 17.6 where operating a day-care 
home while services are being held in the building. 

17.6.1.2 Multiple Occupancies. See 17.1.2. 

17.6.1.3 Definitions. See 17.1.3. 

17.6.1.4 Classification of Occupancy. 

17.6.1.4.1 Subclassification of Day-Care Homes. Subclassifi- 
cation of day-care homes shall comply with 17.6.1.4.1(A) and 
17.6.1.4.1(B). 

(A) Family Day-Care Home. A family day-care home shall be a 
day-care home in which more than three, but fewer than 
seven, clients receive care, maintenance, and supervision by 
other than their relative (s) or legal guardian (s) for less than 
24 hours per day, generally within a dwelling unit. 

(B) Group Day-Care Home. A group day-care home shall be a 
day-care home in which not less than 7, but not more than 12, 
clients receive care, maintenance, and supervision by other 
than their relative(s) or legal guardian(s) for less than 24 
hours per day, generally within a dwelling unit. 

17.6.1.4.2* Conversions. A conversion from a day-care home 
to a day-care occupancy with more than 12 clients shall be 
permitted only if the day-care occupancy conforms to the re- 
quirements of Chapter 16 for new day-care occupancies with 
more than 12 clients. 

17.6.1.5 Classification of Hazard of Contents. See 17.1.5. 

17.6.1.6 Location and Construction. No day-care home shall 
be located more than one story below the ground. 

17.6.1.7 Occupant Load. 

17.6.1.7.1 In family day-care homes the following shall apply: 

(1) The minimum staff-to-client ratio shall be not less than 
one staff for up to six clients, including the caretaker's 
own children under age six. 



(2) There shall be not more than two clients incapable of 
self-preservation. 

17.6.1.7.2 In group day-care homes the following shall apply: 

(1) The minimum staff-to-client ratio shall be not less than 
two staff for up to 12 clients. 

(2) There shall be not more than three clients incapable of 
self-preservation. 

(3) The staff-to-client ratio shall be permitted to be modified 
by the authority having jurisdiction where safeguards in 
addition to those specified by Section 17.6 are provided. 

17.6.2 Means of Escape Requirements. 

17.6.2.1 General. Means of escape shall comply with Section 
24.2. 

17.6.2.2 Reserved. 

17.6.2.3 Reserved. 

17.6.2.4 Number of Means of Escape. The number of means 
of escape shall comply with Section 24.2 and 17.6.2.4.1 
through 17.6.2.4.4. 

17.6.2.4.1 In group day-care homes, every story occupied by 
clients shall have not less than two remotely located means of 
escape. 

17.6.2.4.2 Every room used for sleeping, living, or dining pur- 
poses shall comply with the following: 

(1) There shall be not less than two means of escape, not less 
than one of which shall be a door or stairway providing a 
means of unobstructed travel to the outside of the build- 
ing at street or ground level. 

(2) The second means of escape shall be permitted to be a 
window in accordance with 17.2.11.1. 

(3) No room or space that is accessible only by a ladder or 
folding stairs or through a trap door shall be occupied for 
living or sleeping purposes. 

17.6.2.4.3 In group day-care homes where spaces on the story 
above the level of exit discharge are used by clients, not less 
than one means of escape shall be an exit discharging directly 
to the outside, and the second means of escape shall be per- 
mitted to be a window in accordance with 17.2.11.1. 

17.6.2.4.4 Where clients occupy a story below the level of exit 
discharge, not less than one means of escape shall be an exit 
discharging directly to the outside, the vertical travel to 
ground level shall not exceed 2440 mm (96 in.), and the sec- 
ond means of escape shall be permitted to be a window in 
accordance with 17.2.11.1. 

17.6.2.5 Arrangement of Means of Egress. 

17.6.2.5.1 A story used above or below the level of exit dis- 
charge shall be in accordance with 17.6.2.4.3 or 17.6.2.4.4. 

17.6.2.5.2 For group day-care homes, means of egress shall 
be arranged in accordance with Section 7.5. 

17.6.2.5.3 No dead-end corridor shall exceed 6100 mm 
(240 in.), other than in buildings protected throughout by an 
approved, supervised automatic sprinkler system in accor- 
dance with Section 9.7, in which case dead-end corridors shall 
not exceed 15 m (50 ft). 

17.6.2.6 Travel Distance. 

17.6.2.6.1 Travel distance shall meet the following criteria 
unless otherwise permitted by 17.6.2.6.2: 



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(1) The travel distance between any room door intended as 
an exit access and an exit shall not exceed 30 m (100 ft). 

(2) The travel distance between any point in a room and an 
exit shall not exceed 46 m (150 ft). 

(3) The travel distance between any point in a sleeping room 
and an exit access to that room shall not exceed 15 m 
(50 ft). 

17.6.2.6.2 The travel distance required by 17.6.2.6.1(1) and 
17.6.2.6.1 (2) shall be permitted to be increased by 15 m (50 ft) 
in buildings protected throughout by an approved, supervised 
automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 9.7. 

17.6.2.7 Discharge from Exits. See 17.6.2.4. 

17.6.2.8 Illumination of Means of Egress. Means of egress 
shall be illuminated in accordance with Section 7.8. 

17.6.2.9 Emergency lighting. (No requirements.) 

17.6.2.10 Marking of Means of Egress. (No requirements.) 
17.6.3 Protection. 

17.6.3.1 Protection of Vertical Openings. 

17.6.3.1.1 For group day-care homes, the doorway between 
the level of exit discharge and any story below shall be 
equipped with a fire door assembly having a 20-minute fire 
protection rating. 

17.6.3.1.2 Where the story above the level of exit discharge is 
used for sleeping purposes, there shall be a fire door assembly 
having a 20-minute fire protection rating at the top or bottom 
of each stairway unless otherwise permitted by 17.6.3.1.3. 

17.6.3.1.3 Approved existing self-closing 44-mm (1%-in.) 
thick, solid-bonded wood doors without rated frames shall be 
permitted to continue in use. 

17.6.3.2 Protection from Hazards. (No requirements.) 

17.6.3.3 Interior Finish. 

17.6.3.3.1 General. Interior finish shall be in accordance with 
Section 10.2. 

17.6.3.3.2 Interior Wall and Ceiling Finish. 

17.6.3.3.2.1 Interior wall and ceiling finish materials comply- 
ing with Section 10.2 shall be Class A or Class B in exits. 

17.6.3.3.2.2 Interior wall and ceiling Finish materials comply- 
ing with Section 10.2 shall be Class A, Class B, or Class C in 
occupied spaces. 

17.6.3.3.3 Interior Floor Finish. (No requirements.) 

17.6.3.4 Detection, Alarm, and Communications Systems. 

17.6.3.4.1 Smoke alarms shall be installed within day-care 
homes in accordance with 9.6.2.10. 

17.6.3.4.2 Where a day-care home is located within a building 
of another occupancy, such as in an apartment building or 
office building, any corridors serving the day-care home shall 
be provided with a smoke detection system in accordance with 
Section 9.6. 

17.6.3.4.3 One of the following shall be provided in all rooms 
used for sleeping: 

(1) Single-station or multiple-station smoke alarms in accor- 
dance with 9.6.2.10 that are powered by the building elec- 
trical system 



(2) System detectors with integral sounding devices in accor- 
dance with 9.6.1.3 

17.6.3.4.4 Approved existing battery-powered smoke alarms, 
rather than house electrical service-powered smoke alarms 
required by 17.6.3.4.3, shall be permitted where the facility 
has testing, maintenance, and battery replacement programs 
that ensure reliability of power to the smoke alarms. 

17.6.3.5 Extinguishment Requirements. Any required sprin- 
kler systems shall be in accordance with Section 9.7 and, other 
than approved existing systems, shall be installed in accor- 
dance with 9.7.1.1(1), 9.7.1.1(2), or 9.7.1. 1(3), as appropriate 
with respect to the scope of the installation standard. 

17.7 Operating Features. 

17.7.1* Emergency Plans. Emergency plans shall be provided 
in accordance with Section 4.8. 

17.7.2 Emergency Egress and Relocation Drills. 

17.7.2.1* Emergency egress and relocation drills shall be con- 
ducted in accordance with Section 4.7 and the applicable pro- 
visions of 17.7.2.2. 

17.7.2.2 Emergency egress and relocation drills shall be con- 
ducted as follows: 

(1) Not less than one emergency egress and relocation drill 
shall be conducted every month the facility is in session, 
unless both of the following criteria are met: 

(a) In climates where the weather is severe, the monthly 
emergency egress and relocation drills shall be per- 
mitted to be deferred. 

(b) The required number of emergency egress and reloca- 
tion drills shall be conducted, and not less than four 
shall be conducted before the drills are deferred. 

(2) All occupants of the building shall participate in the drill. 

(3) One additional emergency egress and relocation drill, 
other than for day-care occupancies that are open on a 
year-round basis, shall be required within the first 30 days 
of operation. 

17.7.3 Inspections. 

17.7.3.1 Fire prevention inspections shall be conducted 
monthly by a trained senior member of the staff, after which a 
copy of the latest inspection report shall be posted in a con- 
spicuous place in the day-care facility. 

17.7.3.2* It shall be the duty of site administrators and staff 
members to inspect all exit facilities daily to ensure that all 
stairways, doors, and other exits are in proper condition. 

17.7.3.3 Open plan buildings shall require extra surveillance 
to ensure that exit paths are maintained clear of obstruction 
and are obvious. 

17.7.4 Furnishings and Decorations. 

17.7.4.1 Draperies, curtains, and other similar furnishings 
and decorations in day-care occupancies shall be in accor- 
dance with the provisions of 10.3.1. 

17.7.4.2 Clothing and personal effects shall not be stored in 
corridors, unless otherwise permitted by the following: 

(1) This requirement shall not apply to corridors protected 
by an automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Sec- 
tion 9.7. 



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(2) This requirement shall not apply to corridor areas pro- 
tected by a smoke detection system in accordance with 
Section 9.6. 

(3) This requirement shall not apply to storage in metal lockers, 
provided that the required egress width is maintained. 

17.7.4.3 Artwork and teaching materials shall be permitted to 
be attached directly to the walls in accordance with the following: 

(1) The artwork and teaching materials shall not exceed 
20 percent of the wall area in a building that is not pro- 
tected throughout by an approved automatic sprinkler 
system in accordance with Section 9.7. 

(2) The artwork and teaching materials shall not exceed 
50 percent of the wall area in a building that is protected 
throughout by an approved automatic sprinkler system in 
accordance with Section 9.7. 

17.7.5* Day-Care Staff. Adequate adult staff shall be on duty, 
alert, awake, and in the facility at all times where clients are 
present. 



Chapter 18 New Health Care Occupancies 

18.1 General Requirements. 
18.1.1 Application. 
18.1.1.1 General. 

18.1.1.1.1 The requirements of this chapter shall apply to the 
following: 

(1) New buildings or portions thereof used as health care oc- 
cupancies (see 1.3.1) 

(2) Additions made to, or used as, a health care occupancy 
(see 4.6. 7 and 18.1.1.4), unless all of the following criteria 
are met: 

(a) The addition is classified as other than a health care 
occupancy. 

(b) The addition is separated from the health care occu- 
pancy in accordance with 18.1.2.2(2). 

(c) The addition conforms to the requirements for the 
specific occupancy in accordance with Chapter 12 
through Chapter 17 and Chapter 20 through Chap- 
ter 42, as appropriate. 

(3) Alterations, modernizations, or renovations of existing 
health care occupancies (see 4.6.8 and 18.1. 1.4) 

(4)*Existing buildings or portions thereof upon change of oc- 
cupancy to a health care occupancy (see 4.6.12), unless the 
authority having jurisdiction has determined equivalent 
safety has been provided in accordance with Section 1.4. 

18.1.1.1.2 The requirements established by this chapter shall 
apply to the design of all new hospitals, nursing homes, and 
limited care facilities. The term hospital, wherever used in this 
Code, shall include general hospitals, psychiatric hospitals, and 
specialty hospitals. The term nursing home, wherever used in 
this Code, shall include nursing and convalescent homes, 
skilled nursing facilities, intermediate care facilities, and infir- 
maries in homes for the aged. Where requirements vary, the 
specific subclass of health care occupancy is named in the 
paragraph pertaining thereto. The requirements established 
by Chapter 20 shall apply to all new ambulatory health care 



facilities. The operating feature requirements established by 
Section 18.7 shall apply to all health care occupancies. 

18.1.1.1.3 The health care facilities regulated by this chapter 
shall be those that provide sleeping accommodations for their 
occupants and are occupied by persons who are mosdy inca- 
pable of self-preservation because of age, because of physical 
or mental disability, or because of security measures not under 
the occupants' control. 

18.1.1.1.4 Buildings, or sections of buildings, that primarily 
house patients who, in the opinion of the governing body of 
the facility and the governmental agency having jurisdiction, 
are capable of exercising judgment and appropriate physical 
action for self-preservation under emergency conditions shall 
be permitted to comply with chapters of this Code other than 
Chapter 18. 

18.1.1.1.5 It shall be recognized that, in buildings housing 
certain types of patients or having detention rooms or a secu- 
rity section, it might be necessary to lock doors and bar win- 
dows to confine and protect building inhabitants. In such in- 
stances, the authority having jurisdiction shall make 
appropriate modifications to those sections of this Code that 
would otherwise require means of egress to be kept unlocked. 

18.1.1.1.6 Buildings, or sections of buildings, that house 
older persons and that provide activities that foster continued 
independence but that do not include services distinctive to 
health care occupancies (see 18.1.3) as defined in 3.3.152.7 
shall be permitted to comply with the requirements of other 
chapters of this Code, such as Chapter 30 or Chapter 32. 

18.1.1.1.7 Facilities that do not provide housing on a 24-hour 
basis for their occupants shall be classified as other occupan- 
cies and shall be covered by other chapters of this Code. 

18.1.1.1.8* The requirements of this chapter are based on the 
assumption that staff is available in all patient-occupied areas 
to perform certain fire safety functions as required in other 
paragraphs of this chapter. 

18.1.1.2* Goals and Objectives. The goals and objectives of 
Section 4.1 and Section 4.2 shall be met with due consider- 
ation for functional requirements, which are accomplished by 
limiting the development and spread of a fire emergency to 
the room of fire origin and reducing the need for occupant 
evacuation, except from the room of fire origin. 

18.1.1.3 Total Concept. 

18.1.1.3.1 All health care facilities shall be designed, con- 
structed, maintained, and operated to minimize the possibility 
of a fire emergency requiring the evacuation of occupants. 

18.1.1.3.2 Because the safety of health care occupants cannot 
be ensured adequately by dependence on evacuation of the 
building, their protection from fire shall be provided by ap- 
propriate arrangement of facilities, adequate, trained staff, 
and development of operating and maintenance procedures 
composed of the following: 

(1) Design, construction, and compartmentation 

(2) Provision for detection, alarm, and extinguishment 

(3) Fire prevention procedures and the planning, training, and 
drilling programs for the isolation of fire, transfer of occu- 
pants to areas of refuge, or evacuation of the building 



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18.1.1.4 Additions, Conversions, Modernization, Renovation, 
and Construction Operations. 

18.1.1.4.1 Additions. Additions shall be separated from any 
existing structure not conforming to the provisions within 
Chapter 19 by a fire barrier having not less than a 2-hour fire 
resistance rating and constructed of materials as required for 
the addition. (See 4.6.12 and 4. 6. 7.) 

18.1.1.4.2 Communicating openings in dividing fire barriers 
required by 18.1.1.4.1 shall be permitted only in corridors and 
shall be protected by approved self-closing fire door assem- 
blies. (See also Section 8.3.) 

18.1.1.4.3 Doors in barriers required by 18.1.1.4.1 shall nor- 
mally be kept closed unless otherwise permitted by 18.1.1.4.4. 

18.1.1.4.4 Doors shall be permitted to be held open if they 
meet the requirements of 18.2.2.2.6. 

18.1.1.4.5 Changes of Occupancy. Changes of occupancy 
shall comply with 4.6.12, and the following also shall apply: 

(1) A change from one health care occupancy subclassifica- 
tion to another shall require compliance with the require- 
ments for new construction. 

(2) A change from a hospital to a nursing home or from a 
nursing home to a hospital shall not be considered a 
change in occupancy or occupancy subclassification. 

(3) A change from a hospital or nursing home to a limited 
care facility shall not be considered a change in occu- 
pancy or occupancy subclassification. 

(4) A change from a hospital or nursing home to an ambula- 
tory health care facility shall not be considered a change 
in occupancy or occupancy subclassification. 

18.1.1.4.6 Rehabilitation. 

18.1.1.4.6.1 For purposes of the provisions of this chapter, 
the following shall apply: 

(1) A major rehabilitation shall involve the modification of 
more than 50 percent, or more than 420 m 2 (4500 ft 2 ), of 
the area of the smoke compartment. 

(2) A minor rehabilitation shall involve the modification of 
not more than 50 percent, and not more than 420 m 2 
(4500 ft 2 ) , of the area of the smoke compartment. 

18.1.1.4.6.2 Work that is exclusively plumbing, mechanical, 
fire protection system, electrical, medical gas, or medical 
equipment shall not be included in the computation of the 
modification area within the smoke compartment. 

18.1.1.4.6.3* Where major rehabilitation is made in a non- 
sprinklered smoke compartment, the automatic sprinkler re- 
quirements of 18.3.5.1 shall apply to the smoke compartment 
undergoing the rehabilitation, and, in cases where the build- 
ing is not protected throughout by an approved automatic 
sprinkler system, the requirements of 18.4.3.2 and 18.4.3.3(2) 
shall also apply. 

18.1.1.4.6.4* Where minor rehabilitation is done in a non- 
sprinklered smoke compartment, the requirements of 
18.3.5.1 shall not apply, but, in such cases, the rehabilitation 
shall not reduce life safety below the level that previously ex- 
isted or below the level of requirements of 18.4.3 for nonsprin- 
klered smoke compartment rehabilitation. (See 4.6.8.) 

18.1.1.4.7 Construction, Repair, and Improvement Opera- 
tions. (See 4.6.11.) 



18.1.2 Multiple Occupancies. 

18.1.2.1 Multiple occupancies shall be in accordance with 
6.1.14. 

18.1.2.2* Sections of health care facilities shall be permitted to 
be classified as other occupancies, provided that they meet all 
of the following conditions: 

(1) They are not intended to serve health care occupants for 
purposes of housing, treatment, or customary access by 
patients incapable of self-preservation. 

(2) They are separated from areas of health care occupancies 
by construction having a fire resistance rating of not less 
than 2 hours. 

18.1.2.3* Ambulatory care facilities, medical clinics, and simi- 
lar facilities that are contiguous to health care occupancies but 
are primarily intended to provide outpatient services shall be 
permitted to be classified as business occupancies or ambula- 
tory health care facilities, provided that the facilities are sepa- 
rated from the health care occupancy by not less than 2-hour 
fire resistance-rated construction and the facility is not in- 
tended to provide services simultaneously for four or more 
in-patients who are litterborne. 

18.1.2.4 All means of egress from health care occupancies 
that traverse non-health care spaces shall conform to the re- 
quirements of this Code for health care occupancies, unless 
otherwise permitted by 18.1.2.5. 

18.1.2.5 Exit through a horizontal exit into other contiguous 
occupancies that do not conform to health care egress provi- 
sions, but that do comply with requirements set forth in the 
appropriate occupancy chapter of this Code, shall be permit- 
ted, provided that both of the following criteria apply: 

(1) The occupancy does not contain high hazard contents. 

(2) The horizontal exit complies with the requirements of 
18.2.2.5. 

18.1.2.6 Egress provisions for areas of health care facilities 
that correspond to other occupancies shall meet the corre- 
sponding requirements of this Code for such occupancies, and, 
where the clinical needs of the occupant necessitate the lock- 
ing of means of egress, staff shall be present for the supervised 
release of occupants during all times of use. 

18.1.2.7 Auditoriums, chapels, staff residential areas, or 
other occupancies provided in connection with health care 
facilities shall have means of egress provided in accordance 
with other applicable sections of this Code. 

18.1.2.8 Any area with a hazard of contents classified higher 
than that of the health care occupancy and located in the 
same building shall be protected as required by 18.3.2. 

18.1.2.9 Non-health care-related occupancies classified as 
containing high hazard contents shall not be permitted in 
buildings housing health care occupancies. 

18.1.3 Definitions. A list of terms used in this chapter follows: 

(1) Ambulatory Health Care Occupancy. See 3.3.152.1. 

(2) Hospital. See 3.3.112. 

(3) Limited Care Facility. See 3.3.69.2. 

(4) Nursing Home. See 3.3.110.2. 

18.1.4 Classification of Occupancy. See 18.1.3. 

18.1.5 Classification of Hazard of Contents. The classification 
of hazard of contents shall be as defined in Section 6.2. 



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18.1.6 Minimum Construction Requirements. 

18.1.6.1 For the purpose of 18.1.6, the number of stories 
shall be counted starting with the primary level of exit dis- 
charge and ending with the highest occupiable level. 

18. 1 .6.2 For the purposes of 1 8. 1 .6. 1 , the primary level of exit 
discharge of a building shall be the lowest story whose floor is 
level with or above finished grade on the exterior wall line for 
50 percent or more of its perimeter. 

18.1.6.3 For the purposes of 18.1.6.2, building levels below 
the primary level shall not be counted as a story. 

18.1.6.4 Health care occupancies shall be limited to the types 
of building construction shown in Table 18.1.6.4, unless oth- 
erwise permitted by 18.1.6.5. (See 8.2.1.) 



Table 18.1.6.4 Construction Type Limitations 



Stories 


Construction 








4 or 


Type 


1 


2 


3 


More 


1(443) 


X 


X 


X 


X 


1(332) 


X 


X 


X 


X 


11(222) 


X 


X 


X 


X 


11(111) 


X 


X 


X 


NP 


11(000) 


X 


NP 


NP 


NP 


111(211) 


X 


NP 


NP 


NP 


111(200) 


NP 


NP 


NP 


NP 


IV(2HH) 


X 


NP 


NP 


NP 


V(lll) 


X 


NP 


NP 


NP 


V(000) 


NP 


NP 


NP 


NP 



X: Permitted type of construction. 
NP: Not permitted. 



18.1.6.5 Any building of Type 1(443), Type 1(332), Type 
11(222), or Type 11(111) construction shall be permitted to 
include roofing systems involving combustible supports, deck- 
ing, or roofing, provided that the following criteria are met: 

(1) The roof covering shall meet Class A requirements in ac- 
cordance with NFPA 256, Standard Methods of Fire Tests of 
Roof Coverings. 

(2) The roof shall be separated from all occupied portions of 
the building by a noncombustible floor assembly having 
not less than a 2-hour fire resistance rating that includes 
not less than 63 mm {2Vi in.) of concrete or gypsum fill. 

(3) The structural elements supporting the 2-hour fire 
resistance-rated floor assembly specified in 18.1.6.5(2) 
shall be required to have only the fire resistance rating 
required of the building. 

18.1.6.6 All interior walls and partitions in buildings of Type I 
or Type II construction shall be of noncombustible or limited- 
combustible materials. 

18.1.6.7 Fire-retardant-treated wood that serves as supports for 
the installation of fixtures and equipment shall be permitted 
to be installed behind noncombustible or limited-combustible 
sheathing. 

18.1.6.8 All buildings with more than one level below the 
level of exit discharge shall have all such lower levels separated 



from the level of exit discharge by not less than Type 11(111) 
construction. 

18.1.7 Occupant Load. The occupant load, in number of per- 
sons for whom means of egress and other provisions are re- 
quired, either shall be determined on the basis of the occu- 
pant load factors of Table 7.3.1.2 that are characteristic of the 
use of the space or shall be determined as the maximum prob- 
able population of the space under consideration, whichever 
is greater. 

18.2 Means of Egress Requirements. 

18.2.1 General. Every aisle, passageway, corridor, exit discharge, 
exit location, and access shall be in accordance with Chapter 7, 
unless otherwise modified by 18.2.2 through 18.2.11. 

18.2.2* Means of Egress Components. 

18.2.2.1 Components of means of egress shall be limited to 
the types described in 18.2.2.2 through 18.2.2.10. 

18.2.2.2 Doors. 

18.2.2.2.1 Doors complying with 7.2.1 shall be permitted. 

18.2.2.2.2 Locks shall not be permitted on patient sleeping 
room doors, unless otherwise permitted by the following: 

(1) Key-locking devices that restrict access to the room from 
the corridor and that are operable only by staff from the 
corridor side shall be permitted, provided that such de- 
vices do not restrict egress from the room. 

(2) Door-locking arrangements shall be permitted in health 
care occupancies, or portions of health care occupancies, 
where the clinical needs of the patients require special- 
ized security measures for their safety, provided that keys 
are carried by staff at all times. 

18.2.2.2.3 Doors not located in a required means of egress 
shall be permitted to be subject to locking. 

18.2.2.2.4 Doors within a required means of egress shall not 
be equipped with a latch or lock that requires the use of a tool 
or key from the egress side, unless otherwise permitted by the 
following: 

(1) Door-locking arrangements without delayed egress shall 
be permitted in health care occupancies, or portions of 
health care occupancies, where the clinical needs of the 
patients require specialized security measures for their 
safety, provided that staff can readily unlock such doors at 
all times. (See 18.1.1.1.5 and 18.2.2.2.5.) 

(2) *Delayed-egress locks complying with 7.2.1.6.1 shall be per- 

mitted, provided that not more than one such device is 
located in any egress path. 

(3) Access-controlled egress doors complying with 7.2.1.6.2 
shall be permitted. 

18.2.2.2.5 Doors that are located in the means of egress and 
are permitted to be locked under other provisions of this 
chapter shall have provisions made for the rapid removal of 
occupants by means such as the following: 

(1) Remote control of locks 

(2) Keying of all locks to keys carried by staff at all times 

(3) Other such reliable means available to the staff at all times 

18.2.2.2.5.1 Only one locking device as specified in 18.2.2.2.5 
shall be permitted on each door. 



18.2.2.2.5.2 Locks in accordance 
18.2.2.2.4(3) shall be permitted. 



with 18.2.2.2.4(2) and 



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18.2.2.2.6* Any door in an exit passageway, stairway enclosure, 
horizontal exit, smoke barrier, or hazardous area enclosure 
(except boiler rooms, heater rooms, and mechanical equip- 
ment rooms) shall be permitted to be held open only by an 
automatic release device that complies with 7.2.1.8.2. The au- 
tomatic sprinkler system and the fire alarm system, and the 
systems required by 7.2.1.8.2, shall be arranged to initiate the 
closing action of all such doors throughout the smoke com- 
partment or throughout the entire facility. 

18.2.2.2.7 Where doors in a stair enclosure are held open by 
an automatic release device as permitted in 18.2.2.2.6, initia- 
tion of a door-closing action on any level shall cause all doors 
at all levels in the stair enclosure to close. 

18.2.2.2.8 High-rise health care occupancies shall comply 
with the re-entry provisions of 7.2.1.5.7. 

18.2.2.2.9 Horizontal sliding doors, as permitted by 7.2.1.14, 
that are not automatic-closing shall be limited to a single leaf 
and shall have a latch or other mechanism that ensures that 
doors will not rebound into a partially open position if force- 
fully closed in an emergency. 

18.2.2.3 Stairs. Stairs complying with 7.2.2 shall be permitted. 

18.2.2.4 Sniokeproof Enclosures. Smokeproof enclosures 
complying with 7.2.3 shall be permitted. 

18.2.2.5 Horizontal Exits. Horizontal exits complying with 
7.2.4 and the modifications of 18.2.2.5.1 through 18.2.2.5.6 
shall be permitted. 

18.2.2.5.1 Accumulation space shall be provided in accor- 
dance with 18.2.2.5.1.1 and 18.2.2.5.1.2. 

18.2.2.5.1.1 Not less than 2.8 net m 2 (30 net ft 2 ) per patient 
in a hospital or nursing home, or not less than 1.4 net m 2 
(15 net ft 2 ) per resident in a limited care facility, shall be pro- 
vided within the aggregated area of corridors, patient rooms, 
treatment rooms, lounge or dining areas, and other similar 
areas on each side of the horizontal exit. 

18.2.2.5.1.2 On stories not housing bed or litterborne pa- 
tients, not less than 0.56 net m 2 (6 net ft 2 ) per occupant shall 
be provided on each side of the horizontal exit for the total 
number of occupants in adjoining compartments. 

18.2.2.5.2 The total egress capacity of the other exits (stairs, 
ramps, doors leading outside the building) shall not be re- 
duced below one-third of that required for the entire area of 
the building. 

18.2.2.5.3 A single door shall be permitted in a horizontal 
exit if the following conditions apply: 

(1) The exit serves one direction only. 

(2) Such door is a swinging door or a horizontal sliding door 
complying with 7.2.1.14. 

(3) The door is not less than 1055 mm (41V2 in.) in clear 
width. 

18.2.2.5.4 A horizontal exit involving a corridor 2440 mm 
(96 in.) or more in width and serving as a means of egress 
from both sides of the doorway shall have the opening pro- 
tected by a pair of swinging doors arranged to swing in oppo- 
site directions from each other, with each door having a clear 
width of not less than 1055 mm (41 Vz in.), or by a horizontal 
sliding door that complies with 7.2.1.14 and provides a clear 
width of not less than 2110 mm (83 in.). 



18.2.2.5.5 A horizontal exit involving a corridor 1830 mm 
(72 in.) or more in width and serving as a means of egress 
from both sides of the doorway shall have the opening pro- 
tected by a pair of swinging doors, arranged to swing in oppo- 
site directions from each other, with each door having a clear 
width of not less than 810 mm (32 in.), or by a horizontal 
sliding door that complies with 7.2.1.14 and provides a clear 
width of not less than 1625 mm (64 in.). 

18.2.2.5.6 An approved vision panel shall be required in each 
horizontal exit. 

18.2.2.5.7 Center mullions shall be prohibited in horizontal 
exit door openings. 

18.2.2.6 Ramps. 

18.2.2.6.1 Ramps complying with 7.2.5 shall be permitted. 

18.2.2.6.2 Ramps enclosed as exits shall be of sufficient width 
to provide egress capacity in accordance with 18.2.3. 

18.2.2.7 Exit Passageways. Exit passageways complying with 
7.2.6 shall be permitted. 

18.2.2.8 Fire Escape Ladders. Fire escape ladders complying 
with 7.2.9 shall be permitted. 

18.2.2.9 Alternating Tread Devices. Alternating tread devices 
complying with 7.2.11 shall be permitted. 

18.2.2.10 Areas of Refuge. Areas of refuge used as part of a 
required accessible means of egress shall comply with 7.2.12. 

18.2.3 Capacity of Means of Egress. 

18.2.3.1 The capacity of means of egress shall be in accor- 
dance with Section 7.3. 

18.2.3.2 Reserved. 

18.2.3.3 Reserved. 

18.2.3.4* Aisles, corridors, and ramps required for exit access 
in a hospital or nursing home shall be not less than 2440 mm 
(96 in.) in clear and unobstructed width, unless otherwise per- 
mitted by the following: 

(l)*Aisles, corridors, and ramps in adjunct areas not intended 
for the housing, treatment, or use of inpatients shall be not 
less than 1120 mm (44 in.) in clear and unobstructed width. 

(2)*Exit access within a room or suite of rooms complying 
with the requirements of 18.2.5 shall be permitted. 

18.2.3.5 Aisles, corridors, and ramps required for exit access 
in a limited care facility or hospital for psychiatric care shall be 
not less than 1830 mm (72 in.) in clear and unobstructed 
width, unless otherwise permitted by the following: 

(l)*Aisles, corridors, and ramps in adjunct areas not intended 
for the housing, treatment, or use of inpatients shall be not 
less than 1120 mm (44 in.) in clear and unobstructed width. 

(2)*Exit access within a room or suite of rooms complying 
with the requirements of 18.2.5 shall be permitted. 

18.2.3.6 The minimum clear width for doors in the means of 
egress from sleeping rooms; diagnostic and treatment areas, 
such as x-ray, surgery, or physical therapy; and nursery rooms 
shall be as follows: 

(1) Hospitals and nursing homes — 1055 mm (41 ¥2 in.) 

(2) Psychiatric hospitals and limited care facilities — 810 mm 
(32 in.) 



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18.2.3.7 The requirements of 18.2.3.6 shall not apply where 
otherwise permitted by the following: 

(1) Doors that are located so as not to be subject to use by any 
health care occupant shall be not less than 810 mm 
(32 in.) in clear width. 

(2) Doors in exit stair enclosures shall be not less than 
810 mm (32 in.) in clear width. 

(3) Doors serving newborn nurseries shall be not less than 
810 mm (32 in.) in clear width. 

(4) Where a pair of doors is provided, the following criteria 
shall be met: 

(a) Not less than one of the doors shall provide not less 
than a 810 mm (32 in.) clear width opening. 

(b) A rabbet, bevel, or astragal shall be provided at the 
meeting edge. 

(c) The inactive door leaf shall have an automatic flush 
bolt to provide positive latching. 

18.2.4 Number of Exits. 

18.2.4.1 Not less than two exits of the types described in 

18.2.2.2 through 18.2.2.10, remotely located from each other, 
shall be provided for each floor or fire section of the building. 

18.2.4.2 Not less than one exit from each floor or fire section 
shall be one of the following: 

(1) A door leading directly outside the building 

(2) A stair 

(3) A smokeproof enclosure 

(4) A ramp 

(5) An exit passageway 

18.2.4.3 Any fire section not meeting the requirements of 
18.2.4.2 shall be considered part of an adjoining zone through 
which egress shall not require return through the zone of fire 
origin. 

18.2.4.4* Not less than two exits of the types described in 
18.2.2.2 through 18.2.2.10 shall be accessible from each 
smoke compartment, and egress shall be permitted through 
an adjacent compartment(s) but shall not require return 
through the compartment of fire origin. 

18.2.5 Arrangement of Means of Egress. 

18.2.5.1 Every habitable room shall have an exit access door 
leading directly to an exit access corridor, unless otherwise 
permitted by the following: 

(1) The requirement of 18.2.5.1 shall not apply if there is an 
exit door opening directly to the outside from the room at 
ground level. 

(2) Exit access from a patient sleeping room with not more 
than eight patient beds shall be permitted to pass through 
one intervening room to reach the exit access corridor. 

(3) Exit access from a sleeping or nursing suite shall be per- 
mitted to pass through one intervening room to reach the 
exit access corridor where the arrangement allows for di- 
rect and constant visual supervision by nursing personnel. 

(4) Exit access from a suite of rooms, other than patient sleep- 
ing rooms, shall be permitted to pass through not more 
than two adjacent rooms to reach the exit access corridor 
where the travel distance within the suite is in accordance 
with 18.2.5.8. 

18.2.5.2 Any patient sleeping room, or any suite that includes 
patient sleeping rooms, of more than 93 m 2 (1000 ft 2 ) shall 



have not less than two exit access doors remotely located from 
each other. 

18.2.5.3 Any room or any suite of rooms, other than patient 
sleeping rooms, of more than 232 m 2 (2500 ft 2 ) shall have not 
less than two exit access doors remotely located from each 
other. 

18.2.5.4 Any suite of rooms that complies with the require- 
ments of 18.2.5 shall be permitted to be subdivided with non- 
fire-rated, noncombustible, or limited-combustible partitions. 

18.2.5.5 Intervening rooms shall not be hazardous areas as 
defined by 18.3.2. 

18.2.5.6 Suites of sleeping rooms shall not exceed 465 m 2 
(5000 ft 2 ). 

18.2.5.7 Suites of rooms, other than patient sleeping rooms, 
shall not exceed 929 m 2 (10,000 ft 2 ). 

18.2.5.8 Suites of rooms, other than patient sleeping rooms, 
shall be permitted to have one intervening room if the travel 
distance within the suite to the exit access door does not ex- 
ceed 30 m (100 ft) and shall be permitted to have two inter- 
vening rooms where the travel distance within the suite to the 
exit access door does not exceed 15 m (50 ft). 

18.2.5.9 Every corridor shall provide access to not less than 
two approved exits in accordance with Section 7.4 and Section 
7.5 without passing through any intervening rooms or spaces 
other than corridors or lobbies. 

18.2.5.10 Every exit or exit access shall be arranged so that no 
corridor, aisle, or passageway has a pocket or dead end ex- 
ceeding 9140 mm (360 in.) . 

18.2.6 Travel Distance to Exits. 

18.2.6.1 Travel distance shall be measured in accordance 
with Section 7.6. 

18.2.6.2 Travel distance shall comply with 18.2.6.2.1 through 
18.2.6.2.6. 

18.2.6.2.1 The travel distance between any room door re- 
quired as an exit access and an exit shall not exceed 46 m 
(150 ft). 

18.2.6.2.2 Reserved. 

18.2.6.2.3 The travel distance between any point in a room 
and an exit shall not exceed 61 m (200 ft) . 

18.2.6.2.4 Reserved. 

18.2.6.2.5 The travel distance between any point in a health 
care sleeping room and an exit access door in that room shall 
not exceed 15 m (50 ft) . 

18.2.6.2.6 The travel distance between any point in a suite of 
sleeping rooms as permitted by 18.2.5 and an exit access door 
of that suite shall not exceed 30 m (100 ft) and shall meet the 
requirements of 18.2.6.2.3. 

18.2.7 Discharge from Exits. Discharge from exits shall be ar- 
ranged in accordance with Section 7.7. 

18.2.8 Illiunination of Means of Egress. Means of egress shall 
be illuminated in accordance with Section 7.8. 

18.2.9 Emergency Lighting. 

18.2.9.1 Emergency lighting shall be provided in accordance 
with Section 7.9. 



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18.2.9.2 Buildings equipped with, or in which patients re- 
quire the use of, life-support systems (see 18.5.1.3) shall have 
emergency lighting equipment supplied by the life safety 
branch of the electrical system as described in NFPA99, Stan- 
dard for Health Care Facilities. 

18.2.10 Marking of Means of Egress. 

18.2.10.1 Means of egress shall have signs in accordance with 
Section 7.10. 

18.2.10.2 Illumination of required exit and directional signs 
in buildings equipped with, or in which patients use, life- 
support systems (see 18.5.1.3) shall be provided as follows: 

(1) Illumination shall be supplied by the life safety branch of 
the electrical system as described in NFPA 99, Standard for 
Health Care Facilities. 

(2) Self-luminous exit signs complying with 7.10.4 shall be 
permitted. 

18.2.11 Special Means of Egress Features. (Reserved) 

18.3 Protection. 

18.3.1 Protection of Vertical Openings. Any vertical opening 
shall be enclosed or protected in accordance with Section 8.6, 
unless otherwise modified by 18.3.1.1 through 18.3.1.8. 

18.3.1. 



18.3.1.2 Unprotected vertical openings in accordance with 
8.6.8.2 shall be permitted. 

18.3.1.3 Subparagraph 8.6.7(1) (b) shall not apply to patient 
sleeping and treatment rooms. 

18.3.1.4 Multilevel patient sleeping areas in psychiatric facili- 
ties shall be permitted without enclosure protection between 
levels, provided that all of the following conditions are met: 

( 1 ) The entire normally occupied area, including all commu- 
nicating floor levels, is sufficientiy open and unobstructed 
so that a fire or other dangerous condition in any part is 
obvious to the occupants or supervisory personnel in the 
area. 

(2) The egress capacity provides simultaneously for all the 
occupants of all communicating levels and areas, with all 
communicating levels in the same fire area being consid- 
ered as a single floor area for purposes of determination 
of required egress capacity. 

(3) The height between the highest and lowest finished floor 
levels does not exceed 3960 mm (156 in.), and the num- 
ber of levels is permitted to be unrestricted. 

18.3.1.5 Unprotected openings in accordance with 8.6.6 
shall not be permitted. 

18.3.1.6 Reserved. 

18.3.1.7 A door in a stair enclosure shall be self-closing and 
shall normally be kept in the closed position, unless otherwise 
permitted by 18.3.1.8. 

18.3.1.8 Doors in stair enclosures shall be permitted to be 
held open under the conditions specified by 18.2.2.2.6 and 
18.2.2.2.7. 

18.3.2 Protection frorn Hazards. 

18.3.2.1* Hazardous Areas. Any hazardous areas shall be pro- 
tected in accordance with Section 8.7, and the areas described 
in Table 18.3.2.1 shall be protected as indicated. 



Table 18.3.2.1 Hazardous Area Protection 



Hazardous Area Description 



Separation/ 
Protection 



Boiler and fuel-fired heater rooms 
Central/bulk laundries larger than 9.3 

m 2 (100 ft 2 ) 
Laboratories employing flammable or 

combustible materials in quantities 

less than those that would be 

considered a severe hazard 
Laboratories that use hazardous 

materials that would be classified as a 

severe hazard in accordance with 

NFPA 99, Standard for Health Care 

Facilities 
Paint shops employing hazardous 

substances and materials in quantities 

less than those that would be classified 

as a severe hazard 
Physical plant maintenance shops 
Soiled linen rooms 
Storage rooms larger than 4.6 m 2 

(50 ft 2 ) but not exceeding 

9.3 m 2 (100 ft 2 ) and storing 

combustible material 
Storage rooms larger than 9.3 m 2 

(100 ft 2 ) and storing combustible 

material 
Trash collection rooms 



1 hour 
1 hour 

See 18.3.6.3.9 



1 hour 



1 hour 



1 hour 
1 hour 
See 18.3.6.3.9 



1 hour 



1 hour 



18.3.2.2* Laboratories. Laboratories employing quantities of 
flammable, combustible, or hazardous materials that are con- 
sidered as a severe hazard shall be protected in accordance 
with NFPA 99, Standard for Health Care Facilities. 

18.3.2.3 Anesthetizing Locations. Anesthetizing locations 
shall be protected in accordance with NFPA 99, Standard for 
Health Care Facilities. 

18.3.2.4 Medical Gas. Medical gas storage and administration 
areas shall be protected in accordance with NFPA 99, Standard 

for Health Care Facilities. 

i 

18.3.2.5 Cooking Facilities. 

18.3.2-5.1 Cooking facilities shall be protected in accordance 
with 9.2.3, unless otherwise permitted by 18.3.2.5.2. 

18.3.2.5.2* Where domestic cooking equipment is used for 
food-warming or limited cooking, protection or separation of 
food preparation facilities shall not be required. 

18.3.2.6 Heliports. Buildings that house health care occu- 
pancies, as indicated in 18.1.1.1.2, and have rooftop heli- 
ports shall be protected in accordance with NFPA 418, Stan- 
dard for Heliports. 

18.3.3 Interior Finish. 



18.3.3.1 General. 
Section 10.2. 



Interior finish shall be in accordance with 



18.3.3.2* Interior Wall and Ceiling Finish. Interior wall and ceil- 
ing finish materials complying with Section 10.2 shall be permit- 
ted throughout if Class A except as indicated in 18.3.3.2.1 or 
18.3.3.2.2. 



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18.3.3.2.1 Walls and ceilings shall be permitted to have Class 
A or Class B interior finish in individual rooms having a capac- 
ity not exceeding four persons. 

18.3.3.2.2 Corridor wall finish not exceeding 1220 mm 
(48 in.) in height that is restricted to the lower half of the wall 
shall be permitted to be Class A or Class B. 

18.3.3.3 Interior Floor Finish. (No requirements.) 

18.3.4 Detection, Alarm, and Communications Systems. 

18.3.4.1 General. Health care occupancies shall be provided 
with a fire alarm system in accordance with Section 9.6. 

18.3.4.2* Initiation. 

18.3.4.2.1 Initiation of the required fire alarm systems shall 
be by manual means in accordance with 9.6.2 and by means of 
any required sprinkler system waterflow alarms, detection de- 
vices, or detection systems, unless otherwise permitted by 
18.3.4.2.2. 

18.3.4.2.2 Manual fire alarm boxes in patient sleeping areas 
shall not be required at exits if located at all nurses' control 
stations or other continuously attended staff location, pro- 
vided that both of the following criteria are met: 

(1) Such manual fire alarm boxes are visible and continu- 
ously accessible. 

(2) Travel distances required by 9.6.2.4 are not exceeded 

18.3.4.3 Notification. 

18.3.4.3.1 Occupant Notification. Occupant notification 
shall be accomplished automatically in accordance with 9.6.3, 
unless otherwise modified by the following: 

(1) Paragraph 9.6.3.2.3 shall not be permitted to be used. 
(2)*In lieu of audible alarm signals, visible alarm-indicating 

appliances shall be permitted to be used in critical care 

areas. 

18.3.4.3.2 Emergency Forces Notification. 

18.3.4.3.2.1 Fire department notification shall be accom- 
plished in accordance with 9.6.4. 

18.3.4.3.2.2 Smoke detection devices, or smoke detection sys- 
tems, equipped with reconfirmation features shall not be re- 
quired to automatically notify the fire department unless the 
alarm condition is reconfirmed after a period not exceeding 
120 seconds. 

18.3.4.3.3 Alarm Annunciation. 

18.3.4.3.3.1 Alarm annunciation shall be provided in accor- 
dance with 9.6.7, unless otherwise permitted by 18.3.4.3.3.2. 

18.3.4.3.3.2 The alarm zone shall be permitted to coincide 
with the permitted area for smoke compartments. 

18.3.4.4 Emergency Control. Operation of any activating de- 
vice in the required fire alarm system shall be arranged to 
accomplish automatically any control functions to be per- 
formed by that device. (See 9.6.5.) 

18.3.4.5 Detection. 

18.3.4.5.1 Detection systems, where required, shall be in ac- 
cordance with Section 9.6. 

18.3.4.5.2 Detection in Spaces Open to Corridors. See 
18.3.6.1. 



18.3.4.5.3* Nursing Homes. An approved automatic smoke 
detection system shall be installed in corridors throughout 
smoke compartments containing patient sleeping rooms and 
in spaces open to corridors as permitted in nursing homes by 
18.3.6.1, unless otherwise permitted by the following: 

( 1 ) Corridor systems shall not be required where each patient 
sleeping room is protected by an approved smoke detec- 
tion system. 

(2) Corridor systems shall not be required where patient 
room doors are equipped with automatic door-closing de- 
vices with integral smoke detectors on the room side in- 
stalled in accordance with their listing, provided that the 
integral detectors provide occupant notification. 

18.3.5 Extinguishment Requirements. 

18.3.5.1* Buildings containing health care occupancies shall 
be protected throughout by an approved, supervised auto- 
matic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 9.7, unless 
otherwise permitted by 18.3.5.3. 

18.3.5.2 The sprinkler system required by 18.3.5.1 shall be 
installed in accordance with 9.7.1.1(1). 

18.3.5.3 In Type I and Type II construction, alternative pro- 
tection measures shall be permitted to be substituted for sprin- 
kler protection, without causing a building to be classified as 
nonsprinklered, in specified areas where the authority having 
jurisdiction has prohibited sprinklers. 

18.3.5.4* Listed quick-response or listed residential sprinklers 
shall be used throughout smoke compartments containing pa- 
tient sleeping rooms. 

18.3.5.5 Reserved. 

18.3.5.6* Sprinklers in areas where cubicle curtains are in- 
stalled shall be in accordance with NFPA 13, Standard far the 
Installation of Sprinkler Systems. 

18.3.5.7 Portable fire extinguishers shall be provided in all 
health care occupancies in accordance with 9.7.4.1. 

18.3.6 Corridors. 

18.3.6.1 Corridors shall be separated from all other areas by 
partitions complying with 18.3.6.2 through 18.3.6.5 (see also 
18.2.5.9), unless otherwise permitted by the following: 

(1) Spaces shall be permitted to be unlimited in area and 
open to the corridor, provided that the following criteria 
are met: 

(a) The spaces are not used for patient sleeping rooms, 
treatment rooms, or hazardous areas. 

(b) The corridors onto which the spaces open in the 
same smoke compartment are protected by an elec- 
trically supervised automatic smoke detection system 
in accordance with 18.3.4, or the smoke compart- 
ment in which the space is located is protected 
throughout by quick-response sprinklers. 

(c) The open space is protected by an electrically super- 
vised automatic smoke detection system in accor- 
dance with 18.3.4, or the entire space is arranged and 
located to allow direct supervision by the facility staff 
from a nurses' station or similar space. 

(d) The space does not obstruct access to required exits. 



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(2) Waiting areas shall be permitted to be open to the corri- 
dor, provided that the following criteria are met: 

(a) The aggregate waiting area in each smoke compart- 
ment does not exceed 55.7 m 2 (600 ft 2 ). 

(b) Each area is protected by an electrically supervised 
automatic smoke detection system in accordance 
with 18.3.4, or each area is arranged and located to 
allow direct supervision by the facility staff from a 
nursing station or similar space. 

(c) The area does not obstruct access to required exits. 
(3)*This requirement shall not apply to spaces for nurses' 

stations. 

(4) Gift shops not exceeding 46.4 m 2 (500 ft 2 ) shall be per- 
mitted to be open to the corridor or lobby, provided the 
building is protected throughout by an approved auto- 
matic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 9.7. 

(5) In a limited care facility, group meeting or multipurpose 
therapeutic spaces shall be permitted to open to the cor- 
ridor, provided that the following criteria are met: 

(a) The space is not a hazardous area. 

(b) The space is protected by an electrically supervised 
automatic smoke detection system in accordance 
with 18.3.4, or the space is arranged and located to 
allow direct supervision by the facility staff from the 
nurses' station or similar location. 

(c) The space does not obstruct access to required exits. 

18.3.6.2* Construction of Corridor Walls. 

18.3.6.2.1 Corridor walls shall form a barrier to limit the 
transfer of smoke. 

18.3.6.2.2 Corridor walls shall be permitted to terminate at 
the ceiling where the ceiling is constructed to limit the trans- 
fer of smoke. 

18.3.6.2.3 No fire resistance rating is required for corridor 
walls. 

18.3.6.3* Corridor Doors. 

18.3.6.3.1* Doors protecting corridor openings shall be con- 
structed to resist the passage of smoke, and the following also 
shall apply. 

(1 ) Compliance with NFPA 80, Standard for Fire Doors and Fire 
Windows, shall not be required. 

(2) Clearance between the bottom of the door and the floor 
covering not exceeding 25 mm (1 in.) shall be permitted 
for corridor doors. 

(3) Doors to toilet rooms, bathrooms, shower rooms, sink 
closets, and similar auxiliary spaces that do not contain 
flammable or combustible material shall not be required 
to be constructed to resist the passage of smoke. 

18.3.6.3.2 Reserved. 

18.3.6.3.3 Reserved. 

18.3.6.3.4 Reserved. 

18.3.6.3.5 Doors shall be provided with positive latching 
hardware. 

18.3.6.3.6 Doors to toilet rooms, bathrooms, shower rooms, 
sink closets, and similar auxiliary spaces that do not contain 
flammable or combustible materials shall not be required to 
be provided with positive latching hardware. 

18.3.6.3.7 Roller latches shall be prohibited. 

18.3.6.3.8* Doors shall not be held open by devices other than 
those that release when the door is pushed or pulled. 



18.3.6.3.9 Door-closing devices shall not be required on 
doors in corridor wall openings other than those serving re- 
quired exits, smoke barriers, or enclosures of vertical open- 
ings and hazardous areas. 

18.3.6.3.10* Nonrated, factory- or field-applied protective 
plates extending not more than 1220 mm (48 in.) above the 
bottom of the door shall be permitted. 

18.3.6.3.11 Dutch doors shall be permitted where they con- 
form to 18.3.6.3 and meet the following criteria: 

(1) Both the upper leaf and lower leaf are equipped with a 
latching device. 

(2) The meeting edges of the upper and lower leaves are 
quipped with an astragal, a rabbet, or a bevel. 

(3) Where protecting openings in enclosures around hazard- 
ous areas, the doors comply with NFPA 80, Standard for Fire 
Doors and Fire Windows. 

18.3.6.4 Transfer Grilles. 

18.3.6.4.1 Transfer grilles, regardless of whether they are 
protected by fusible link-operated dampers, shall not be used 
in corridor walls or doors, unless otherwise permitted by 
18.3.6.4.2. 

18.3.6.4.2 Doors to toilet rooms, bathrooms, shower rooms, 
sink closets, and similar auxiliary spaces that do not contain 
flammable or combustible materials shall be permitted to 
have ventilating louvers or to be undercut. 

18.3.6.5 Openings. In other than smoke compartments con- 
taining patient bedrooms, miscellaneous openings such as 
mail slots, pharmacy pass-through windows, laboratory pass- 
through windows, and cashier pass-through windows shall be 
permitted to be installed in vision panels or doors without 
special protection, provided that both of the following criteria 
are met: 

(1) The aggregate area of openings per room does not ex- 
ceed 0.05 m 2 (0.55 ft 2 ) . 

(2) The openings are installed at or below half the distance 
from the floor to the room ceiling. 

18.3.7* Subdivision of Building Spaces. 

18.3.7.1 Buildings containing health care facilities shall be 
subdivided by smoke barriers, unless otherwise permitted by 
18.3.7.2, as follows: 

(1) To divide every story used by inpatients for sleeping or 
treatment into not less than two smoke compartments 

(2) To divide every story having an occupant load of 50 or 
more persons, regardless of use, into not less than two 
smoke compartments 

(3) To limit the size of each smoke compartment required by 
(1) and (2) to an area not exceeding 2100 m 2 (22,500 ft 2 ), 
unless the area is an atrium separated in accordance with 
8.6.7, in which case no limitation in size is required 

(4) To limit the travel distance from any point to reach a door 
in the required smoke barrier to a distance not exceeding 
61 m (200 ft) 

18.3.7.2 The smoke barrier subdivision requirement of 
18.3.7.1 shall not apply to the following: 

(1) Stories that do not contain a health care occupancy, lo- 
cated totally above the health care occupancy 



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(2) Areas that do not contain a health care occupancy and 
that are separated from the health care occupancy by a 
fire barrier complying with 7.2.4.3 

(3) Stories that do not contain a health care occupancy and that 
are more than one story below the health care occupancy 

(4) Open-air parking structures protected throughout by an 
approved, supervised automatic sprinkler system in accor- 
dance with Section 9.7 

18.3.7.3 Smoke barriers shall be provided on stories that are 
usable but unoccupied. 

18.3.7.4 Any required smoke barrier shall be constructed in 
accordance with Section 8.5 and shall have a fire resistance 
rating of not less than 1 hour, unless otherwise permitted by 
the following: 

( 1 ) This requirement shall not apply where an atrium is used, 
provided that both of the following criteria are met: 

(a) Smoke barriers shall be permitted to terminate at an 
atrium wall constructed in accordance with 8.6.7(1) (c). 

(b) Not less than two separate smoke compartments shall 
be provided on each floor. 

(2)*Smoke dampers shall not be required in duct penetra- 
tions of smoke barriers in fully ducted heating, ventilat- 
ing, and air conditioning systems. 

18.3.7.5 Materials and methods of construction used for re- 
quired smoke barriers shall not reduce the required fire resis- 
tance rating. 

18.3.7.6 Accumulation space shall be provided in accordance 
with 18.3.7.6.1 and 18.3.7.6.2. 

18.3.7.6.1 Not less than 2.8 net m 2 (30 net ft 2 ) per patient 
in a hospital or nursing home, or not less than 1.4 net m 2 
(15 net ft 2 ) per resident in a limited care facility, shall be 
provided within the aggregate area of corridors, patient 
rooms, treatment rooms, lounge or dining areas, and other 
low hazard areas on each side of the smoke barrier. 

18.3.7.6.2 On stories not housing bed or litterborne patients, 
not less than 0.56 net m 2 (6 net ft 2 ) per occupant shall be 
provided on each side of the smoke barrier for the total num- 
ber of occupants in adjoining compartments. 

18.3.7.7* Doors in smoke barriers shall be substantial doors, 
such as 44-mm (1%-in.) thick, solid-bonded wood core doors, 
or shall be of construction that resists fire for not less than 
20 minutes, and shall meet the following requirements: 

(1) Nonrated factory- or field-applied protective plates ex- 
tending not more than 1220 mm (48 in.) above the bot- 
tom of the door shall be permitted. 

(2) Cross-corridor openings in smoke barriers shall be pro- 
tected by a pair of swinging doors or a horizontal sliding 
door complying with 7.2.1.14. 

(3) Swinging doors shall be arranged so that each door swings 
in a direction opposite from the other. 

(4) The minimum clear width for swinging doors shall be as 
follows: 

(a) Hospitals and nursing homes — 1055 mm (41 Vi in.) 

(b) Psychiatric hospitals and limited care facilities — 
810 mm (32 in.) 

(5) The minimum clear width opening for horizontal sliding 
doors shall be as follows: 



(a) Hospitals and nursing homes — 2110 mm (83 in.) 

(b) Psychiatric hospitals and limited care facilities — 
1625 mm (64 in.) 

18.3.7.8* Doors in smoke barriers shall comply with 8.3.4 and 
shall be self-closing or automatic-closing in accordance with 
18.2.2.2.6. 

18.3.7.9* Vision panels consisting of fire-rated glazing or wire 
glass panels in approved frames shall be provided in each 
cross-corridor swinging door and at each cross-corridor hori- 
zontal sliding door in a smoke barrier. 

18.3.7.10 Rabbets, bevels, or astragals shall be required at the 
meeting edges, and stops shall be required at the head and sides 
of doorframes in smoke barriers. Positive latching hardware shall 
not be required. Center mullions shall be prohibited. 

18.3.8* Special Protection Features — Outside Window or 
Door. 

18.3.8.1 Every patient sleeping room shall have an outside 
window or outside door. 

(1) This requirement shall not apply to newborn nurseries 
and rooms intended for occupancy for less than 24 hours, 
such as those housing obstetrical labor beds, recovery 
beds, and observation beds in the emergency department. 

(2) Windows in atrium walls shall be considered outside win- 
dows for the purposes of this requirement. 

18.3.8.2 Where windows are required by 18.3.8.1, the allow- 
able sill height shalknot exceed 915 mm (36 in.) above the 
floor, unless otherwise permitted by the following: 

(1) The window sill in special nursing care areas, such as 
those housing ICU, CCU, hemodialysis, and neonatal pa- 
tients, shall not exceed 1525 mm (60 in.) above the floor. 

(2) The window sill in limited care facilities shall not exceed 
1120 mm (44 in.) above the floor. 

18.4 Special Provisions. 

18.4.1 Limited Access Buildings. Limited access buildings or 
limited access portions of buildings shall not be used for pa- 
tient sleeping rooms and shall comply with Section 11.7. 

18.4.2 High-Rise Buildings. High-rise buildings shall comply 
with Section 11.8. 

18.4.3 Nonsprinklered Existing Sinoke Coinpartinent Reha- 
bilitation. 

18.4.3.1* General. Where a modification in a nonsprinklered 
smoke compartment is exempted by the provisions of 
18.1.1.4.6.4 from the sprinkler requirement of 18.3.5.1, the 
requirements of 18.4.3.2 through 18.4.3.8 shall apply. 

18.4.3.2 Minirnum Construction Requirements (Nonsprin- 
klered Smoke Compartnieot Rehabilitation). Health care oc- 
cupancies in buildings not protected throughout by an ap- 
proved, supervised automatic sprinkler system in accordance 
with 19.3.5.2 shall be limited to the types of construction per- 
mitted by Table 18.4.3.2. 

18.4.3.3 Capacity of Means of Egress (Nonsprinklered Smoke 
Compartment Rehabilitation). The capacity of the means of 
egress serving the modification area shall be as follows: 

(1) 13 mm (V4 in.) per person for horizontal travel, without 
stairs, by means such as doors, ramps, or level floor surfaces 

(2) 15 mm (0.6 in.) per person for travel by means of stairs 



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Table 18.4.3.2 Construction Type Limitations 
(Nonsprinklered Buildings) 

Stories 











4 or 


Construction Type 


1 


2 


3 


more 


1(443) 


X 


X 


X 


X 


1(332) 


X 


X 


X 


X 


11(222) 


X 


X 


X 


X 


11(111) 


X 


NP 


NP 


NP 


11(000) 


NP 


NP 


NP 


NP 


111(211) 


NP 


NP 


NP 


NP 


111(200) 


NP 


NP 


NP 


NP 


IV(2HH) 


NP 


NP 


NP 


NP 


V(lll) 


NP 


NP 


NP 


NP 


V(000) 


NP 


NP 


NP 


NP 


X: Permitted type of construction. 








NP: Not permitted. 











18.4.3.4 Travel Distance (Nonsprinklered Smoke Compart- 
ment Rehabilitation) . 

1 8.4.3.4. 1 The travel distance between any room door required 
as an exit access and an exit shall not exceed the following: 

(1) 46 m (150 ft) where the travel is wholly within smoke com- 
partments protected throughout by an approved, super- 
vised automatic sprinkler system in accordance with 
19.3.5.2 

(2) 30 m (100 ft) where the travel is not wholly within smoke 
compartments protected throughout by an approved, su- 
pervised automatic sprinkler system in accordance with 
19.3.5.2 

18.4.3.4.2 The travel distance between any point in a room 
and an exit shall not exceed the following: 

(1) 61 m (200 ft) where the travel is wholly within smoke com- 
partments protected throughout by an approved, super- 
vised sprinkler system in accordance with 19.3.5.2 

(2) 46 m (150 ft) where the travel is not wholly within smoke 
compartments protected throughout by an approved, su- 
pervised sprinkler system in accordance with 19.3.5.2 

18.4.3.5 Hazardous Area Protection (Nonsprinklered Smoke 
Compartment Rehabilitation). Where a new hazardous area is 
formed in an existing nonsprinklered smoke compartment, 
the hazardous area itself shall be protected as indicated in 
Table 18.4.3.5. 

18.4.3.6 Interior Finish (Nonsprinklered Smoke Compartment 
Rehabilitation) . 

18.4.3.6.1 General. Interior finish within the modification 
area shall be in accordance with Section 10.2. 

18.4.3.6.2 Interior Wall and Ceiling Finish. Newly installed in- 
terior wall and ceiling finish materials complying with Section 
10.2 shall be permitted throughout nonsprinklered smoke 
compartments if the materials are Class A, except as otherwise 
permitted in 18.4.3.6.2.1 or 18.4.3.6.2.2. 

18.4.3.6.2.1 Walls and ceilings shall be permitted to have 
Class A or Class B interior finish in individual rooms having a 
capacity not exceeding four persons. 



Table 18.4.3.5 Hazardous Area Protection (Nonsprinklered 
Buildings) 

Hazardous Area Description Separation/Protection 



Boiler and fuel-fired heater rooms 

Central/bulk laundries larger 
than 9.3 m 2 (100 ft 2 ) 

Laboratories employing 
flammable or combustible 
materials in quantities less than 
those that would be considered 
a severe hazard 

Laboratories that use hazardous 
materials that would be 
classified as a severe hazard in 
accordance with NFPA 99, 
Standard for Health Care Facilities 

Paint shops employing hazardous 
substances and materials in 
quantities less than those that 
would be classified as a severe 
hazard 

Physical plant maintenance shops 

Soiled linen rooms 

Storage rooms larger than 4.6 m 2 
(50 ft 2 ) but not exceeding 
9.3 m 2 (100 ft 2 ) and storing 
combustible material 

Storage rooms larger than 9.3 m 2 
(100 ft 2 ) and storing 
combustible material 

Trash collection rooms 



1 hour and sprinklers 
1 hour and sprinklers 

1 hour or sprinklers 
(Also see 18.4.3.7.2.2) 



1 hour and sprinklers 



1 hour and sprinklers 



1 hour and sprinklers 
1 hour and sprinklers 
1 hour or sprinklers 
(Also see 18.4.3.7.2.2) 



1 hour and sprinklers 



1 hour and sprinklers 



18.4.3.6.2.2 Corridor wall finish not exceeding 1220 mm 
(48 in.) in height and restricted to the lower half of the wall 
shall be permitted to be Class A or Class B. 

18.4.3.6.3 Interior Floor Finish. 

18.4.3.6.3.1 Newly installed interior floor finish shall comply 
with Section 10.2. 

18.4.3.6.3.2 The requirements for newly installed interior 
floor finish in exit enclosures and corridors not separated 
from them by walls complying with 19.3.6 shall be as follows: 

(1) Be unrestricted in smoke compartments protected 
throughout by an approved, supervised automatic sprin- 
kler system in accordance with 19.3.5.2 

(2) Be not less than Class I in smoke compartments not pro- 
tected throughout by an approved, supervised automatic 
sprinkler system in accordance with 19.3.5.2 

18.4.3.7 Corridors (Nonsprinklered Smoke Compartment 
Rehabilitation). 

18.4.3.7.1 Construction of Corridor Walls. 

18.4.3.7.1.1 Where the smoke compartment being modified is 
not protected throughout by an approved, supervised automatic 
sprinkler system in accordance with 19.3.5.2, corridor walls shall 
comply with the following, as modified by 18.4.3.7.1.2: 

(1) Have a fire resistance rating of not less than X A hour 



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(2) Be continuous from the floor to the underside of the floor 
or roof deck above 

(3) Resist the passage of smoke 

18.4.3.7.1.2 The requirements of 18.4.3.7.1.1 shall be permit- 
ted to be modified for conditions permitted by 19.3.6.1(3), 
19.3.6.1(4), 19.3.6.1(6), 19.3.6.1(7), and 19.3.6.1(8). 

18.4.3.7.2 Corridor Doors. 

18.4.3.7.2.1 Where the smoke compartment being modified 
is not protected throughout by an approved, supervised auto- 
matic sprinkler system in accordance with 19.3.5.2, the follow- 
ing shall apply: 

(1) Doors protecting corridor openings shall be constructed 
of 44-mm (1%-in.) thick, solid-bonded core wood or of 
construction that resists the passage of fire for not less 
than 20 minutes. 

(2) Door frames shall be labeled or of steel construction. 

(3) Existing roller latches demonstrated to keep the door 
closed against a force of 22 N (5 lbf) shall be permitted. 

18.4.3.7.2.2 Door-closing devices shall be required on doors 
in corridor wall openings serving smoke barriers or enclosures 
of exits, hazardous contents areas, or vertical openings. 

18.4.3.8 Subdivision of Building Space (Nomsprinklered Smoke 
Compartment Rehabilitation). Subparagraph 18.3.7.4(2) shall 
be permitted only where adjacent smoke compartments are 
protected throughout by an approved, supervised automatic 
sprinkler system in accordance with 18.3.5.1 and 18.3.5.2. 

18.5 Building Services. 

18.5.1 Utilities. 

18.5.1.1 Utilities shall comply with the provisions of Sec- 
tion 9.1. 

18.5.1.2 Power for alarms, emergency communications sys- 
tems, and illumination of generator set locations shall be in 
accordance with the essential electrical system requirements 
of NFPA99, Standard for Health Care Facilities. 

18.5.1.3 Any health care occupancy, as indicated in 
18.1.1.1.2, that normally uses life-support devices shall have 
electrical systems designed and installed in accordance with 
NFPA 99, Standard for Health Care Facilities, unless the facility 
uses life-support equipment for emergency purposes only. 

18.5.2 Heating, Ventilating, and Air Conditioning. 

18.5.2. 1 Heating, ventilating, and air conditioning shall com- 
ply with the provisions of Section 9.2 and shall be installed in 
accordance with the manufacturer's specifications, unless oth- 
erwise modified by 18.5.2.2. 

18.5.2.2* Any heating device other than a central heating 
plant shall be designed and installed so that combustible ma- 
terial cannot be ignited by the device or its appurtenances, 
and the following requirements shall also apply. 

(1) If fuel-fired, such heating devices shall comply with the 
following: 

(a) They shall be chimney connected or vent connected. 

(b) They shall take air for combustion directly from 
outside. 

(c) They shall be designed and installed to provide for 
complete separation of the combustion system from 
the atmosphere of the occupied area. 



(2) Any heating device shall have safety features to immedi- 
ately stop the flow of fuel and shut down the equipment in 
case of either excessive temperatures or ignition failure. 

18.5.2.3 The requirements of 18.5.2.2 shall not apply where 
otherwise permitted by the following: 

(1) Approved, suspended unit heaters shall be permitted in 
locations other than means of egress and patient sleeping 
areas, provided that both of the following criteria are met: 

(a) Such heaters are located high enough to be out of the 
reach of persons using the area. 

(b) Such heaters are equipped with the safety features 
required by 18.5.2.2. 

(2) Fireplaces shall be permitted and used only in areas other 
than patient sleeping areas, provided that all of the follow- 
ing criteria are met: 

(a) Such areas are separated from patient sleeping spaces 
by construction having not less than a 1-hour fire re- 
sistance rating. 

(b) Such fireplaces comply with the provisions of 9.2.2. 

(c) The fireplace is equipped with the following: 

i. A hearth that is raised not less than 100 mm 
(4 in.) 

ii. A fireplace enclosure guaranteed against break- 
age up to a temperature of 343°C (650°F) and 
constructed of heat-tempered glass or other ap- 
proved material 

(3) If, in the opinion of the authority having jurisdiction, spe- 
cial hazards are present, a lock on the enclosure specified 
in 18.5.2.3(2) (c) (ii) and other safety precautions shall be 
permitted to be required. 

18.5.3 Elevators, Escalators, and Conveyors. Elevators, es- 
calators, and conveyors shall comply with the provisions of 
Section 9.4. 

18.5.4 Rubbish Chutes, Incinerators, and Laundry Chutes. 

18.5.4.1 Rubbish chutes, incinerators, and laundry chutes 
shall comply with the provisions of Section 9.5. 

18.5.4.2 Any rubbish chute or linen chute, including pneu- 
matic rubbish and linen systems, shall be provided with auto- 
matic extinguishing protection in accordance with Section 
9.7. (See Section 9.5.) 

18.5.4.3 Any trash chute shall discharge into a trash collec- 
tion room used for no other purpose and protected in accor- 
dance with Section 8.7. 

18.5.4.4 Incinerators shall not be directly flue-fed, nor shall 
any floor-charging chute directly connect with the combustion 
chamber. 

18.6 Reserved. 

18.7* Operating Features. 

18.7.1 Evacuation and Relocation Plan and Fire Drills. 

18.7.1.1 The administration of every health care occupancy 
shall have, in effect and available to all supervisory personnel, 
written copies of a plan for the protection of all persons in the 
event of fire, for their evacuation to areas of refuge, and for 
their evacuation from the building when necessary. 

18.7.1.2 All employees shall be periodically instructed and 
kept informed with respect to their duties under the plan re- 
quired by 18.7.1.1. 



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18.7.1.3 A copy of the plan required by 18.7.1.1 shall be 
readily available at all times in the telephone operator's loca- 
tion or at the security center. 

18.7.1.4* Fire drills in health care occupancies shall include 
the transmission of a fire alarm signal and simulation of emer- 
gency fire conditions. 

18.7.1.5 Infirm or bedridden patients shall not be required 
to be moved during drills to safe areas or to the exterior of the 

building. 

18.7.1.6 Drills shall be conducted quarterly on each shift to 
familiarize facility personnel (nurses, interns, maintenance 
engineers, and administrative staff) with the signals and emer- 
gency action required under varied conditions. 

18.7.1.7 When drills are conducted between 9:00 p.m. 
(2100 hours) and 6:00 a.m. (0600 hours), a coded announce- 
ment shall be permitted to be used instead of audible alarms. 

18.7.1.8 Employees of health care occupancies shall be in- 
structed in life safety procedures and devices. 

18.7.2 Procedure in Case of Fire. 

18.7.2.1* Protection of Patients. 

18.7.2.1.1 For health care occupancies, the proper protec- 
tion of patients shall require the prompt and effective re- 
sponse of health care personnel. 

18.7.2.1.2 The basic response required of staff shall include 
the following: 

(1) Removal of all occupants direcdy involved with the fire 
emergency 

(2) Transmission of an appropriate fire alarm signal to warn 
other building occupants and summon staff 

(3) Confinement of the effects of the fire by closing doors to 
isolate the fire area 

(4) Relocation of patients as detailed in the health care occu- 
pancy's fire safety plan 

18.7.2.2 Fine Safety Plan. A written health care occupancy fire 
safety plan shall provide for the following: 

(1) Use of alarms 

(2) Transmission of alarm to fire department 

(3) Emergency phone call to fire department 

(4) Response to alarms 

(5) Isolation of fire 

(6) Evacuation of immediate area 

(7) Evacuation of smoke compartment 

(8) Preparation of floors and building for evacuation 

(9) Extinguishment of fire 

18.7.2.3 Staff Response. 

18.7.2.3.1 All health care occupancy personnel shall be in- 
structed in the use of and response to fire alarms. 

18.7.2.3.2 All health care occupancy personnel shall be in- 
structed in the use of the code phrase to ensure transmission 
of an alarm under the following conditions: 

(1) When the individual who discovers a fire must immedi- 
ately go to the aid of an endangered person 

(2) During a malfunction of the building fire alarm system 

18.7.2.3.3 Personnel hearing the code announced shall first 
activate the building fire alarm using the nearest manual fire 



alarm box, then shall execute immediately their duties as out- 
lined in the fire safety plan. 

18.7.3 Maintenance of Exits. 

18.7.3.1 Proper maintenance shall be provided to ensure the 
dependability of the method of evacuation selected. 

18.7.3.2 Health care occupancies that find it necessary to lock 
exits shall, at all times, maintain an adequate staff qualified to 
release locks and direct occupants from the immediate danger 
area to a place of safety in case of fire or other emergency. 

18.7.4* Smoking. Smoking regulations shall be adopted and 
shall include not less than the following provisions: 

(1) Smoking shall be prohibited in any room, ward, or com- 
partment where flammable liquids, combustible gases, or 
oxygen is used or stored and in any other hazardous loca- 
tion, and such areas shall be posted with signs that read 
NO SMOKING or shall be posted with the international 
symbol for no smoking. 

(2) In health care occupancies where smoking is prohibited 
and signs are prominently placed at all major entrances, 
secondary signs with language that prohibits smoking 
shall not be required. 

(3) Smoking by patients classified as not responsible shall be 
prohibited. 

(4) The requirement of 18.7.4(3) shall not apply where the 
patient is under direct supervision. 

(5) Ashtrays of noncombustible material and safe design shall 
be provided in all areas where smoking is permitted. 

(6) Metal containers with self-closing cover devices into which 
ashtrays can be emptied shall be readily available to all 
areas where smoking is permitted. 

18.7.5 Furnishings, Bedding, and Decorations. 

18.7.5.1* Draperies, curtains, and other loosely hanging fab- 
rics and films serving as furnishings or decorations in health 
care occupancies shall be in accordance with the provisions of 
10.3.1 (see 18.3.5.6), and the following also shall apply: 

(1) Such curtains shall include cubicle curtains. 

(2) Such curtains shall not include curtains at showers. 

18.7.5.2 Newly introduced upholstered furniture within health 
care occupancies shall meet the criteria specified when tested in 
accordance with the methods cited in 10.3.2(2) and 10.3.3. 

18.7.5.3 Reserved. 

18.7.5.4 Newly introduced mattresses within health care oc- 
cupancies shall meet the criteria specified when tested in ac- 
cordance with the methods cited in 10.3.2(3) and 10.3.4. 

18.7.5.5 Reserved. 

18.7.5.6 Combustible decorations shall be prohibited in any 
health care occupancy unless one of the following criteria is met: 

( 1 ) They are flame-retardan t. 

(2) They are decorations, such as photographs and paintings, 
in such limited quantities that a hazard of fire develop- 
ment or spread is not present. 

18.7.5.7 Soiled linen or trash collection receptacles shall not 
exceed 121 L (32 gal) in capacity and shall meet the following 
requirements: 

(1) The average density of container capacity in a room or 
space shall not exceed 20.4 L/m 2 (0.5 gal/ft 2 ) . 



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(2) A capacity of 121 L (32 gal) shall not be exceeded within 
any 16-m 2 (64-ft 2 ) area. 

(3) Mobile soiled linen or trash collection receptacles with 
capacities greater than 121 L (32 gal) shall be located in a 
room protected as a hazardous area when not attended. 

(4) Container size and density shall not be limited in hazard- 
ous areas. 

18.7.6 Maintenance and Testing. See 4.6.13. 

18.7.7* Engineered Smoke Control Systems. 

18.7.7.1 New engineered smoke control systems shall be 
tested in accordance with established engineering principles 
and shall meet the performance requirements of such testing 
prior to acceptance. 

18.7.7.2 Following acceptance, all engineered smoke control 
systems shall be tested periodically in accordance with recog- 
nized engineering principles. 

18.7.7.3 Test documentation shall be maintained on the pre- 
mises at all times. 

18.7.8 Portable Space-Heating Devices. Portable space- 
heating devices shall be prohibited in all health care occupan- 
cies, unless both of the following criteria are met: 

(1) Such devices are permitted to be used only in nonsleep- 
ing staff and employee areas. 

(2) The heating elements of such devices do not exceed 
100°C(212°F). 

18.7.9 Construction, Repair, and Improvement Operations. 

18.7.9.1 Construction, repair, and improvement operations 
shall comply with 4.6.11. 

18.7.9.2 The means of egress in any area undergoing con- 
struction, repair, or improvements shall be inspected daily for 
compliance with 7.1.10.1 and shall also comply with NFPA241, 
Standard for Safeguarding Construction, Alteration, and Demolition 
Operations. 



Chapter 1 9 Existing Health Care Occupancies 

19.1 General Requirements. 

19.1.1 Application. 

19.1.1.1 General. 

19.1.1.1.1* The requirements of this chapter shall apply to 
existing buildings or portions thereof currently occupied as 
health care occupancies, unless the authority having jurisdic- 
tion has determined equivalent safety has been provided in 
accordance with Section 1.4. (See abo 18.1.1.1.1.) 

19.1.1.1.2 The requirements established by this chapter shall 
apply to all existing hospitals, nursing homes, and limited care 
facilities. The term hospital, wherever used in this Code, shall 
include general hospitals, psychiatric hospitals, and specialty 
hospitals. The term nursing home, wherever used in this Code, 
shall include nursing and convalescent homes, skilled nursing 
facilities, intermediate care facilities, and infirmaries in homes 
for the aged. Where requirements vary, the specific subclass of 
health care occupancy is named in the paragraph pertaining 
thereto. The requirements established by Chapter 21 shall ap- 
ply to all existing ambulatory health care facilities. The oper- 



ating features requirements established by Section 19.7 shall 
apply to all health care occupancies. 

19.1.1.1.3 The health care facilities regulated by this chapter 
shall be those that provide sleeping accommodations for their 
occupants and are occupied by persons who are mostly inca- 
pable of self-preservation because of age, because of physical 
or mental disability, or because of security measures not under 
the occupants' control. 

19.1.1.1.4 Buildings, or sections of buildings, that primarily 
house patients who, in the opinion of the governing body of 
the facility and the governmental agency having jurisdiction, 
are capable of exercising judgment and appropriate physical 
action for self-preservation under emergency conditions shall 
be permitted to comply with chapters of the Code other than 
Chapter 19. 

19.1.1.1.5 It shall be recognized that, in buildings housing 
certain types of patients or having detention rooms or a secu- 
rity section, it might be necessary to lock doors and bar win- 
dows to confine and protect building inhabitants. In such in- 
stances, the authority having jurisdiction shall make 
appropriate modifications to those sections of this Code that 
would otherwise require means of egress to be kept unlocked. 

19.1.1.1.6 Buildings, or sections of buildings, that house 
older persons and that provide activities that foster continued 
independence but do not include services distinctive to health 
care occupancies (see 19.1.3) as defined in 3.3.152.7 shall be 
permitted to comply with the requirements of other chapters 
of this Code, such as Chapter 31 or Chapter 33. 

19.1.1.1.7 Facilities that do not provide housing on a 24-hour 
basis for their occupants shall be classified as other occupan- 
cies and shall be covered by other chapters of this Code. 

19.1.1.1.8* The requirements of this chapter are based on the 
assumption that staff is available in all patient-occupied areas 
to perform certain fire safety functions as required in other 
paragraphs of this chapter. 

19.1.1.2* Goals and Objectives. The goals and objectives of 
Section 4.1 and Section 4.2 shall be met with due consider- 
ation for functional requirements, which are accomplished by 
limiting the development and spread of a fire emergency to 
the room of Fire origin and reducing the need for occupant 
evacuation, except from the room of fire origin. 

19.1.1.3 Total Concept. 

19.1.1.3.1 All health care facilities shall be designed, con- 
structed, maintained, and operated to minimize the possibility 
of a fire emergency requiring the evacuation of occupants. 

19.1.1.3.2 Because the safety of health care occupants cannot 
be ensured adequately by dependence on evacuation of the 
building, their protection from fire shall be provided by ap- 
propriate arrangement of facilities, adequate staffing, and de- 
velopment of operating and maintenance procedures com- 
posed of the following: 

(1) Design, construction, and compartmentation 

(2) Provision for detection, alarm, and extinguishment 

(3) Fire prevention procedures and the planning, training, and 
drilling programs for the isolation of fire, transfer of occu- 
pants to areas of refuge, or evacuation of the building 



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19.1.1.4 Additions, Conversions, Modernization, Renovation, 
and Construction Operations. 

19.1.1.4.1 Additions. Additions shall be separated from any 
existing structure not conforming to the provisions within 
Chapter 19 by a fire barrier having not less than a 2-hour fire 
resistance rating and constructed of materials as required for 
the addition. (See 4.6.12 and 4. 6. 7.) 

19.1.1.4.2 Communicating openings in dividing fire barriers 
required by 19.1.1.4.1 shall be permitted only in corridors and 
shall be protected by approved self-closing fire door assem- 
blies. (See also Section 8.3.) 

19.1.1.4.3 Doors in barriers required by 19.1.1.4.1 shall nor- 
mally be kept closed unless otherwise permitted by 19.1.1.4.4. 

19.1.1.4.4 Doors shall be permitted to be held open if they 
meet the requirements of 19.2.2.2.6. 

19.1.1.4.5 Changes of Occupancy. Changes of occupancy 
shall comply with 4.6.12, and the following also shall apply: 

(1) A change from one health care occupancy subclassifica- 
tion to another shall require compliance with the require- 
ments for new construction. 

(2) A change from a hospital to a nursing home or from a 
nursing home to a hospital shall not be considered a 
change in occupancy or occupancy subclassification. 

(3) A change from a hospital or nursing home to a limited 
care facility shall not be considered a change in occu- 
pancy or occupancy subclassification. 

(4) A change from a hospital or nursing home to an ambula- 
tory health care facility shall not be considered a change 
in occupancy or occupancy subclassification. 



iter, 



19.1.1.4.6 Rehabilitation. 

19.1.1.4.6.1 For purposes of the provisions of this chap 
the following shall apply: 

(1) A major rehabilitation shall involve the modification of 
more than 50 percent, or more than 420 m 2 (4500 ft 2 ) , of 
the area of the smoke compartment. 

(2) A minor rehabilitation shall involve the modification of 
not more than 50 percent, and not more than 420 m 2 
(4500 ft 2 ) , of the area of the smoke compartment. 

19.1.1.4.6.2 Work that is exclusively plumbing, mechanical, 
fire protection system, electrical, medical gas, or medical 
equipment shall not be included in the computation of the 
modification area within the smoke compartment. 

19.1.1.4.6.3* Where major rehabilitation is made in a non- 
sprinklered smoke compartment, the automatic sprinkler re- 
quirements of Chapter 18 shall apply to the smoke compart- 
ment undergoing the rehabilitation, and, in cases where the 
building is not protected throughout by an approved auto- 
matic sprinkler system, the requirements of 18.4.3.2 and 
18.4.3.3(2) shall also apply. 

19.1.1.4.6.4* Where minor rehabilitation is done in a non- 
sprinklered smoke compartment, the requirements of 
18.3.5.1 shall not apply but, in such cases, the rehabilitation 
shall not reduce life safety below the level that previously ex- 
isted or below the level of requirements of 18.4.3 for nonsprin- 
klered smoke compartment rehabilitation. (See 4.6.8.) 

19.1.1.4.7 Construction, Repair, and Improvement Operations. 
See 4.6.11. 



19.1.2 Multiple Occupancies. 

19.1.2.1 Multiple occupancies shall be in accordance with 
6.1.14. 

19.1.2.2* Sections of health care facilities shall be permitted to 
be classified as other occupancies, provided that they meet all 
of the following conditions: 

(1) They are not intended to serve health care occupants for 
purposes of housing, treatment, or customary access by 
patients incapable of self-preservation. 

(2) They are separated from areas of health care occupancies 
by construction having a fire resistance rating of not less 
than 2 hours. 

19.1.2.3* Ambulatory care facilities, medical clinics, and simi- 
lar facilities that are contiguous to health care occupancies but 
are primarily intended to provide outpatient services shall be 
permitted to be classified as business occupancies or ambula- 
tory health care facilities, provided that the facilities are sepa- 
rated from the health care occupancy by not less than 2-hour 
fire resistance-rated construction and the facility is not in- 
tended to provide services simultaneously for four or more 
inpatients who are litterborne. 

19.1.2.4 All means of egress from health care occupancies 
that traverse non-health care spaces shall conform to the re- 
quirements of this Code for health care occupancies, unless 
otherwise permitted by 19.1.2.5. 

19.1.2.5 Exit through a horizontal exit into other contiguous 
occupancies that do not conform to health care egress provi- 
sions but that do comply with requirements set forth in the 
appropriate occupancy chapter of this Code shall be permitted, 
provided that both of the following criteria apply: 

(1) The occupancy does not contain high hazard contents. 

(2) The horizontal exit complies with the requirements of 
19.2.2.5. 

19.1.2.6 Egress provisions for areas of health care facilities 
that correspond to other occupancies shall meet the corre- 
sponding requirements of this Codefor such occupancies, and, 
where the clinical needs of the occupant necessitate the lock- 
ing of means of egress, staff shall be present for the supervised 
release of occupants during all times of use. 

19.1.2.7 Auditoriums, chapels, staff residential areas, or 
other occupancies provided in connection with health care 
facilities shall have means of egress provided in accordance 
with other applicable sections of this Code. 

19.1.2.8 Any area with a hazard of contents classified higher 
than that of the health care occupancy and located in the 
same building shall be protected as required by 19.3.2. 

19.1.2.9 Non-health care-related occupancies classified as 
containing high hazard contents shall not be permitted in 
buildings housing health care occupancies. 

19.1.3 Definitions. A list of terms used in this chapter follows: 

(1) Ambulatory Health Care Occupancy. See 3.3.152.1. 

(2) Hospital. See 3.3.112. 

(3) Limited Care Facility. See 3.3.69.2. 

(4) Nursing Home. See 3.3.110.2. 

19.1.4 Classification of Occupancy. See 19.1.3. 

19.1.5 Qassification of Hazard of Contents. The classification 
of hazard of contents shall be as defined in Section 6.2. 



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19.1.6 Minimum Construction Requirements. 

19.1.6.1 For the purpose of 19.1.6, the number of stories 
shall be counted starting with the primary level of exit dis- 
charge and ending with the highest occupiable level. 

19.1.6.2 For the purposes of 19.1.6.1, the primary level of exit 
discharge of a building shall be the lowest story whose floor is 
level with or above finished grade on the exterior wall line for 
50 percent or more of its perimeter. 

19.1.6.3 For the purposes of 19.1.6.2, building levels below 
the primary level shall not be counted as a story. 

19.1.6.4 Health care occupancies shall be limited to the types 
of building construction shown in Table 19.1.6.4, unless oth- 
erwise permitted by 19.1.6.5. (See 8.2.1.) 



Table 19.1.6.4 Construction Type Limitations 



Stories 



Construction 
Type 



1(443) 
1(332) 
11(222) 
11(111) 
11(000) 
111(211) 
111(200) 
IV(2HH) 
V(lll) 
V(000) 



X 
X 
X 
X 

X* 
X* 
X* 
X* 

X* 
X* 



X 
X 
X 
X* 

X* 
X* 
NP 
X* 
X* 
NP 





4 or 


3 


More 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X* 


NP 


NP 


NP 


NP 


NP 


NP 


NP 


NP 


NP 


NP 


NP 


NP 


NP 



X: Permitted type of construction. 

NP: Not permitted. 

*Building requires automatic sprinkler protection. (See 19.3.5.1.) 



19.1.6.5* Any building of Type 1(443), Type 1(332), Type 
11(222), or Type 11(111) construction shall be permitted to 
include roofing systems involving combustible supports, deck- 
ing, or roofing, provided that the following criteria are met: 

(1) The roof covering shall meet Class C requirements in ac- 
cordance with NFPA 256, Standard Methods of Fire Tests of 
Roof Coverings. 

(2) The roof shall be separated from all occupied portions of 
the building by a noncombustible floor assembly that in- 
cludes not less than 63 mm (2Vk in.) of concrete or gyp- 
sum fill. 

(3) The attic or other space shall be either unoccupied or 
protected throughout by an approved automatic sprin- 
kler system. 

19.1.6.6 All interior walls and partitions in buildings of Type I 
or Type II construction shall be of noncombustible or limited- 
combustible materials, unless otherwise permitted by 19.1.6.7. 

19.1.6.7* Listed, fire-retardant-treated wood studs shall be per- 
mitted within non-load-bearing 1-hour fire-rated partitions. 

19.1.6.8 Each exterior wall of frame construction and all in- 
terior stud partitions shall be firestopped to cut off all con- 
cealed draft openings, both horizontal and vertical, between 
any cellar or basement and the first floor, and such firestop- 



ping shall consist of wood not less than 51 mm (2 in.) (nomi- 
nal) thick or shall be of noncombustible material. 

19.1.7 Occupant Load. The occupant load, in number of per- 
sons for whom means of egress and other provisions are re- 
quired, either shall be determined on the basis of the occu- 
pant load factors of Table 7.3.1.2 that are characteristic of the 
use of the space or shall be determined as the maximum prob- 
able population of the space under consideration, whichever 
is greater. 

19.2 Means of Egress Requirements. 

19.2.1 General. Every aisle, passageway, corridor, exit dis- 
charge, exit location, and access shall be in accordance with 
Chapter 7, unless otherwise modified by 19.2.2 through 
19.2.11. 

19.2.2 Means of Egress Components. 

19.2.2.1 Components of means of egress shall be limited to 
the types described in 19.2.2.2 through 19.2.2.10. 

19.2.2.2 Doors. 

19.2.2.2.1 Doors complying with 7.2.1 shall be permitted. 

19.2.2.2.2 Locks shall not be permitted on patient sleeping 
room doors, unless otherwise permitted by the following: 

(1) Key-locking devices that restrict access to the room from 
the corridor and that are operable only by staff from the 
corridor side shall be permitted, provided that such de- 
vices do not restrict egress from the room. 

(2) Door-locking arrangements shall be permitted in health 
care occupancies, or portions of health care occupancies, 
where the clinical needs of the patients require special- 
ized security measures for their safety, provided that keys 
are carried by staff at all times. 

19.2.2.2.3 Doors not located in a required means of egress 
shall be permitted to be subject to locking. 

19.2.2.2.4 Doors within a required means of egress shall not 
be equipped with a latch or lock that requires the use of a tool 
or key from the egress side, unless otherwise permitted by the 
following: 

(1) Door-locking arrangements without delayed egress shall 
be permitted in health care occupancies, or portions of 
health care occupancies, where the clinical needs of the 
patients require specialized security measures for their 
safety, provided that staff can readily unlock such doors at 
all times. (See 19.1.1.1.5 and 19.2.2.2.5.) 

(2) *Delayed-egress locks complying with 7.2. 1 .6. 1 shall be per- 

mitted, provided that not more than one such device is 
located in any egress path. 

(3) Access-controlled egress doors complying with 7.2.1.6.2 
shall be permitted. 

19.2.2.2.5 Doors that are located in the means of egress and 
are permitted to be locked under other provisions of this 
chapter shall have adequate provisions made for the rapid re- 
moval of occupants by means such as the following: 

(1) Remote control of locks 

(2) Keying of all locks to keys carried by staff at all times 

(3) Other such reliable means available to the staff at all times 

19.2.2.2.5.1 Only one such locking device as specified in 
19.2.2.2.5 shall be permitted on each door. 



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19.2.2.2.5.2 Locks in accordance with 19.2.2.2.4(2) and 
19.2.2.2.4(3) shall be permitted. 

19.2.2.2.5.3 More than one lock shall be permitted on each 
door, subject to approval of the authority having jurisdiction. 

19.2.2.2.6* Any door in an exit passageway, stairway enclosure, 
horizontal exit, smoke barrier, or hazardous area enclosure 
shall be permitted to be held open only by an automatic re- 
lease device that complies with 7.2.1.8.2. The automatic sprin- 
kler system, if provided, and the fire alarm system, and the 
systems required by 7.2.1.8.2 shall be arranged to initiate the 
closing action of all such doors throughout the smoke com- 
partment or throughout the entire facility. 

19.2.2.2.7 Where doors in a stair enclosure are held open by 
an automatic release device as permitted in 19.2.2.2.6, initia- 
tion of a door-closing action on any level shall cause all doors 
at all levels in the stair enclosure to close. 

19.2.2.2.8* Existing health care occupancies shall be exempt 
from the re-entry provisions of 7.2.1.5.7. 

19.2.2.2.9 Horizontal sliding doors, as permitted by 7.2.1.14, 
that are not automatic-closing shall be limited to a single leaf 
and shall have a latch or other mechanism that ensures that 
doors will not rebound into a partially open position if force- 
fully closed in an emergency. 

19.2.2.3 Stairs. Stairs complying with 7.2.2 shall be permitted. 

19.2.2.4 Smokeproof Enclosures. Smokeproof enclosures 
complying with 7.2.3 shall be permitted. 

19.2.2.5 Horizontal Exits. Horizontal exits complying with 
7.2.4 and the modifications of 19.2.2.5.1 through 19.2.2.5.4 
shall be permitted. 

19.2.2.5.1 Accumulation space shall be provided in accor- 
dance with 19.2.2.5.1.1 and 19.2.2.5.1.2. 

19.2.2.5.1.1 Not less than 2.8 net m 2 (30 net ft 2 ) per patient 
in a hospital or nursing home, or not less than 1.4 net m 2 
(15 net ft 2 ) per resident in a limited care facility, shall be pro- 
vided within the aggregated area of corridors, patient rooms, 
treatment rooms, lounge or dining areas, and other similar 
areas on each side of the horizontal exit. 

19.2.2.5.1.2 On stories not housing bed or litterborne pa- 
tients, not less than 0.56 net m 2 (6 net ft 2 ) per occupant shall 
be provided on each side of the horizontal exit for the total 
number of occupants in adjoining compartments. 

19.2.2.5.2 The total egress capacity of the other exits (stairs, 
ramps, doors leading outside the building) shall not be re- 
duced below one-third of that required for the entire area of 
the building. 

19.2.2.5.3* A door in a horizontal exit shall not be required to 
swing with egress travel as specified in 7.2.4.3.7(1). 

19.2.2.5.4 Door openings in horizontal exits shall be pro- 
tected by one of the following methods: 

(1 ) Such door openings shall be protected by a swinging door 
providing a clear width of not less than 810 mm (32 in.). 

(2) Such door openings shall be protected by a horizontal 
sliding door that complies with 7.2.1.14 and provides a 
clear width of not less than 810 mm (32 in.) . 

(3) Such door openings shall be protected by an existing 
865-mm (34-in.) swinging door. 



19.2.2.6 Ramps. 

19.2.2.6.1 Ramps complying with 7.2.5 shall be permitted. 

19.2.2.6.2 Ramps enclosed as exits shall be of sufficient width 
to provide egress capacity in accordance with 19.2.3. 

19.2.2.7 Exit Passageways. Exit passageways complying with 
7.2.6 shall be permitted. 

19.2.2.8 Fine Escape Ladders. Fire escape ladders complying 
with 7.2.9 shall be permitted. 

19.2.2.9 Alternatiiig Tread Devices. Alternating tread devices 
complying with 7.2.11 shall be permitted. 

19.2.2.10 Areas of Refuge. Areas of refuge used as part of a 
required accessible means of egress shall comply with 7.2.12. 

19.2.3 Capacity of Means of Egress. 

19.2.3.1 The capacity of means of egress shall be in accor- 
dance with Section 7.3. 

19.2.3.2 The capacity of means of egress providing travel by 
means of stairs shall be 15 mm (0.6 in.) per person, and the 
capacity of means of egress providing horizontal travel (with- 
out stairs) by means such as doors, ramps, or horizontal exits 
shall be 13 mm (M>in.) per person, unless otherwise permitted 
by 19.2.3.3. 

19.2.3.3 The capacity of means of egress in health care occu- 
pancies protected throughout by an approved, supervised au- 
tomatic sprinkler system in accordance with 19.3.5.2 shall be 
7.6 mm (0.3 in.) per person for travel by means of stairs and 
5 mm (0.2 in.) per person for horizontal travel without stairs. 

19.2.3.4* Any required aisle, corridor, or ramp shall be not 
less than 1220 mm (48 in.) in clear width where serving as 
means of egress from patient sleeping rooms, unless otherwise 
permitted by the following: 

(1) Aisles, corridors, and ramps in adjunct areas not intended 
for the housing, treatment, or use of inpatients shall be 
not less than 1120 mm (44 in.) in clear and unobstructed 
width. 

(2) Exit access within a room or suite of rooms complying 
with the requirements of 19.2.5 shall be permitted. 

19.2.3.5 The aisle, corridor, or ramp shall be arranged to 
avoid any obstructions to the convenient removal of nonam- 
bulatory persons carried on stretchers or on mattresses serving 
as stretchers. 

19.2.3.6 The minimum clear width for doors in the means of 
egress from hospitals; nursing homes; limited care facilities; 
psychiatric hospital sleeping rooms; and diagnostic and treat- 
ment areas, such as x-ray, surgery, or physical therapy, shall be 
not less than 810 mm (32 in.) wide. 

19.2.3.7 The requirement of 19.2.3,6 shall not apply where 
otherwise permitted by the following: 

(1) Existing 865-mm (34-in.) doors shall be permitted. 

(2) Existing 710-mm (28-in.) corridor doors in facilities 
where the fire plans do not require evacuation by bed, 
gurney, or wheelchair shall be permitted. 

19.2.4 Number of Exits. 

19.2.4.1 Not less than two exits of the types described in 

19.2.2.2 through 19.2.2.10, remotely located from each other, 
shall be provided for each floor or fire section of the building. 



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19.2.4.2 Not less than one exit from each floor or fire section 
shall be one of the following: 

(1) A door leading directly outside the building 

(2) A stair 

(3) A smokeproof enclosure 

(4) A ramp 

(5) An exit passageway 

19.2.4.3 Any fire section not meeting the requirements of 
19.2.4.2 shall be considered part of an adjoining zone through 
which egress shall not require return through the zone of fire 
origin. 

19.2.4.4* Not less than two exits of the types described in 
19.2.2.2 through 19.2.2.10 shall be accessible from each 
smoke compartment, and egress shall be permitted through 
an adjacent compartment(s) but shall not require return 
through the compartment of fire origin. 

19.2.5 Arrangement of Means of Egress. 

19.2.5.1 Every habitable room shall have an exit access door 
leading directly to an exit access corridor, unless otherwise 
permitted by the following: 

(1) The requirement of 19.2.5.1 shall not apply if there is an 
exit door opening directly to the outside from the room at 
ground level. 

(2) Exit access from a patient sleeping room with not more 
than eight patient beds shall be permitted to pass through 
one intervening room to reach the exit access corridor. 

(3) Exit access from a sleeping or nursing suite shall be per- 
mitted to pass through one intervening room to reach the 
exit access corridor where the arrangement allows for di- 
rect and constant visual supervision by nursing personnel. 

(4) Exit access from a suite of rooms, other than patient sleep- 
ing rooms, shall be permitted to pass through not more 
than two adjacent rooms to reach the exit access corridor 
where the travel distance within the suite is in accordance 
with 19.2.5.8. 

19.2.5.2 Any patient sleeping room, or any suite that includes 
patient sleeping rooms, of more than 93 m 2 (1000 ft 2 ) shall 
have not less than two exit access doors remotely located from 
each other. 

19.2.5.3 Any room or any suite of rooms, other than patient 
sleeping rooms, of more than 232 m 2 (2500 ft 2 ) shall have not 
less than two exit access doors remotely located from each 
other. 

19.2.5.4 Any suite of rooms that complies with the require- 
ments of 19.2.5 shall be permitted to be subdivided with non- 
fire-rated, noncombustible, or limited-combustible partitions. 

19.2.5.5 Intervening rooms shall not be hazardous areas as 
defined by 19.3.2. 

19.2.5.6 Suites of sleeping rooms shall not exceed 465 m 2 
(5000 ft 2 ). 

19.2.5.7 Suites of rooms, other than patient sleeping rooms, 
shall not exceed 929 m 2 (10,000 ft 2 ). 

19.2.5.8 Suites of rooms, other than patient sleeping rooms, 
shall be permitted to have one intervening room if the travel 
distance within the suite to the exit access door does not ex- 
ceed 30 m (100 ft) and shall be permitted to have two inter- 
vening rooms where the travel distance within the suite to the 
exit access door does not exceed 15 m (50 ft). 



19.2.5.9 Every corridor shall provide access to not less than 
two approved exits in accordance with Section 7.4 and Section 
7.5 without passing through any intervening rooms or spaces 
other than corridors or lobbies. 

19.2.5.10* Existing dead-end corridors shall be permitted to 
continue in use if it is impractical and unfeasible to alter them 
so that exits are accessible in not less than two different direc- 
tions from all points in aisles, passageways, and corridors. 

19.2.6 Travel Distance to Exits. 

19.2.6.1 Travel distance shall be measured in accordance 
with Section 7.6. 

19.2.6.2 Travel distance shall comply with 19.2.6.2.1 through 
19.2.6.2.6. 

19.2.6.2.1 The travel distance between any room door re- 
quired as an exit access and an exit shall not exceed 30 m 
(100 ft), unless otherwise permitted by 19.2.6.2.2. 

19.2.6.2.2 The maximum travel distance specified in 
19.2.6.2.1 shall be permitted to be increased by 15 m (50 ft) in 
buildings protected throughout by an approved, supervised 
automatic sprinkler system in accordance with 19.3.5.3. 

19.2.6.2.3 The travel distance between any point in a room 
and an exit shall not exceed 46 m (150 ft), unless otherwise 
permitted by 19.2.6.2.4. 

19.2.6.2.4 The maximum travel distance specified in 
19.2.6.2.3 shall be permitted to be increased by 15 m (50 ft) in 
buildings protected throughout by an approved, supervised 
automatic sprinkler system in accordance with 19.3.5.3. 

19.2.6.2.5 The travel distance between any point in a health 
care sleeping room and an exit access door in that room shall 
not exceed 15 m (50 ft). 

19.2.6.2.6 The travel distance between any point in a suite of 
sleeping rooms as permitted by 19.2.5 and an exit access door 
of that suite shall not exceed 30 m (100 ft) and shall meet the 
requirements of 19.2.6.2.3 and 19.2.6.2.4. 

19.2.7 Discharge from Exits. Discharge from exits shall be ar- 
ranged in accordance with Section 7.7. 

19.2.8 Illumination of Means of Egress. Means of egress shall 
be illuminated in accordance with Section 7.8. 

19.2.9 Emergency Lighting. 

19.2.9.1 Emergency lighting shall be provided in accordance 
with Section 7.9. 

19.2.10 Marking of Means of Egress. 

19.2.10.1 Means of egress shall have signs in accordance with 
Section 7.10, unless otherwise permitted by 19.2.10.2. 

19.2.10.2 Where the path of egress travel is obvious, signs 
shall not be required in one-story buildings with an occupant 
load of fewer than 30 persons. 

19.2.11 Special Means of Egress Features. (Reserved) 

19.3 Protection. 

19.3.1 Protection of Vertical Openings. Any vertical opening 
shall be enclosed or protected in accordance with Section 8.6, 
unless otherwise modified by 19.3.1.1 through 19.3.1.8. 

19.3.1.1 Where enclosure is provided, the construction shall 
have not less than a 1-hour fire resistance rating. 



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19.3.1.2 Unprotected vertical openings in accordance with 
8.6.8.2 shall be permitted. 

19.3.1.3 Subparagraph 8.6.7(l)(b) shall not apply to patient 
sleeping and treatment rooms. 

19.3.1.4 Multilevel patient sleeping areas in psychiatric facili- 
ties shall be permitted without enclosure protection between 
levels, provided that all of the following conditions are met: 

( 1 ) The entire normally occupied area, including all commu- 
nicating floor levels, is sufficiently open and unobstructed 
so that a fire or other dangerous condition in any part is 
obvious to the occupants or supervisory personnel in the 
area. 

(2) The egress capacity provides simultaneously for all the 
occupants of all communicating levels and areas, with all 
communicating levels in the same fire area being consid- 
ered as a single floor area for purposes of determination 
of required egress capacity. 

(3) The height between the highest and lowest finished floor 
levels does not exceed 3960 mm (156 in.) and the num- 
ber of levels is permitted to be unrestricted. 

19.3.1.5 Unprotected openings in accordance with 8.6.6 
shall not be permitted. 

19.3.1.6 Where a full enclosure of a stairway that is not a 
required exit is impracticable, the required enclosure shall be 
permitted to be limited to that necessary to prevent a fire origi- 
nating in any story from spreading to any other story. 

19.3.1.7 A door in a stair enclosure shall be self-closing and 
shall normally be kept in the closed position, unless otherwise 
permitted by 19.3.1.8. 

19.3.1.8 Doors in stair enclosures shall be permitted to be 
held open under the conditions specified by 19.2.2.2.6 and 
19.2.2.2.7. 

19.3.2 Protection from Hazards. 

19.3.2.1 Hazardous Areas. Any hazardous areas shall be safe- 
guarded by a fire barrier having a 1-hour fire resistance rating 
or shall be provided with an automatic extinguishing system in 
accordance with 8.7.1. 

19.3.2.1.1 An automatic extinguishing system, where used in 
hazardous areas, shall be permitted to be in accordance with 
19.3.5.5. 

19.3.2.1.2 Where the sprinkler option of 19.3.2.1 is used, the 
areas shall be separated from other spaces by smoke-resisting 
partitions and doors. 

19.3.2.1.3 The doors shall be self-closing or automatic-closing. 

19.3.2.1.4 Doors in rated enclosures shall be permitted to 
have nonrated, factory- or field-applied protective plates ex- 
tending not more than 1220 mm (48 in.) above the bottom of 
the door. 

19.3.2.1.5 Hazardous areas shall include, but shall not be re- 
stricted to, the following: 

( 1 ) Boiler and fuel-fired heater rooms 

(2) Central/bulk laundries larger than 9.3 m 2 (100 ft 2 ) 

(3) Paint shops 

(4) Repair shops 

(5) Soiled linen rooms 

(6) Trash collection rooms 



(7) Rooms or spaces larger than 4.6 m 2 (50 ft 2 ), including 
repair shops, used for storage of combustible supplies and 
equipment in quantities deemed hazardous by the au- 
thority having jurisdiction 

(8) Laboratories employing flammable or combustible mate- 
rials in quantities less than those that would be consid- 
ered a severe hazard 

19.3.2.2* Laboratories. Laboratories employing quantities of 
flammable, combustible, or hazardous materials that are con- 
sidered as a severe hazard shall be protected in accordance 
with NFPA99, Standard for Health Care Facilities. 

19.3.2.3 Anesthetizing Locations. Anesthetizing locations 
shall be protected in accordance with NFPA 99, Standard for 
Health Care Facilities. 

19.3.2.4 Medical Gas. Medical gas storage and administration 
areas shall be protected in accordance with NFPA 99, Standard 
for Health Care Facilities. 

19.3.2.5 Cooking Facilities. 

19.3.2.5.1 Cooking facilities shall be protected in accordance 
with 9.2.3, unless otherwise permitted by 19.3.2.5.2. 

19.3.2.5.2* Where domestic cooking equipment is used for 
food-warming or limited cooking, protection or separation of 
food preparation facilities shall not be required. 

19.3.3 Interior Finish. 

19.3.3.1 General. Interior finish shall be in accordance with 
Section 10.2. 

19.3.3.2* Interior Wall and Ceiling Finish. Existing interior 
wall and ceiling finish materials complying with Section 10.2 
shall be permitted to be Class A or Class B. 

19.3.3.3 Interior Floor Finish. No restrictions shall apply to 
existing interior floor finish. 

19.3.4 Detection, Alarm, and Communications Systems. 

19.3.4.1 General. Health care occupancies shall be provided 
with a fire alarm system in accordance with Section 9.6. 

19.3.4.2* Initiation. 

19.3.4.2.1 Initiation of the required fire alarm systems shall 
be by manual means in accordance with 9.6.2 and by means of 
any required sprinkler system waterflow alarms, detection de- 
vices, or detection systems, unless otherwise permitted by 

19.3.4.2.2 through 19.3.4.2.4. 

19.3.4.2.2 Manual fire alarm boxes in patient sleeping areas 
shall not be required at exits if located at all nurses' control 
stations or other continuously attended staff location, pro- 
vided that both of the following criteria are met: 

(1) Such manual fire alarm boxes are visible and continu- 
ously accessible. 

(2) Travel distances required by 9.6.2.4 are not exceeded. 

19.3.4.2.3 Fixed extinguishing systems protecting commer- 
cial cooking equipment in kitchens that are protected by a 
complete automatic sprinkler system shall not be required to 
initiate the fire alarm system. 

19.3.4.2.4 Detectors required by 19.7.5.3 and 19.7.5.5 shall 
not be required to initiate the fire alarm system. 



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19.3.4.3 Notification. 

19.3.4.3.1 Occupant Notification. Occupant notification 
shall be accomplished automatically in accordance with 9.6.3, 
unless otherwise modified by the following: 

(l)*In lieu of audible alarm signals, visible alarm-indicating 
appliances shall be permitted to be used in critical care 
areas. 

(2) Where visual devices have been installed in patient sleeping 
areas in place of an audible alarm, they shall be permitted 
where approved by the authority having jurisdiction. 

19.3.4.3.2 Emergency Forces Notification. 

19.3.4.3.2.1 Fire department notification shall be accom- 
plished in accordance with 9.6.4. 

19.3.4.3.2.2 Smoke detection devices or smoke detection sys- 
tems equipped with reconfirmation features shall not be re- 
quired to automatically notify the fire department unless the 
alarm condition is reconfirmed after a period not exceeding 

120 seconds. 

19.3.4.4 Emergency Control. Operation of any activating de- 
vice in the required fire alarm system shall be arranged to 
accomplish automatically any control functions to be per- 
formed by that device. (See 9.6.5.) 

19.3.4.5 Detection. 

19.3.4.5.1 Corridors. An approved automatic smoke detec- 
tion system in accordance with Section 9.6 shall be installed in 
all corridors of limited care facilities, unless otherwise permit- 
ted by the following: 

(1) Where each patient sleeping room is protected by an ap- 
proved smoke detection system, and a smoke detector is 
provided at smoke barriers and horizontal exits in accor- 
dance with Section 9.6, the corridor smoke detection sys- 
tem shall not be required on the patient sleeping room 
floors. 

(2) Smoke compartments protected throughout by an ap- 
proved, supervised automatic sprinkler system in accor- 
dance with 19.3.5.3 shall be permitted. 

19.3.4.5.2 Detection in Spaces Open to Corridors. See 19.3.6.1. 
19.3.5 Extinguishment Requirements. 

19.3.5.1 Where required by 19.1.6, health care facilities shall 
be protected throughout by an approved, supervised auto- 
matic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 9.7, unless 
otherwise permitted by 19.3.5.3. 

19.3.5.2 In Type I and Type II construction, alternative pro- 
tection measures shall be permitted to be substituted for sprin- 
kler protection, without causing a building to be classified as 
nonsprinklered, in specified areas where the authority having 
jurisdiction has prohibited sprinklers. 

19.3.5.3* Where this Code permits exceptions for fully sprin- 
klered buildings or smoke compartments, the sprinkler system 
shall meet the following criteria: 

(1) It shall be in accordance with Section 9.7. 

(2) It shall be installed in accordance with 9.7.1.1(1) unless it 
is an approved existing system. 

(3) It shall be electrically connected to the fire alarm system. 

(4) It shall be fully supervised. 



(5) In Type I and Type II construction, where the authority hav- 
ingjurisdiction has prohibited sprinklers, approved alterna- 
tive protection measures shall be permitted to be substituted 
for sprinkler protection in specified areas without causing a 
building to be classified as nonsprinklered. 

19.3.5.4* Where this Code permits exceptions for fully sprin- 
klered buildings or smoke compartments and specifically ref- 
erences this paragraph, the sprinkler system shall meet the 
following criteria: 

(1) It shall be installed throughout the building in accor- 
dance with Section 9.7. 

(2) It shall be installed in accordance with 9.7.1.1(1) unless it 
is an approved existing system. 

(3) It shall be electrically connected to the fire alarm system. 

(4) It shall be fully supervised. 

(5) It shall be equipped with listed quick-response or listed 
residential sprinklers throughout all smoke compart- 
ments containing patient sleeping rooms. 

(6) Standard response sprinklers shall be permitted to be con- 
tinued to be used in approved existing sprinkler systems 
where quick-response and residential sprinklers were not 
listed for use in such locations at the time of installation. 

(7) Standard response sprinklers shall be permitted for use in 
hazardous areas protected in accordance with 19.3.2.1. 

19.3.5.5 Isolated hazardous areas shall be permitted to be 
protected in accordance with 9.7.1.2. For new installations in 
existing health care occupancies, where more than two sprin- 
klers are installed in a single area, waterflow detection shall be 
provided to sound the building fire alarm, or to notify by a 
signal any constantly attended location, such as PBX, security, 
or emergency room, at which the necessary corrective action 
shall be taken. 

19.3.5.6* Newly introduced cubicle curtains in sprinklered ar- 
eas shall be installed in accordance with NFPA 13, Standard for 
the Installation of Sprinkler Systems. 

19.3.5.7 Portable fire extinguishers shall be provided in all 
health care occupancies in accordance with 9.7.4.1. 

19.3.6 Corridors. 

19.3.6.1 Corridors shall be separated from all other areas by 
partitions complying with 19.3.6.2 through 19.3.6.5 (see also 
19.2.5.9), unless otherwise permitted by the following: 

(1) Smoke compartments protected throughout by an ap- 
proved, supervised automatic sprinkler system in accor- 
dance with 19.3.5.3 shall be permitted to have spaces that 
are unlimited in size and open to the corridor, provided 
that the following criteria are met: 

(a) The spaces are not used for patient sleeping rooms, 
treatment rooms, or hazardous areas. 

(b) The corridors onto which the spaces open in the 
same smoke compartment are protected by an elec- 
trically supervised automatic smoke detection system 
in accordance with 19.3.4, or the smoke compart- 
ment in which the space is located is protected 
throughout by quick-response sprinklers. 

(c) The open space is protected by an electrically super- 
vised automatic smoke detection system in accor- 
dance with 19.3.4, or the entire space is arranged and 
located to allow direct supervision by the facility staff 
from a nurses' station or similar space. 

(d) The space does not obstruct access to required exits. 



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(2) In smoke compartments protected throughout by an ap- 
proved, supervised automatic sprinkler system in accor- 
dance with 19.3.5.3, waiting areas shall be permitted to be 
open to the corridor, provided that the following criteria 
are met: 

(a) The aggregate waiting area in each smoke compart- 
ment does not exceed 55.7 m 2 (600 ft 2 ). 

(b) Each area is protected by an electrically supervised 
automatic smoke detection system in accordance 
with 19.3.4, or each area is arranged and located to 
allow direct supervision by the facility staff from a 
nursing station or similar space. 

(c) The area does not obstruct access to required exits. 
(3)*This requirement shall not apply to spaces for nurses' 

stations. 

(4) Gift shops not exceeding 46.4 m 2 (500 ft 2 ) shall be per- 
mitted to be open to the corridor or lobby, provided that 
one of the following is met: 

(a) The building is protected throughout by an approved 
automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Sec- 
don 9.7 

(b) The gift shop is protected throughout by an approved 
automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Sec- 
tion 9.7 and storage is separately protected. 

(5) Limited care facilities in smoke compartments protected 
throughout by an approved, supervised automatic sprin- 
kler system in accordance with 19.3.5.3 shall be permitted 
to have group meeting or multipurpose therapeutic 
spaces open to the corridor, provided that the following 
criteria are met: 

(a) The space is not a hazardous area. 

(b) The space is protected by an electrically supervised 
automatic smoke detection system in accordance 
with 19.3.4, or the space is arranged and located to 
allow direct supervision by the facility staff from the 
nurses' station or similar location. 

(c) The space does not obstruct access to required exits. 

(6) Spaces other than patient sleeping rooms, treatment 
rooms, and hazardous areas shall be permitted to be open 
to the corridor and unlimited in area, provided that the 
following criteria are met: 

(a) The space and the corridors onto which it opens, 
where located in the same smoke compartment, are 
protected by an electrically supervised automatic 
smoke detection system in accordance with 19.3.4. 
(b)*Each space is protected by automatic sprinklers, or 
the furnishings and furniture, in combination with all 
other combustibles within the area, are of such mini- 
mum quantity and arrangement that a fully devel- 
oped fire is unlikely to occur. 
(c) The space does not obstruct access to required exits. 
(7)*Waiting areas shall be permitted to be open to the corri- 
dor, provided that the following criteria are met: 

(a) Each area does not exceed 55.7 m 2 (600 ft 2 ). 

(b) The area is equipped with an electrically supervised 
automatic smoke detection system in accordance 
with 19.3.4. 

(c) The area does not obstruct any access to required 
exits. 

(8) Group meeting or multipurpose therapeutic spaces, 
other than hazardous areas, that are under continuous 
supervision by facility staff shall be permitted to be 



open to the corridor, provided that the following crite- 
ria are met: 

(a) Each area does not exceed 139 m 2 (1500 ft 2 ). 

(b) Not more than one such space is permitted per 
smoke compartment. 

(c) The area is equipped with an electrically supervised 
automatic smoke detection system in accordance 
with 19.3.4. 

(d) The area does not obstruct access to required exits. 

19.3.6.2 Construction of Corridor Walls. 

19.3.6.2.1 Corridor walls shall be continuous from the floor 
to the underside of the floor or roof deck above, through any 
concealed spaces, such as those above suspended ceilings, and 
through interstitial structural and mechanical spaces, unless 
otherwise permitted by 19.3.6.2.3 through 19.3.6.2.5. 

19.3.6.2.2* Corridor walls shall have a fire resistance rating of 
not less than Vi hour. 

19.3.6.2.3* In smoke compartments protected throughout by 
an approved, supervised automatic sprinkler system in accor- 
dance with 19.3.5.3, a corridor shall be permitted to be sepa- 
rated from all other areas by non-fire-rated partitions and shall 
be permitted to terminate at the ceiling where the ceiling is 
constructed to limit the transfer of smoke. 

19.3.6.2.4 Existing corridor partitions shall be permitted to 
terminate at ceilings that are not an integral part of a floor 
construction if 1525 mm (5 ft) or more of space exists between 
the top of the ceiling subsystem and the bottom of the floor or 
roof above, provided that the following criteria are met: 

(1) The ceiling is part of a fire-rated assembly tested to have a 
fire resistance rating of not less than 1 hour in compliance 
with the provisions of Section 8.3. 

(2) The corridor partitions form smoketight joints with the 
ceilings (joint filler, if used, shall be noncombustible). 

(3) Each compartment of interstitial space that constitutes a 
separate smoke area is vented, in a smoke emergency, to 
the outside by mechanical means having the capacity to 
provide not less than two air changes per hour but, in no 
case, a capacity less than 2.35 m 3 /s (5000 ft 3 /min). 

(4) The interstitial space is not used for storage. 

(5) The space is not used as a plenum for supply, exhaust, or 
return air, except as noted in 19.3.6.2.4(3). 

19.3.6.2.5* Existing corridor partitions shall be permitted to 
terminate at monolithic ceilings that resist the passage of 
smoke where there is a smoketight joint between the top of 
the partition and the bottom of the ceiling. 

19.3.6.2.6* Corridor walls shall form a barrier to limit the 
transfer of smoke. 

19.3.6.2.7 Fixed fire window assemblies in accordance with 
Section 8.3 shall be permitted in corridor walls, unless other- 
wise permitted in 19.3.6.2.8. 

19.3.6.2.8 There shall be no restrictions in area and fire resis- 
tance of glass and frames in smoke compartments protected 
throughout by an approved, supervised automatic sprinkler 
system in accordance with 19.3.5.3. 

19.3.6.3 Corridor Doors. 

19.3.6.3.1* Doors protecting corridor openings in other than 
required enclosures of vertical openings, exits, or hazardous 



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areas shall be doors constructed to resist the passage of smoke 
and shall be constructed of materials such as the following: 

(1) 44-mm (1%-in.) thick, solid-bonded core wood 

(2) Construction that resists fire for not less than 20 minutes 

19.3.6.3.2 The requirements of 19.3.6.3.1 shall not apply 
where otherwise permitted by the following: 

(1) Doors to toilet rooms, bathrooms, shower rooms, sink 
closets, and similar auxiliary spaces that do not contain 
flammable or combustible materials shall not be required 
to comply with 19.3.6.3.1. 

(2) In smoke compartments protected throughout by an ap- 
proved, supervised automatic sprinkler system in accor- 
dance with 19.3.5.3, the door construction requirements 
of 19.3.6.3.1 shall not be mandatory, but the doors shall 
be constructed to resist the passage of smoke. 

19.3.6.3.3 Compliance with NFPA 80, Standard for Fire Doors 
and Fire Windows, shall not be required. 

19.3.6.3.4 Clearance between the bottom of the door and the 
floor covering not exceeding 25 mm (1 in.) shall be permitted 
for corridor doors. 

19.3.6.3.5* Doors shall be provided with a means for keeping 
the door closed that is acceptable to the authority having juris- 
diction, and the following requirements also shall apply: 

( 1 ) The device used shall be capable of keeping the door fully 
closed if a force of 22 N (5 lbf) is applied at the latch edge 
of the door. 

(2) Roller latches shall be prohibited on corridor doors in 
buildings not fully protected by an approved automatic 
sprinkler system in accordance with 19.3.5.3. 

19.3.6.3.6 The requirements of 19.3.6.3.5 shall not apply 
where otherwise permitted by the following: 

(1) Doors to toilet rooms, bathrooms, shower rooms, sink 
closets, and similar auxiliary spaces that do not contain 
flammable or combustible materials shall not be required 
to comply with 19.3.6.3.5. 

(2) Existing roller latches demonstrated to keep the door 
closed against a force of 22 N (5 lbf) shall be permitted to 
be kept in service. 

19.3.6.3.7 Reserved. 

19.3.6.3.8* Doors shall not be held open by devices other than 
those that release when the door is pushed or pulled. 

19.3.6.3.9 Door-closing devices shall not be required on 
doors in corridor wall openings other than those serving re- 
quired exits, smoke barriers, or enclosures of vertical open- 
ings and hazardous areas. 

19.3.6.3.10* Nonrated, factory- or field-applied protective 
plates extending not more than 1220 mm (48 in.) above the 
bottom of the door shall be permitted. 

19.3.6.3.11 Dutch doors shall be permitted where they con- 
form to 19.3.6.3 and meet the following criteria: 

(1) Both the upper leaf and lower leaf are equipped with a 
latching device. 

(2) The meeting edges of the upper and lower leaves are 
equipped with an astragal, a rabbet, or a bevel. 

(3) Where protecting openings in enclosures around hazard- 
ous areas, the doors comply with NFPA 80, Standard for Fire 
Doors and Fire Windows. 



19.3.6.3.12 Door frames shall be labeled, shall be of steel 
construction, or shall be of other materials in compliance with 
the provisions of Section 8.3, unless otherwise permitted by 
19.3.6.3.13. 

19.3.6.3.13 Door frames in smoke compartments protected 
throughout by an approved, supervised automatic sprinkler 
system in accordance with 19.3.5.3 shall not be required to 
comply with 19.3.6.3.12. 

19.3.6.3.14 Fixed fire window assemblies in accordance with 
Section 8.3 shall be permitted in corridor doors. 

19.3.6.3.15 Restrictions in area and fire resistance of glass 
and frames required by Section 8.3 shall not apply in smoke 
compartments protected throughout by an approved, super- 
vised automatic sprinkler system in accordance with 19.3.5.3. 

19.3.6.4 Transfer Grilles. 

19.3.6.4.1 Transfer grilles, regardless of whether they are 
protected by fusible link-operated dampers, shall not be used 
in corridor walls or doors. 

19.3.6.4.2 Doors to toilet rooms, bathrooms, shower rooms, 
sink closets, and similar auxiliary spaces that do not contain 
flammable or combustible materials shall be permitted to 
have ventilating louvers or to be undercut. 

19.3.6.5 Openings. 

19.3.6.5.1 Miscellaneous openings such as mail slots, phar- 
macy pass-through windows, laboratory pass-through win- 
dows, and cashier pass-through windows shall be permitted to 
be installed in vision panels or doors without special protec- 
tion, provided that both of the following criteria are met: 

(1) The aggregate area of openings per room does not ex- 
ceed 0.015 m 2 (0.14 ft 2 ). 

(2) The openings are installed at or below half the distance 
from the floor to the room ceiling. 

19.3.6.5.2 The alternative requirements of 19.3.6.5.1 shall 
not apply where otherwise modified by the following: 

(1) Openings in smoke compartments containing patient 
bedrooms shall not be permitted to be installed in vision 
panels or doors without special protection. 

(2) For rooms protected throughout by an approved, super- 
vised automatic sprinkler system in accordance with 
19.3.5.3, the aggregate area of openings per room shall 
not exceed 0.05 m 2 (0.55 ft 2 ) . 

19.3.7 Subdivision of Building Spaces. 

19.3.7.1 Smoke barriers shall be provided to divide every 
story used for sleeping rooms for more than 30 patients into 
not less than two smoke compartments, and the following also 
shall apply: 

( 1 ) The size of any such smoke compartment shall not exceed 
2100 m 2 (22,500 ft 2 ), and the travel distance from any 
point to reach a door in the required smoke barrier shall 
not exceed 61 m (200 ft). 

(2) Where neither the length nor width of the smoke com- 
partment exceeds 46 m (150 ft), the travel distance to 
reach the smoke barrier door shall not be limited. 

(3) The area of an atrium separated in accordance with 8.6.7 
shall not be limited in size. 

19.3.7.2 For purposes of the requirements of 19.3.7, the 
number of health care occupants shall be determined by ac- 
tual count of patient bed capacity. 



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19.3.7.3 Any required smoke barrier shall be constructed in 
accordance with Section 8.5 and shall have a fire resistance 
rating of not less than 'A hour, unless otherwise permitted by 
the following: 

( 1 ) This requirement shall not apply where an atrium is used, 
provided that both of the following criteria are met: 

(a) Smoke barriers shall be permitted to terminate at an 
atrium wall constructed in accordance with 8.6.7(1) (c). 

(b) Not less than two separate smoke compartments shall 
be provided on each floor. 

(2)*Smoke dampers shall not be required in duct penetra- 
tions of smoke barriers in fully ducted heating, ventilat- 
ing, and air conditioning systems where an approved, su- 
pervised automatic sprinkler system in accordance with 
19.3.5.4 has been provided for smoke compartments adja- 
cent to the smoke barrier. 

1 9.3.7.4 Accumulation space shall be provided in accordance 
with 19.3.7.4.1 and 19.3.7.4.2. 

19.3.7.4.1 Not less than 2.8 net m 2 (30 net ft 2 ) per patient in a 
hospital or nursing home, or not less than 1.4netm 2 (15netft 2 ) 
per resident in a limited care facility, shall be provided within the 
aggregate area of corridors, patient rooms, treatment rooms, 
lounge or dining areas, and other low hazard areas on each side 
of the smoke barrier. 

19.3.7.4.2 On stories not housing bed or litterborne patients, 
not less than 0.56 net m 2 (6 net ft 2 ) per occupant shall be 
provided on each side of the smoke barrier for the total num- 
ber of occupants in adjoining compartments. 

19.3.7.5 Openings in smoke barriers shall be protected using 
one of the following methods: 

(1) They shall be protected by fire-rated glazing. 

(2) They shall be protected by wired glass panels and steel 
frames. 

(3) They shall be protected by doors, such as 44-mm (l 3 /4-in.) 
thick, solid-bonded wood core doors. 

(4) They shall be protected by construction that resists fire for 
not less than 20 minutes. 

19.3.7.5.1* Nonrated factory- or field-applied protective plates 
extending not more than 1220 mm (48 in.) above the bottom 
of the door shall be permitted. 

19.3.7.5.2 Doors shall be permitted to have fixed fire window 
assemblies in accordance with Section 8.3. 

19.3.7.6* Doors in smoke barriers shall comply with Section 
8.3 and shall be self-closing or automatic-closing in accor- 
dance with 19.2.2.2.6. Such doors in smoke barriers shall not 
be required to swing with egress travel. Positive latching hard- 
ware shall not be required. 

19.3.7.7 Door openings in smoke barriers shall be protected 
using one of the following methods: 

(1) A swinging door providing a clear width of not less than 
810 mm (32 in.) 

(2) A horizontal sliding door complying with 7.2.1.14 and 
providing a clear width of not less than 810 mm (32 in.) 

19.3.7.8 The requirement of 19.3.7.7 shall not apply to exist- 
ing 865-mm (34-in.) doors. 

19.3.8* Special Protection Features — Outside Window or 
Door. Every patient sleeping room shall have an outside window 
or outside door, unless otherwise permitted by the following: 



(1) This requirement shall not apply to newborn nurseries 
and rooms intended for occupancy for less than 24 hours, 
such as those housing obstetrical labor beds, recovery 
beds, and observation beds in the emergency department. 

(2) Windows in atrium walls shall be considered outside win- 
dows for the purposes of this requirement. 

19.4 Special Provisions. 

19.4.1 Limited Access Buildings. See Section 11.7 for require- 
ments for limited access buildings. 

19.4.2 High-Rise Buildings. (Reserved) 

19.5 Building Services. 

19.5.1 Utilities. 

19.5.1.1 Utilities shall complywith the provisions of Section 9.1. 

19.5.1.2 Existing installations shall be permitted to be contin- 
ued in service, provided that the systems do not present a seri- 
ous hazard to life. 

19.5.2 Heating, Ventilating, and Air Conditioning. 

19.5.2.1 Heating, ventilating, and air conditioning shall com- 
ply with the provisions of Section 9.2 and shall be installed in 
accordance with the manufacturer's specifications, unless oth- 
erwise modified by 19.5.2.2. 

19.5.2.2* Any heating device other than a central heating 
plant shall be designed and installed so that combustible ma- 
terial cannot be ignited by the device or its appurtenances, 
and the following requirements also shall apply: 

(1) If fuel-fired, such heating devices shall comply with the 
following: 

(a) They shall be chimney connected or vent connected. 

(b) They shall take air for combustion directly from the 
outside. 

(c) They shall be designed and installed to provide for 
complete separation of the combustion system from 
the atmosphere of the occupied area. 

(2) Any heating device shall have safety features to immedi- 
ately stop the flow of fuel and shut down the equipment in 
case of either excessive temperature or ignition failure. 

19.5.2.3 The requirements of 19.5.2.2 shall not apply where 
otherwise permitted by the following: 

(1) Approved, suspended unit heaters shall be permitted in 
locations other than means of egress and patient sleeping 
areas, provided that both of the following criteria are met: 

(a) Such heaters are located high enough to be out of the 
reach of persons using the area. 

(b) Such heaters are equipped with the safety features 
required by 19.5.2.2. 

(2) Fireplaces shall be permitted and used only in areas other 
than patient sleeping areas, provided that all of the follow- 
ing criteria are met: 

(a) Such areas are separated from patient sleeping spaces 
by construction having not less than a 1-hour fire re- 
sistance rating. 

(b) Such fireplaces comply with the provisions of 9.2.2. 

(c) The fireplace is equipped with a fireplace enclosure 
guaranteed against breakage up to a temperature of 
343°C (650°F) and constructed of heat-tempered 
glass or other approved material. 



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(3) If, in the opinion of the authority having jurisdiction, spe- 
cial hazards are present, a lock on the enclosure specified 
in 19.5.2.3(2) (c) and other safety precautions shall be 
permitted to be required. 

19.5.3 Elevators, Escalators, and Conveyors. Elevators, esca- 
lators, and conveyors shall comply with the provisions of 
Section 9.4. 

19.5.4 Rubbish Chutes, Incinerators, and Laundry Chutes. 

19.5.4.1 Any existing linen and trash chute, including pneu- 
matic rubbish and linen systems, that opens directly onto any 
corridor shall be sealed by fire-resistive construction to pre- 
vent further use or shall be provided with a fire door assembly 
having a fire protection rating of 1 hour. All new chutes shall 
comply with Section 9.5. 

19.5.4.2 Any rubbish chute or linen chute, including pneu- 
matic rubbish and linen systems, shall be provided with auto- 
matic extinguishing protection in accordance with Section 
9.7. (See Section 9.5.) 

19.5.4.3 Any trash chute shall discharge into a trash collec- 
tion room used for no other purpose and protected in accor- 
dance with Section 8.7. 

19.5.4.4 Existing flue-fed incinerators shall be sealed by fire- 
resistive construction to prevent further use. 

19.6 Reserved. 

19.7* Operating Features. 

19.7.1 Evacuation and Relocation Plan and Fire Drills. 

19.7.1.1 The administration of every health care occupancy 
shall have, in effect and available to all supervisory personnel, 
written copies of a plan for the protection of all persons in the 
event of fire, for their evacuation to areas of refuge, and for 
their evacuation from the building when necessary. 

19.7.1.2 All employees shall be periodically instructed and 
kept informed with respect to their duties under the plan re- 
quired by 19.7.1.1. 

19.7.1.3 A copy of the plan required by 19.7.1.1 shall be 
readily available at all times in the telephone operator's loca- 
tion or at the security center. 

19.7.1.4* Fire drills in health care occupancies shall include 
the transmission of a fire alarm signal and simulation of emer- 
gency fire conditions. 

19.7.1.5 Infirm or bedridden patients shall not be required 
to be moved during drills to safe areas or to the exterior of the 
building. 

19.7.1.6 Drills shall be conducted quarterly on each shift to 
familiarize facility personnel (nurses, interns, maintenance 
engineers, and administrative staff) with the signals and emer- 
gency action required under varied conditions. 

19.7.1.7 When drills are conducted between 9:00 p.m. 
(2100 hours) and 6:00 a.m. (0600 hours), a coded announce- 
ment shall be permitted to be used instead of audible alarms. 

19.7.1.8 Employees of health care occupancies shall be in- 
structed in life safety procedures and devices. 

19.7.2 Procedure in Case of Fire. 

19.7.2.1* Protection of Patients. 

19.7.2.1.1 For health care occupancies, the proper protec- 
tion of patients shall require the prompt and effective re- 
sponse of health care personnel. 



19.7.2.1.2 The basic response required of staff shall include 
the following: 

(1) Removal of all occupants directly involved with the fire 
emergency 

(2) Transmission of an appropriate fire alarm signal to warn 
other building occupants and summon staff 

(3) Confinement of the effects of the fire by closing doors to 
isolate the fire area 

(4) Relocation of patients as detailed in the health care occu- 
pancy's fire safety plan 

19.7.2.2 Fire Safety Plan. A written health care occupancy fire 
safety plan shall provide for the following: 

(1) Use of alarms 

(2) Transmission of alarm to fire department 
| (3) Emergency phone call to fire department 

(4) Response to alarms 

(5) Isolation of fire 

(6) Evacuation of immediate area 

(7) Evacuation of smoke compartment 

(8) Preparation of floors and building for evacuation 

(9) Extinguishment of fire 

19.7.2.3 Staff Response. 

19.7.2.3.1 All health care occupancy personnel shall be in- 
structed in the use of and response to fire alarms. 

19.7.2.3.2 All health care occupancy personnel shall be in- 
structed in the use of the code phrase to ensure transmission 
of an alarm under the following conditions: 

(1) When the individual who discovers a fire must immedi- 
ately go to the aid of an endangered person 

(2) During a malfunction of the building fire alarm system 

19.7.2.3.3 Personnel hearing the code announced shall first 
activate the building fire alarm using the nearest manual fire 
alarm box, then shall execute immediately their duties as out- 
lined in the fire safety plan. 

19.7.3 Maintenance of Exits. 

19.7.3.1 Proper maintenance shall be provided to ensure the 
dependability of the method of evacuation selected. 

19.7.3.2 Health care occupancies that find it necessary to 
lock exits shall, at all times, maintain an adequate staff 
qualified to release locks and direct occupants from the 
immediate danger area to a place of safety in case of fire or 
other emergency. 

19.7.4* Smoking. Smoking regulations shall be adopted and 
shall include not less than the following provisions: 

(1) Smoking shall be prohibited in any room, ward, or com- 
partment where flammable liquids, combustible gases, or 
oxygen is used or stored and in any other hazardous loca- 
tion, and such areas shall be posted with signs that read 
NO SMOKING or shall be posted with the international 
symbol for no smoking. 

(2) In health care occupancies where smoking is prohibited 
and signs are prominently placed at all major entrances, 
secondary signs with language that prohibits smoking 
shall not be required. 

(3) Smoking by patients classified as not responsible shall be 
prohibited. 

(4) The requirement of 19.7.4(3) shall not apply where the 
patient is under direct supervision. 



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(5) Ashtrays of noncombustible material and safe design shall 
be provided in all areas where smoking is permitted. 

(6) Metal containers with self-closing cover devices into which 
ashtrays can be emptied shall be readily available to all 
areas where smoking is permitted. 

19.7.5 Furnishings, Bedding, and Decorations. 

19.7.5.1* Draperies, curtains, and other loosely hanging fab- 
rics and films serving as furnishings or decorations in health 
care occupancies shall be in accordance with the provisions of 
10.3.1 (see 19.3.5.6), and the following also shall apply: 

(1) Such curtains shall include cubicle curtains. 

(2) Such curtains shall not include curtains at showers. 

19.7.5.2 Newly introduced upholstered furniture within 
health care occupancies shall meet the criteria specified when 
tested in accordance with the methods cited in 10.3.2(2) and 
10.3.3. 

19.7.5.3 The requirement of 19.7.5.2 shall not apply to up- 
holstered furniture belonging to the patient in sleeping 
rooms of nursing homes where the following criteria are met: 

(1) Asmoke detector shall be installed in such rooms. 

(2) Battery-powered single-station smoke detectors shall be 
permitted. 

19.7.5.4 Newly introduced mattresses within health care oc- 
cupancies shall meet the criteria specified when tested in ac- 
cordance with the methods cited in 10.3.2(3) and 10.3.4. 

19.7.5.5 The requirement of 19.7.5.4 shall not apply to mat- 
tresses belonging to the patient in sleeping rooms of nursing 
homes where the following criteria are met: 

(1) Asmoke detector shall be installed in such rooms. 

(2) Battery-powered, single-station smoke detectors shall be 
permitted. 

19.7.5.6 Combustible decorations shall be prohibited in any 
health care occupancy unless one of the following criteria is 
met: 

(1) They are flame-retardant. 

(2) They are decorations such as photographs and paintings 
in such limited quantities that a hazard of fire develop- 
ment or spread is not present. 

19.7.5.7 Soiled linen or trash collection receptacles shall not 
exceed 121 L (32 gal) in capacity, and the following also shall 
apply: 

( 1 ) The average density of container capacity in a room or 
space shall not exceed 20.4 L/m 2 (0.5 gal/ft 2 ). 

(2) A capacity of 121 L (32 gal) shall not be exceeded within 
any 6-m 2 (64-ft 2 ) area. 

(3) Mobile soiled linen or trash collection receptacles with 
capacities greater than 121 L (32 gal) shall be located in a 
room protected as a hazardous area when not attended. 

(4) Container size and density shall not be limited in hazard- 
ous areas. 

19.7.6 Maintenance and Testing. (See 4.6.13.) 

19.7.7* Engineered Smoke Control Systems. 

19.7.7.1 Existing engineered smoke control systems, unless 
specifically exempted by the authority having jurisdiction, 
shall be tested in accordance with established engineering 
principles. 



19.7.7.2 Systems not meeting the performance requirements 
of such testing shall be continued in operation only with the 
specific approval of the authority having jurisdiction. 

19.7.8 Portable Space-Heating Devices. Portable space- 
heating devices shall be prohibited in all health care occupan- 
cies, unless both of the following criteria are met: 

(1) Such devices are used only in nonsleeping staff and em- 
ployee areas. 

(2) The heating elements of such devices do not exceed 
100°C (212°F). 

19.7.9 Construction, Repair, and Improvement Operations. 

19.7.9.1 Construction, repair, and improvement operations 
shall comply with 4.6.11. 

19.7.9.2 The means of egress in any area undergoing con- 
struction, repair, or improvements shall be inspected daily for 
compliance with of 7.1.10.1 and shall also comply with 
NFPA241, Standard for Safeguarding Construction, Alteration, and 
Demolition Operations. 



Chapter 20 New Ambulatory Health 
Care Occupancies 

20.1 General Requirements. 
20.1.1 Application. 
20.1.1.1 General. 

20.1.1.1.1 The requirements of this chapter shall apply to the 
following: 

(1) New buildings or portions thereof used as ambulatory 
health care occupancies (see 1.3.1) 

(2) Additions made to, or used as, an ambulatory health care 
occupancy (see 4.6.7 and 20.1.1.4), unless all of the follow- 
ing criteria are met: 

(a) The addition is classified as an occupancy other than 
an ambulatory health care occupancy. 

(b) The addition is separated from the ambulatory health 
care occupancy in accordance with 20.1.2.2. 

(c) The addition conforms to the requirements for the 
specific occupancy. 

(3) Alterations, modernizations, or renovations of existing am- 
bulatory health care occupancies (see 4. 6.8 and 20. 1. 1. 4) 

(4) Existing buildings or portions thereof upon change of occu- 
pancy to an ambulatory health care occupancy (see 4.6.12) 

20.1.1.1.2 Ambulatory health care facilities shall comply with 
the provisions of Chapter 38 and this chapter, whichever is 
more stringent. 

20.1.1.1.3 This chapter establishes life safety requirements, 
in addition to those required in Chapter 38, for the design 
of all ambulatory health care occupancies as defined in 
3.3.152.1. 

20.1.1.1.4 Buildings, or sections of buildings, that primarily 
house patients who, in the opinion of the governing body of 
the facility and the governmental agency having jurisdiction, 
are capable of exercising judgment and appropriate physical 
action for self-preservation under emergency conditions shall 



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be permitted to comply with chapters of this Code other than 
Chapter 20. 

20.1.1.1.5 It shall be recognized that, in buildings providing 
treatment for certain types of patients or having detention 
rooms or a security section, it might be necessary to lock doors 
and bar windows to confine and protect building inhabitants. 
In such instances, the authority havingjurisdiction shall make 
appropriate modifications to those sections of this Code that 
would otherwise require means of egress to be kept unlocked. 

20.1.1.1.6* The requirements of this chapter are based on the 
assumption that staff is available in all patient-occupied areas 
to perform certain fire safety functions as required in other 
paragraphs of this chapter. 

20.1.1.2* Goals and Objectives. The goals and objectives of 
Section 4.1 and Section 4.2 shall be met with due consider- 
ation for functional requirements, which are accomplished by 
limiting the development and spread of a fire emergency to 
the room of fire origin and reducing the need for occupant 
evacuation, except from the room of fire origin. 

20.1.1.3 Total Concept. 

20.1.1.3.1 All ambulatory health care facilities shall be de- 
signed, constructed, maintained, and operated to minimize 
the possibility of a fire emergency requiring the evacuation of 
occupants. 

20.1.1.3.2 Because the safety of ambulatory health care occu- 
pants cannot be ensured adequately by dependence on evacu- 
ation of the building, their protection from fire shall be pro- 
vided by appropriate arrangement of facilities, adequate, 
trained staff, and development of operating and maintenance 
procedures composed of the following: 

(1) Design, construction, and compartmentation 

(2) Provision for detection, alarm, and extinguishment 

(3) Fire prevention and the planning, training, and drilling 
programs for the isolation of fire, transfer of occupants to 
areas of refuge, or evacuation of the building 

20.1.1.4 Additions, Conversions, Modernization, Renovation, 
and Construction Operations. 

20.1.1.4.1 Additions. 

20.1.1.4.1.1 Additions shall be separated from any existing 
structure not conforming to the provisions within Chapter 21 
by a fire barrier having not less than a 2-hour fire resistance 
rating and constructed of materials as required for the addi- 
tion. (See 4.6.4 and 4.6. 7.) 

20.1.1.4.1.2 Doors in barriers required by 20.1.1.4.1.1 shall 
normally be kept closed, unless otherwise permitted by 
20.1.1.4.1.3. 

20.1.1.4.1.3 Doors shall be permitted to be held open if they 
meet the requirements of 20.2.2.3. 

20.1.1.4.2 Changes of Occupancy. A change from a hospital 
or nursing home to an ambulatory health care occupancy 
shall not be considered a change in occupancy or occupancy 
subclassification. 

20.1.1.4.3 Renovations, Alterations, and Modernizations. (See 
4.6.8.) 

20.1.1.4.4 Construction, Repair, and Improvement Opera- 
tions. (See 4.6.11.) 



20.1.2 Multiple Occupancies. 

20.1.2.1 Multiple occupancies shall be in accordance with 
6.1.14. 

20.1.2.2* Sections of ambulatory health care facilities shall be 
permitted to be classified as other occupancies, provided that 
they meet all of the following conditions: 

(1) They are not intended to serve ambulatory health care 
occupants for purposes of treatment or customary access 
by patients incapable of self-preservation. 

(2) They are separated from areas of ambulatory health care 
occupancies by construction having a fire resistance rat- 
ing of not less than 1 hour. 

20.1.2.3 All means of egress from ambulatory health care oc- 
cupancies that traverse nonambulatory health care spaces 
shall conform to requirements of this Code for ambulatory 
health care occupancies, unless otherwise permitted by 
20.1.2.4. 

20.1.2.4 Exit through a horizontal exit into other contiguous 
occupancies that do not conform to ambulatory health care 
egress provisions but that do comply with requirements set 
forth in the appropriate occupancy chapter of this Code shall 
be permitted, provided that the occupancy does not contain 
high hazard contents. 

20.1.2.5 Egress provisions for areas of ambulatory health care 
facilities that correspond to other occupancies shall meet the 
corresponding requirements of this Code for such occupan- 
cies, and, where the clinical needs of the occupant necessitate 
the locking of means of egress, staff shall be present for the 
supervised release of occupants during all times of use. 

20.1.2.6 Any area with a hazard of contents classified higher 
than that of the ambulatory health care occupancy and lo- 
cated in the same building shall be protected as required in 
20.3.2. 

20.1.2.7 Non-health care-related occupancies classified as 
containing high hazard contents shall not be permitted in 
buildings housing ambulatory health care occupancies. 

20.1.3 Definition: Ambulatory Health Care Occupancy. See 
3.3.152.1. 

20.1.4 Classification of Occupancy. (See 20.1.3.) 

20.1.5 Classification of Hazard of Contents. The classifica- 
tion of hazard of contents shall be as defined in Section 6.2. 



uirememts. 



20.1.6 Minimum Construction 

20.1.6.1 For the purposes of 20.1.6, the number of stories 
shall be counted starting with the primary level of exit dis- 
charge and ending with the highest occupiable level used as 
an ambulatory health care facility. 

20. 1 .6.2 For the purposes of 20. 1 .6. 1 , the primary level of exit 
discharge of a building shall be that floor that is level with or 
above finished grade of the exterior wall line for 50 percent or 
more of its perimeter. 

20. 1 .6.3 Buildings of one story in height housing ambulatory 
health care facilities shall be of any construction type in accor- 
dance with NFPA220, Standard on Types of Building Construction. 
(See 8.2.1.) 

20.1.6.4 Buildings of two or more stories in height housing 
ambulatory health care facilities shall be of Type 1(443), Type 
1(332), Type 11(222), Type 11(111), Type 111(211), Type 



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IV(2HH), or Type V(lll) construction (see 8.2.1), unless oth- 
erwise permitted by 20.1.6.5. 

20.1.6.5 Buildings shall be permitted to be constructed of 
Type 11(000), Type 111(200), or Type V(000), if protected 
throughout by an approved, supervised automatic sprinkler 
system in accordance with Section 9.7. 

20.1.6.6 Any level below the level of exit discharge shall be 
separated from the level of exit discharge by not less than 
Type 11(111), Type 111(211), or Type V(lll) construction (see 
8.2.1), unless both of the following criteria are met: 

(1) Such levels are under the control of the ambulatory 
health care facility. 

(2) Any hazardous spaces are protected in accordance with 
Section 8.4. 

20.1.6.7 Where new ambulatory health care facilities are lo- 
cated in existing buildings, the authority having jurisdiction 
shall be permitted to accept construction systems of lesser fire 
resistance than that required by 20.1.6.3 through 20.1.6.6, 
provided that it can be demonstrated to the authority's satis- 
faction that prompt evacuation of the facility can be achieved 
in case of fire or that the exposing occupancies and materials 
of construction present no threat of fire penetration from 
such occupancy to the ambulatory health care facility or to the 
collapse of the structure. 

20.1.6.8 All interior walls and partitions in buildings of Type I 
or Type II construction shall be of noncombustible or limited- 
combustible materials. 

20.1.6.9 All buildings with more than one level below the 
level of exit discharge shall have all such lower levels separated 
from the level of exit discharge by not less than Type 11(111) 
construction. 

20.1.7 Occupant Load. (See 38.1. 7. ) 

20.2 Means of Egress Requirements. 

20.2.1 General. Every aisle, passageway, corridor, exit dis- 
charge, exit location, and access shall be in accordance with 
Chapter 7, unless otherwise modified by 20.2.2 through 
20.2.11. 

20.2.2 Means of Egress Components. 

20.2.2.1 Components of means of egress shall be limited to 
the types described in 38.2.2. 

20.2.2.2 Special locking arrangements complying with 
7.2.1.6 shall be permitted. 

20.2.2.3 Any door required to be self-closing shall be permit- 
ted to be held open only by an automatic release device that 
complies with 7.2.1.8.2. The required manual fire alarm sys- 
tem and the systems required by 7.2.1.8.2 shall be arranged to 
initiate the closing action of all such doors throughout the 
smoke compartment or throughout the entire facility. 

20.2.2.4 Where doors in a stair enclosure are held open by an 
automatic release device as permitted in 20.2.2.3, initiation of 
a door-closing action on any level shall cause all doors at all 
levels in the stair enclosure to close. 

20.2.3 Capacity of Means of Egress. 

20.2.3.1 The capacity of any required means of egress shall 
be determined in accordance with the provisions of 38.2.3. 



20.2.3.2 The clear width of any corridor or passageway re- 
quired for exit access shall be not less than 1120 mm (44 in.). 

20.2.3.3 Doors in the means of egress from diagnostic or 
treatment areas, such as x-ray, surgical, or physical therapy, 
shall provide a clear width of not less than 810 mm (32 in.). 

20.2.4 Number of Exits. 

20.2.4.1 Not less than two exits of the types described in 
38.2.2 that are remotely located from each other shall be pro- 
vided for each floor or fire section of the building. 

20.2.4.2 Any room and any suite of rooms of more than 232 
m 2 (2500 ft 2 ) shall have not less than two exit access doors 
remotely located from each other. 

20.2.4.3 Not less than two exits of the types described in 
38.2.2 shall be accessible from each smoke compartment. 

20.2.4.4 Egress from smoke compartments addressed in 
20.2.4.3 shall be permitted through adjacent compartments 
but shall not require return through the compartment of fire 
origin. 

20.2.5 Arrainigement of Means of Egress. (See 38.2.5.) 

20.2.6 Travel Distance to Exits. 

20.2.6.1 Travel distance shall be measured in accordance 
with Section 7.6. 

20.2.6.2 Travel distance shall be as follows: 

(1) The travel distance between any room door required as 
an exit access and an exit shall not exceed 30 m (100 ft). 

(2) The travel distance between any point in a room and an 
exit shall not exceed 46 m (150 ft). 

(3) The maximum travel distance in 20.2.6.2(1) or 20.2.6.2(2) 
shall be permitted to be increased by 15 m (50 ft) in build- 
ings protected throughout by an approved automatic sprin- 
kler system in accordance with Section 9.7. 

20.2.7 Discharge from Exits. (See 38.2. 7.) 

20.2.8 IMumiination of Means of Egress. Means of egress shall 
be illuminated in accordance with Section 7.8. 

20.2.9 Emergency Lighting and Essential Electrical Systems. 

20.2.9.1 Emergency lighting shall be provided in accordance 
with Section 7.9. 

20.2.9.2 Where general anesthesia or life-support equipment 
is used, each ambulatory health care facility shall be provided 
with an essential electrical system in accordance with NFPA99, 
Standard for Health Care Facilities, unless otherwise permitted by 
the following: 

(1) Where battery-operated equipment is provided and ac- 
ceptable to the authority havingjurisdiction 

(2) Where a facility uses life-support equipment for emer- 
gency purposes only 

20.2.10 Marking of Means of Egress. Means of egress shall 
have signs in accordance with Section 7.10. 

20.2.11 Special Means of Egress Features. (Reserved) 
20.3 Protection. 

20.3.1 Protection of Vertical Openings. (See 38.3.1.) 



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20.3.2 Protection from Hazards. (See 38.3.2.) 

20.3.2.1 Doors. Doors to hazardous areas shall be self-closing 
or automatic-closing in accordance with 20.2.2.3. 

20.3.2.2 Laboratories. Laboratories employing quantities of 
flammable, combustible, or hazardous materials that are con- 
sidered as a severe hazard shall be protected in accordance 
with NFPA99, Standard for Health Care Facilities. 

20.3.2.3 Anesthetizing Locations. Anesthetizing locations 
shall be protected in accordance with NFPA 99, Standard fin- 
Health Care Facilities. 

20.3.2.4 Cooking Facilities. Cooking facilities shall be pro- 
tected in accordance with 9.2.3 unless otherwise permitted by 
20.3.2.5. 

20.3.2.5 Domestic Cooking Equipment. Where domestic 
cooking equipment is used for food-warming or limited cook- 
ing, protection or separation of food preparation facilities 
shall not be required. 

20.3.3 Interior Finish. (See 38.3.3. ) 

20.3.4 Detection, Alarm, and Communications Systems. 

20.3.4.1 General. Ambulatory health care facilities shall be 
provided with fire alarm systems in accordance with Section 
9.6, except as modified by 20.3.4.2 through 20.3.4.5. 

20.3.4.2 Initiation. Initiation of the required fire alarm systems 
shall be by manual means in accordance with 9.6.2 and by means 
of any detection devices or detection systems required. 

20.3.4.3 Occupant Notification. Occupant notification shall 
be accomplished automatically, without delay, in accordance 
with 9.6.3 upon operation of any fire alarm activating device. 

20.3.4.4 Emergency Forces Notification. 

20.3.4.4.1 Fire department notification shall be accom- 
plished in accordance with 9.6.4. 

20.3.4.4.2 Smoke detection devices or smoke detection sys- 
tems equipped with reconfirmation features shall not be re- 
quired to automatically notify the fire department unless the 
alarm condition is reconfirmed after a period not exceeding 
120 seconds. 

20.3.4.5 Emergency Control Operation of any activating de- 
vice in the required fire alarm system shall be arranged to 
accomplish automatically, without delay, any control functions 
required to be performed by that device. (See 9.6.5.) 

20.3.5 Extinguishment Requirements. (See 38.33.) 

20.3.5.1 Isolated hazardous areas shall be permitted to be 
protected in accordance with 9.7.1.2. 

20.3.5.2 Where more than two sprinklers are installed in a 
single area for protection in accordance with 9.7.1.2, water- 
flow detection shall be provided to sound the building fire 
alarm or to notify, by a signal, any constantly attended loca- 
tion, such as PBX, security, or emergency room, at which the 
necessary corrective action shall be taken. 

20.3.5.3 Portable fire extinguishers shall be provided in am- 
bulatory health care facilities in accordance with 9.7.4.1. 

20.3.6 Corridors. 

20.3.6.1 General. (See 38.3. 6. ) 



20.3.6.2 Openings. 

20.3.6.2.1 Miscellaneous openings such as mail slots, phar- 
macy pass-through windows, laboratory pass-through win- 
dows, and cashier pass-through windows shall be permitted to 
be installed in vision panels or doors without special protec- 
tion, provided that both of the following criteria are met: 

(1) The aggregate area of openings per room does not ex- 
ceed 0.015 m 2 (0.14 ft 2 ) . 

(2) The openings are installed at or below half the distance 
from the floor to the room ceiling. 

20.3.6.2.2 For rooms protected throughout by an approved, 
supervised automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Sec- 
tion 9.7, the aggregate area of openings per room shall not 
exceed 0.05 m ? (0.55 ft 2 ) . 

20.3.7 Subdivision of Building Space. 

20.3.7.1 Ambulatory health care facilities shall be separated 
from other tenants and occupancies and shall meet the follow- 
ing requirements: 

( 1 ) Walls shall have not less than a 1-hour fire resistance rat- 
ing and shall extend from the floor slab below to the floor 
or roof slab above. 

(2) Doors shall be constructed of not less than 44-mm (1%-in.) 
thick, solid-bonded wood core or the equivalent and shall be 
equipped with positive latches. 

(3) Doors shall be self-closing and shall be kept in the closed 
position except when in use. 

(4) Any windows in these barriers shall be of fixed fire window 
assemblies in accordance with Section 8.3. 

20.3.7.2 Every story of an ambulatory health care facility shall 
be divided into not less than two smoke compartments, unless 
otherwise permitted by the following: 

(1) This requirement shall not apply to facilities of less than 
465 m 2 (5000 ft 2 ) that are protected by an approved auto- 
matic smoke detection system. 

(2) This requirement shall not apply to facilities of less than 
929 m 2 (10,000 ft 2 ) that are protected throughout by an 
approved, supervised automatic sprinkler system installed 
in accordance with Section 9.7. 

(3) An area in an adjoining occupancy shall be permitted to 
serve as a smoke compartment for an ambulatory health 
care facility if the following criteria are met: 

(a) The separating wall and both compartments meet the 
requirements of 20.3.7. 

(b) The ambulatory health care facility is less than 2100 m 2 
(22,500 ft 2 ). 

(c) Access from the ambulatory health care facility to the 
other occupancy is unrestricted. 

20.3.7.3 Smoke compartments shall not exceed an area of 
2100 m 2 (22,500 ft 2 ) and the travel distance from any point to 
reach a door in a smoke barrier shall not exceed 61 m (200 ft). 

20.3.7.4 The area of an atrium separated in accordance with 
8.6.7 shall not be limited in size. 

20.3.7.5 Any required smoke barrier shall be constructed in 
accordance with Section 8.5 and shall have a fire resistance 
rating of not less than 1 hour, unless otherwise permitted by 
20.3.7.6. 

20.3.7.6 Smoke dampers shall not be required in duct pen- 
etrations of smoke barriers in fully ducted heating, ventilating, 



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and air conditioning systems for buildings protected through- 
out by an approved, supervised automatic sprinkler system in 
accordance with Section 9.7. 

20.3.7.7 Windows in the smoke barrier shall be of fixed fire 
window assemblies in accordance with Section 8.3. 

20.3.7.8 Not less than 1.4 net m 2 (15 net ft 2 ) per ambulatory 
health care facility occupant shall be provided within the ag- 
gregate area of corridors, patient rooms, treatment rooms, 
lounges, and other low hazard areas on each side of the smoke 
compartment for the total number of occupants in adjoining 
compartments. 

20.3.7.9* Doors in smoke barriers shall be not less than 44-mm 
(134-in.) thick, solid-bonded wood core or the equivalent and 
shall be self-closing or automatic-closing in accordance with 
20.2.2.3. 

20.3.7.10 Positive latching hardware shall not be required on 
smoke barrier cross-corridor doors. 

20.3.7.11 A vision panel of fire-rated glazing or wire glass pan- 
els shall be required in smoke barrier cross-corridor doors. 

20.3.7.12 Rabbets, bevels, or astragals shall be required at the 
meeting edges, and stops shall be required at the head and 
sides of door frames in smoke barriers. 

20.3.7.13 Center mullions shall be prohibited in smoke bar- 
rier door openings. 

20.4 Special Provisions. (See Section 38.4.) 

20.5 Building Services. 

20.5.1 Utilities. Utilities shall comply with the provisions of 
Section 9.1. 

20.5.2 Heating, Ventilating, and Air Conditioning. 

20.5.2.1 Heating, ventilating, and air conditioning shall com- 
ply with the provisions of Section 9.2 and shall be installed in 
accordance with the manufacturer's specifications, unless oth- 
erwise modified by 20.5.2.2. 

20.5.2.2 If fuel-fired, such heating devices shall comply with 
the following: 

(1) They shall be chimney connected or vent connected. 

(2) They shall take air for combustion direcdy from the out- 
side. 

(3) They shall be designed and installed to provide for com- 
plete separation of the combustion system from the atmo- 
sphere of the occupied area. 

20.5.2.2.1 Any heating device shall have safety features to im- 
mediately stop the flow of fuel and shut down the equipment 
in case of either excessive temperature or ignition failure. 

20.5.2.2.2 Approved, suspended unit heaters shall be per- 
mitted in locations other than means of egress and patient 
treatment areas, provided that both of the following criteria 
are met: 

(1) Such heaters are located high enough to be out of the 
reach of persons using the area. 

(2) Such heaters are equipped with the safety features re- 
quired by 20.5.2.2.1. 

20.5.3 Elevators, Escalators, and Conveyors. Elevators, esca- 
lators, and conveyors shall comply with the provisions of 
Section 9.4. 



20.5.4 Rubbish Chutes, Incinerators, and Laundry Chutes. 
Rubbish chutes, incinerators, and laundry chutes shall comply 
with the provisions of Section 9.5. 

20.fi Reserved. 

20.7* Operating Features. 

20.7.1 Evacuation and Relocation Plan and Fire Drills. 

20.7.1.1 The administration of every ambulatory health care 
facility shall have, in effect and available to all supervisory per- 
sonnel, written copies of a plan for the protection of all per- 
sons in the event of fire, for their evacuation to areas of refuge, 
and for their evacuation from the building when necessary. 

20.7.1.2 All employees shall be periodically instructed and 
kept informed with respect to their duties under the plan re- 
quired by 20.7.1.1. 

20.7.1.3 A copy of the plan required by 20.7.1.1 shall be 
readily available at all times in the telephone operator's loca- 
tion or at the security center. 

20.7.1.4* Fire drills in ambulatory health care facilities shall 
include the transmission of a fire alarm signal and simulation 
of emergency fire conditions. 

20.7.1.5 Patients shall not be required to be moved during 
drills to safe areas or to the exterior of the building. 

20.7.1.6 Drills shall be conducted quarterly on each shift to 
familiarize facility personnel (nurses, interns, maintenance 
engineers, and administrative staff) with the signals and emer- 
gency action required under varied conditions. 

20.7.1.7 When drills are conducted between 9:00 p.m. 
(2100 hours) and 6:00 a.m. (0600 hours), a coded an- 
nouncement shall be permitted to be used instead of au- 
dible alarms. 

20.7.1.8 Employees of ambulatory health care facilities shall 
be instructed in life safety procedures and devices. 

20.7.2 Procedure in Case of Fire. 
20.7.2.1* Protection of Patients. 

20.7.2.1.1 For ambulatory health care facilities, the proper 
protection of patients shall require the prompt and effective 
response of ambulatory health care personnel. 

20.7.2.1.2 The basic response required of staff shall include 
the following: 

(1) Removal of all occupants directly involved with the fire 
emergency 

(2) Transmission of an appropriate fire alarm signal to warn 
other building occupants and summon staff 

(3) Confinement of the effects of the fire by closing doors to 
isolate the fire area 

(4) Relocation of patients as detailed in the facility's fire 
safety plan 

20.7.2.2 Fire Safety Plan. A written fire safety plan shall pro- 
vide for the following: 

(1) Use of alarms 

(2) Transmission of alarm to fire department 

(3) Response to alarms 

(4) Isolation of fire 

(5) Evacuation of immediate area 

(6) Evacuation of smoke compartment 

(7) Preparation of floors and building for evacuation 

(8) Extinguishment of fire 



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20.7.2.3 Staff Response. 

20.7.2.3.1 All personnel shall be instructed in the use of and 
response to fire alarms. 

20.7.2.3.2 All health care personnel shall be instructed in the 
use of the code phrase to ensure transmission of an alarm 
under the following conditions: 

(1) When the individual who discovers a fire must immedi- 
ately go to the aid of an endangered person 

(2) During a malfunction of the building fire alarm system 

20.7.2.3.3 Personnel hearing the code announced shall first 
activate the building fire alarm using the nearest fire alarm 
box, then shall execute immediately their duties as outlined in 
the fire safety plan. 

20.7.3 Maintenance of Exits. 

20.7.3.1 Proper maintenance shall be provided to ensure the 
dependability of the method of evacuation selected. 

20.7.3.2 Ambulatory health care occupancies that find it nec- 
essary to lock exits shall, at all times, maintain an adequate 
staff qualified to release locks and direct occupants from the 
immediate danger area to a place of safety in case of fire or 
other emergency. 

20.7.4* Smoking. Smoking regulations shall be adopted and 
shall include not less than the following provisions: 

(1) Smoking shall be prohibited in any room, ward, or com- 
partment where flammable liquids, combustible gases, or 
oxygen is used or stored and in any other hazardous loca- 
tion, and such areas shall be posted with signs that read 
NO SMOKING or shall be posted with the international 
symbol for no smoking. 

(2) In ambulatory health care facilities where smoking is pro- 
hibited and signs are placed at all major entrances, sec- 
ondary signs with language that prohibits smoking shall 
not be required. 

(3) Smoking by patients classified as not responsible shall be 
prohibited. 

(4) The requirement of 20.7.4(3) shall not apply where the 
patient is under direct supervision. 

(5) Ashtrays of noncombustible material and safe design shall 
be provided in all areas where smoking is permitted. 

(6) Metal containers with self-closing cover devices into which 
ashtrays can be emptied shall be readily available to all 
areas where smoking is permitted. 

20.7.5 Furnishings, Bedding, and Decorations. 

20.7.5.1* Draperies, curtains, and other loosely hanging fab- 
rics and films serving as furnishings or decorations in ambula- 
tory health care occupancies shall be in accordance with the 
provisions of 10.3.1, and the following also shall apply: 

(1) Such curtains shall include cubicle curtains. 

(2) Such curtains shall not include curtains at showers. 

20.7.5.2 Newly introduced upholstered furniture shall meet 
the criteria specified when tested in accordance with the 
methods cited in 10.3.2(2) and 10.3.3. 

20.7.5.3 Newly introduced mattresses shall meet the criteria 
specified when tested in accordance with the methods cited in 
10.3.2(3) and 10.3.4. 

20.7.5.4 Combustible decorations shall be prohibited unless 
one of the following criteria is met: 



( 1 ) They are flame-retardant. 

(2) They are decorations, such as photographs and paintings, 
in such limited quantities that a hazard of fire develop- 
ment or spread is not present. 

20.7.5.5 Soiled linen or trash collection receptacles shall not 
exceed 121 L (32 gal) in capacity, and the following also shall 
apply: 

(1) The average density of container capacity in a room or 
space shall not exceed 20.4 L/m 2 (0.5 gal/ft 2 ). 

(2) A capacity of 121 L (32 gal) shall not be exceeded within 
any 6-m 2 (64-ft 2 ) area. 

(3) Mobile soiled linen or trash collection receptacles with 
capacities greater than 121 L (32 gal) shall be located in a 
room protected as a hazardous area when not attended. 

(4) Container size and density shall not be limited in hazard- 
ous areas. 

20.7.6 Maintenance and Testing. (See 4.6.13.) 

20.7.7* Engineered Smoke Control Systems. 

20.7.7.1 New engineered smoke control systems shall be 
tested in accordance with established engineering principles 
and shall meet the performance requirements of such testing 
prior to acceptance. 

20.7.7.2 Following acceptance, all engineered smoke control 
systems shall be tested periodically in accordance with recog- 
nized engineering principles. 

20.7.7.3 Test documentation shall be maintained on the pre- 
mises at all times. 

20.7.8 Portable Space-Heating Devices. Portable space-heating 
devices shall be prohibited in all ambulatory health care occu- 
pancies unless both of the following criteria are met: 

(1) Such devices are used only in nonsleeping staff and em- 
ployee areas. 

(2) The heating elements of such devices do not exceed 
100°C (212"F). 

20.7.9 Construction, Repair, and Improvement Operations. 

20.7.9.1 Construction, repair, and improvement operations 
shall comply with 4.6.11. 

20.7.9.2 The means of egress in any area undergoing con- 
struction, repair, or improvements shall be inspected daily for 
compliance with 7.1.10.1 and shall also comply with NFPA241, 
Standard for Safeguarding Construction, Alteration, and Demolition 
Operations. 



Chapter 21 Existing Ambulatory Health 
Care Occupancies 

21.1 General Requirements. 
21.1.1 Application. 
21.1.1.1 General. 

21.1.1.1.1 The requirements of this chapter shall apply to 
existing buildings or portions thereof currently occupied as 
an ambulatory health care occupancy. (See also 20.1.1.1.1.) 

21.1.1.1.2 Ambulatory health care facilities shall comply with 
the provisions of Chapter 39 and this chapter, whichever is 
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21.1.1.1.3 This chapter establishes life safety requirements, 
in addition to those required in Chapter 39, for the design of 
all ambulatory health care occupancies as defined in 
3.3.152.1. 

21.1.1.1.4 Buildings, or sections of buildings, that primarily 
house patients who, in the opinion of the governing body of 
the facility and the governmental agency having jurisdiction, 
are capable of exercising judgment and appropriate physical 
action for self-preservation under emergency conditions shall 
be permitted to comply with chapters of this Code other than 
Chapter 21. 

21.1.1.1.5 It shall be recognized that, in buildings providing 
treatment for certain types of patients or having detention 
rooms or a security section, it might be necessary to lock doors 
and bar windows to confine and protect building inhabitants. 
In such instances, the authority havingjurisdiction shall make 
appropriate modifications to those sections of this Code that 
would otherwise require means of egress to be kept unlocked. 

21.1.1.1.6* The requirements of this chapter are based on the 
assumption that staff is available in all patient-occupied areas 
to perform certain fire safety functions as required in other 
paragraphs of this chapter. 

21.1.1.2* Goads and Objectives. The goals and objectives of 
Section 4.1 and Section 4.2 shall be met with due consider- 
ation for functional requirements, which are accomplished by 
limiting the development and spread of a fire emergency to 
the room of fire origin and reducing the need for occupant 
evacuation, except from the room of fire origin. 

21.1.1.3 Total Concept. 

21.1.1.3.1 All ambulatory health care facilities shall be de- 
signed, constructed, maintained, and operated to minimize 
the possibility of a fire emergency requiring the evacuation of 
occupants. 

21.1.1.3.2 Because the safety of ambulatory health care occu- 
pants cannot be ensured adequately by dependence on evacu- 
ation of the building, their protection from fire shall be pro- 
vided by appropriate arrangement of facilities, adequate, 
trained staff, and development of operating and maintenance 
procedures composed of the following: 

(1) Design, construction, and compartmentation 

(2) Provision for detection, alarm, and extinguishment 

(3) Fire prevention and the planning, training, and drilling 
programs for the isolation of fire, transfer of occupants to 
areas of refuge, or evacuation of the building 

21.1.1.4 Additions, Conversions, Modernization, Renovation, 
and Construction Operations. 

21.1.1.4.1 Additions. 

21.1.1.4.1.1 Additions shall be separated from any existing 
structure not conforming to the provisions within Chapter 21 
by a fire barrier having not less than a 2-hour fire resistance 
rating and constructed of materials as required for the addi- 
tion. (See 4.6.4 and 4.6. 7.) 

21.1.1.4.1.2 Doors in barriers required by 21.1.1.4.1.1 shall 
normally be kept closed, unless otherwise permitted by 
21.1.1.4.1.3. 

21.1.1.4.1.3 Doors shall be permitted to be held open if they 
meet the requirements of 21.2.2.3. 



21.1.1.4.2 Changes of Occupancy. A change from a hospital 
or nursing home to an ambulatory health care occupancy 
shall not be considered a change in occupancy or occupancy 
subclassification . 

21.1.1.4.3 Renovations, Alterations, and Modernizations. (See 
4.6.8.) 

21.1.1 .4.4 Construction, Repair, and Iieprovement Operations. 
(See 4.6.11.) 

21.1.2 Multiple Occupancies. 

21.1.2.1 Multiple occupancies shall be in accordance with 
6.1.14. 

21.1.2.2* Sections of ambulatory health care facilities shall be 
permitted to be classified as other occupancies, provided that 
they meet all of the following conditions: 

(1) They are not intended to serve ambulatory health care 
occupants for purposes of treatment or customary access 
by patients incapable of self-preservation. 

(2) They are separated from areas of ambulatory health care 
occupancies by construction having a fire resistance rat- 
ing of not less than 1 hour. 

21.1.2.3 All means of egress from ambulatory health care 
occupancies that traverse nonambulatory health care 
spaces shall conform to the requirements of this Code for 
ambulatory health care occupancies, unless otherwise per- 
mitted by 21.1.2.4. 

21.1.2.4 Exit through a horizontal exit into other contiguous 
occupancies that do not conform with ambulatory health care 
egress provisions but that do comply with requirements set 
forth in the appropriate occupancy chapter of this Code shall 
be permitted, provided that the occupancy does not contain 
high hazard contents. 

21.1.2.5 Egress provisions for areas of ambulatory health care 
facilities that correspond to other occupancies shall meet the 
corresponding requirements of this Code for such occupan- 
cies, and where the clinical needs of the occupant necessitate 
the locking of means of egress, staff shall be present for the 
supervised release of occupants during all times of use. 

21.1.2.6 Any area with a hazard of contents classified higher 
than that of the ambulatory health care occupancy and lo- 
cated in the same building shall be protected as required in 
21.3.2. 

21.1.2.7 Non-health-care-related occupancies classified as 
containing high hazard contents shall not be permitted in 
buildings housing ambulatory health care occupancies. 

21.1.3 Definition: Ambulatory Health Care Occupancy. See 
3.3.152.1. 

21.1.4 Classification of Occupancy. (See 21.1.3.) 

21.1.5 Classification of Hazard of Contents. The classifica- 
tion of hazard of contents shall be as defined in Section 6.2. 

21.1.6 Mininiiun Construction Requirements. 

21.1.6.1 For the purposes of 21.1.6, the number of stories 
shall be counted starting with the primary level of exit dis- 
charge and ending with the highest occupiable level used as 
an ambulatory health care facility. 

21.1.6.2 For the purposes of 21.1.6.1, the primary level of exit 
discharge of a building shall be that floor that is level with or 



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above finished grade of the exterior wall line for 50 percent or 
more of its perimeter. 

21.1.6.3 Buildings of one story in height housing ambulatory 
health care facilities shall be of any construction type in accor- 
dance with NFPA220, Standard on Types of Building Construction. 
(See 8.2.1.) 

21.1.6.4 Buildings of two or more stories in height housing 
ambulatory health care facilities shall be of Type 1(443), 
Type 1(332), Type 11(222), Type 11(111), Type 111(211), 
Type IV(2HH), orType V(lll) construction (see 8.2.1), unless 
otherwise permitted by 21.1.6.5. 

21.1.6.5 Buildings shall be permitted to be constructed of 
Type 11(000), Type 111(200), or Type V(000), if protected 
throughout by an approved, supervised automatic sprinkler 
system in accordance with Section 9.7. 

21.1.6.6 Any level below the level of exit discharge shall be 
separated from the level of exit discharge by not less than 
Type 11(111), Type 111(211), or Type V(lll) construction (see 
8.2.1), unless both of the following criteria are met: 

(1) Such levels are under the control of the ambulatory 
health care facility. 

(2) Any hazardous spaces are protected in accordance with 
Section 8.7. 

21.1.6.7 In existing buildings, the authority having jurisdic- 
tion shall be permitted to accept construction systems of lesser 
fire resistance than that required by 21.1.6.3 through 21.1.6.6, 
provided that it can be demonstrated to the authority's satis- 
faction that prompt evacuation of the facility can be achieved 
in case of fire or that the exposing occupancies and materials 
of construction present no threat of fire penetration from 
such occupancy to the ambulatory health care facility or to the 
collapse of the structure. 

21.1.6.8 All interior walls and partitions in buildings of Type I 
or Type II construction shall be of noncombustible or limited- 
combustible materials. 

21.1.6.9 All buildings with more than one level below the 
level of exit discharge shall have all such lower levels separated 
from the level of exit discharge by not less than Type 11(111) 
construction. 

21.1.7 Occupant Load. (See 39. 1.7. ) 

21.2 Means of Egress Requirements. 

21.2.1 General. Every aisle, passageway, corridor, exit dis- 
charge, exit location, and access shall be in accordance with 
Chapter 7, unless otherwise modified by 21.2.2 through 21.2.11. 

21.2.2 Means of Egress Components. 

21.2.2.1 Components of means of egress shall be limited to 
the types described in 39.2.2. 

21.2.2.2 Special locking arrangements complying with 
7.2.1.6 shall be permitted. 

21.2.2.3 Any door required to be self-closing shall be permit- 
ted to be held open only by an automatic release device that 
complies with 7.2.1.8.2. The required manual fire alarm sys- 
tem and the systems required by 7.2.1.8.2 shall be arranged to 
initiate the closing action of all such doors throughout the 
smoke compartment or throughout the entire facility. 



21.2.2.4 Where doors in a stair enclosure are held open by an 
automatic release device as permitted in 21.2.2.3, initiation of 
a door-closing action on any level shall cause all doors at all 
levels in the stair enclosure to close. 

21.2.3 Capacity of Means of Egress. 

21.2.3.1 The capacity of any required means of egress shall 
be determined in accordance with the provisions of 39.2.3. 

21.2.3.2 The clear width of any corridor or passageway re- 
quired for exit access shall be not less than 1120 mm (44 in.). 

21.2.3.3 Doors in the means of egress from diagnostic or 
treatment areas, such as x-ray, surgical, or physical therapy, 
shall provide a clear width of not less than 810 mm (32 in.), 
unless such doors are existing 865-mm (34-in.) doors. 

21.2.4 Number of Exits. 

21.2.4.1 Not less than two exits of the types described in 
39.2.2 that are remotely located from each other shall be pro- 
vided for each floor or fire section of the building. 

21.2.4.2 Any room and any suite of rooms of more than 
232 m 2 (2500 ft 2 ) shall have not less than two exit access doors 
remotely located from each other. 

21.2.4.3 Not less than two exits of the types described in 
39.2.2 shall be accessible from each smoke compartment. 

21.2.4.4 Egress from smoke compartments addressed in 
21.2.4.3 shall be permitted through adjacent compartments 
but shall not require return through the compartment of fire 
origin. 

21.2.5 Arrangement of Means of Egress. (See 39.2.5.) 

21.2.6 Travel Distance to Exits. 

21.2.6.1 Travel distance shall be measured in accordance 
with Section 7.6. 

21.2.6.2 Travel distance shall be as follows: 

(1) The travel distance between any room door required as 
an exit access and an exit shall not exceed 30 m (100 ft). 

(2) The travel distance between any point in a room and an 
exit shall not exceed 46 m (150 ft). 

(3) The maximum travel distance in 21.2.6.2(1) or 21.2.6.2(2) 
shall be permitted to be increased by 15 m (50 ft) in build- 
ings protected throughout by an approved automatic sprin- 
kler system in accordance with Section 9.7. 

21.2.7 Discharge from Exits. (See 39.2.7.) 

21.2.8 Illumination of Means of Egress. Means of egress shall 
be illuminated in accordance with Section 7.8. 

21.2.9 Emergency Lighting and Essential Electrical Systems. 

21.2.9.1 Emergency lighting shall be provided in accordance 
with Section 7.9. 

21.2.9.2 Where general anesthesia or life-support equipment 
is used, each ambulatory health care facility shall be provided 
with an essential electrical system in accordance with NFPA99, 
Standard for Health Care Facilities, unless otherwise permitted by 
the following: 

(1) Where battery-operated equipment is provided and ac- 
ceptable to the authority having jurisdiction 

(2) Where a facility uses life-support equipment for emer- 
gency purposes only 



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101-185 



21.2.10 Marking of Means of Egress. Means of egress shall 
have signs in accordance with Section 7.10. 



21.2.11 Special Means of Egress Features. 
21.3 Protection. 



leserved) 



21.3.1 Protection of Vertical Openings. (See 393.1.) 

21.3.2 Protection from Hazards. (See 39.3.2.) 

21.3.2.1 Doors. Doors to hazardous areas shall be self-closing 
or automatic-closing in accordance with 21.2.2.3. 

21.3.2.2 Laboratories. Laboratories employing quantities of 
flammable, combustible, or hazardous materials that are con- 
sidered as a severe hazard shall be protected in accordance 
with NFPA99, Standard, for Health Care Facilities. 

21.3.2.3 Anesthetizing Locations. Anesthetizing locations 
shall be protected in accordance with NFPA 99, Standard for 
Health Care Facilities. 

21.3.2.4 Cooking Facilities. Cooking facilities shall be pro- 
tected in accordance with 9.2.3 unless otherwise permitted by 
21.3.2.5. 

21.3.2.5 Donnestic Cooking Equipment. Where domestic cook- 
ing equipment is used for food-warming or limited cooking, 
protection or separation of food preparation facilities shall 
not be required. 

21.3.3 Interior Finish. (See 39.3.3.) 

21.3.4 Detection, Alarm, and Communications Systems. 

21.3.4.1 General. Ambulatory health care facilities shall be 
provided with fire alarm systems in accordance with Section 
9.6, except as modified by 21.3.4.2 through 21.3.4.5. 

21.3.4.2 Initiation. Initiation of the required fire alarm systems 
shall be by manual means in accordance with 9.6.2 and by means 
of any detection devices or detection systems required. 

21.3.4.3 Occupant Notification. Occupant notification shall 
be accomplished automatically, without delay, in accordance 
with 9.6.3, upon operation of any fire alarm activating device. 

21.3.4.4 Emergency Forces Notification. 

21.3.4.4.1 Fire department notification shall be accom- 
plished in accordance with 9.6.4. 

21.3.4.4.2 Smoke detection devices or smoke detection sys- 
tems equipped with reconfirmation features shall not be re- 
quired to automatically notify the fire department unless the 
alarm condition is reconfirmed after a period not exceeding 
120 seconds. 

21.3.4.5 Emergency Control. Operation of any activating de- 
vice in the required fire alarm system shall be arranged to 
accomplish automatically, without delay, any control functions 
required to be performed by that device. (See 9.6.5.) 

21.3.5 Extinguishment Requirements. (See 39.3.5.) 

21.3.5.1 Isolated hazardous areas shall be permitted to be 
protected in accordance with 9.7.1.2. 

21.3.5.2 For new installations in existing ambulatory health 
care facilities, where more than two sprinklers are installed in 
a single area for protection in accordance with 9.7.1.2, water- 
flow detection shall be provided to sound the building fire 
alarm or to notify, by a signal, any constantly attended loca- 



tion, such as PBX, security, or emergency room, at which the 
necessary corrective action shall be taken. 

21.3.5.3 Portable fire extinguishers shall be provided in am- 
bulatory health care facilities in accordance with 9.7.4.1. 

21.3.6 Corridors. (No requirements.) 

21.3.7 Subdivision of Building Space. 

21.3.7.1 Ambulatory health care facilities shall be separated 
from other tenants and occupancies and shall meet the follow- 
ing requirements: 

(1) Walls shall have not less than a 1-hour fire resistance rat- 
ing and shall extend from the floor slab below to the floor 
or roof slab above. 

(2) Doors shall be constructed of not less than 44-mm (1%-in.) 
thick, solid-bonded wood core or the equivalent and shall be 
equipped with positive latches. 

(3) Doors shall be self-closing and shall be kept in the closed 
position except when in use. 

(4) Any windows in these barriers shall be of fixed fire window 
assemblies in accordance with Section 8.3. 

21.3.7.2 Every story of an ambulatory health care facility shall 
be divided into not less than two smoke compartments, unless 
otherwise permitted by the following: 

( 1 ) This requirement shall not apply to facilities of less than 
465 m 2 (5000 ft 2 ) that are protected by an approved auto- 
matic smoke detection system. 

(2) This requirement shall not apply to facilities of less than 
929 m 2 (10,000 ft 2 ) that are protected throughout by an 
approved, supervised automatic sprinkler system installed 
in accordance with Section 9.7. 

(3) An area in an adjoining occupancy shall be permitted to 
serve as a smoke compartment for an ambulatory health 
care facility if the following criteria are met: 

(a) The separating wall and both compartments meet the 
requirements of 21.3.7. 

(b) The ambulatory health care facility is less than 2100 m 2 
(22,500 ft 2 ). 

(c) Access from the ambulatory health care facility to the 
other occupancy is unrestricted. 

21.3.7.3 Reserved. 

21.3.7.4 Reserved. 

21.3.7.5 Any required smoke barrier shall be constructed in 
accordance with Section 8.5 and shall have a fire resistance 
rating of not less than 1 hour, unless otherwise permitted by 
21.3.7.6. 

21.3.7.6 Smoke dampers shall not be required in duct pen- 
etrations of smoke barriers in fully ducted heating, ventilating, 
and air conditioning systems for buildings protected through- 
out by an approved, supervised automatic sprinkler system in 
accordance with Section 9.7. 

21.3.7.7 Windows in the smoke barrier shall be of fixed fire 
window assemblies in accordance with Section 8.3. 

21.3.7.8 Reserved. 

2 1 .3.7.9* Doors in smoke barriers shall be not less than 44-mm 
(1%-in.) thick, solid-bonded wood core or the equivalent and 
shall be self-closing or automatic-closing in accordance with 
20.2.2.3. 



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LIFE SAFETY CODE 



21.3.7.10 Positive latching hardware shall not be required on 
smoke barrier cross-corridor doors. 

21.3.7.11 Avision panel offire-rated glazing or wire glass pan- 
els shall be required in smoke barrier cross-corridor doors. 

21.3.7.12 Reserved. 

21.3.7.13 Reserved. 

21.4 Special Provisions. (See Section 39.4.) 

21.5 Building Services. 

21.5.1 Utilities. 

21.5.1.1 Utilities shall comply with the provisions of Section 9.1. 

21.5.1.2 Existing installations shall be permitted to be contin- 
ued in service, provided that the systems do not present a seri- 
ous hazard to life. 

21.5.2 Hearing, Ventilating, and Air Conditioning. 

21.5.2.1 Heating, ventilating, and air conditioning shall com- 
ply with the provisions of Section 9.2 and shall be in accor- 
dance with the manufacturer's specifications, unless otherwise 
modified by 21.5.2.2. 

21.5.2.2 If fuel-fired, heating devices shall comply with the 
following: 

(1) They shall be chimney connected or vent connected. 

(2) They shall take air for combustion directly from the 
outside. 

(3) They shall be designed and installed to provide for com- 
plete separation of the combustion system from the atmo- 
sphere of the occupied area. 

21.5.2.2.1 Any heating device shall have safety features to im- 
mediately stop the flow of fuel and shut down the equipment 
in case of either excessive temperature or ignition failure. 

21.5.2.2.2 Approved, suspended unit heaters shall be per- 
mitted in locations other than means of egress and patient 
treatment areas, provided that both of the following criteria 
are met: 

(1) Such heaters are located high enough to be out of the 
reach of persons using the area. 

(2) Such heaters are equipped with the safety features re- 
quired by 21.5.2.2.1. 

21.5.3 Elevators, Escalators, and Conveyors. Elevators, esca- 
lators, and conveyors shall comply with the provisions of 
Section 9.4. 

21.5.4 Rubbish Chutes, Incinerators, and Laundry Chutes. 
Rubbish chutes, incinerators, and laundry chutes shall comply 
with the provisions of Section 9.5. 

21.6 Reserved. 

21.7* Operating Features. 

21.7.1 Evacuation and Relocation Plan and Fire Drills. 

21.7.1.1 The administration of every ambulatory health care 
facility shall have, in effect and available to all supervisory per- 
sonnel, written copies of a plan for the protection of all per- 
sons in the event of fire, for their evacuation to areas of refuge, 
and for their evacuation from the building when necessary. 



21.7.1.2 All employees shall be periodically instructed and 
kept informed with respect to their duties under the plan re- 
quired by 21.7.1.1. 

21.7.1.3 A copy of the plan required by 21.7.1.1 shall be 
readily available at all times in the telephone operator's loca- 
tion or at the security center. 

21.7.1.4* Fire drills in ambulatory health care facilities shall 
include the transmission of a Fire alarm signal and simulation 
of emergency fire conditions. 

21.7.1.5 Patients shall not be required to be moved during 
drills to safe areas or to the exterior of the building. 

21.7.1.6 Drills shall be conducted quarterly on each shift to 
familiarize facility personnel (nurses, interns, maintenance 
engineers, and administrative staff) with the signals and emer- 
gency action required under varied conditions. 

21.7.1.7 When drills are conducted between 9:00 p.m. 
(2100 hours) and 6:00 a.m. (0600 hours), a coded an- 
nouncement shall be permitted to be used instead of au- 
dible alarms. 

21.7.1.8 Employees of ambulatory health care facilities shall 
be instructed in life safety procedures and devices. 

21.7.2 Procedure in Case of Fire. 

21.7.2.1* Protection of Patients. 

21.7.2.1.1 For ambulatory health care facilities, the proper 
protection of patients shall require the prompt and effective 
response of ambulatory health care personnel. 

21.7.2.1.2 The basic response required of staff shall include 
the following: 

(1) Removal of all occupants directly involved with the fire 
emergency 

(2) Transmission of an appropriate fire alarm signal to warn 
other building occupants and summon staff 

(3) Confinement of the effects of the fire by closing doors to 
isolate the fire area 

(4) Relocation of patients as detailed in the facility's fire 
safety plan 

21.7.2.2 Fire Safety Plan. A written fire safety plan shall pro- 
vide for the following: 

(1) Use of alarms 

(2) Transmission of alarm to fire department 

(3) Response to alarms 

(4) Isolation of fire 

(5) Evacuation of immediate area 

(6) Evacuation of smoke compartment 

(7) Preparation of floors and building for evacuation 

(8) Extinguishment of fire 

21.7.2.3 Staff Response. 

21.7.2.3.1 All personnel shall be instructed in the use of and 
response to fire alarms. 

21.7.2.3.2 All health care personnel shall be instructed in the 
use of the code phrase to ensure transmission of an alarm 
under the following conditions: 

(1) When the individual who discovers a fire must immedi- 
ately go to the aid of an endangered person 

(2) During a malfunction of the building fire alarm system 

21.7.2.3.3 Personnel hearing the code announced shall first 
activate the building fire alarm using the nearest fire alarm 



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101-187 



box and then shall execute immediately their duties as out- 
lined in the fire safety plan. 

21.7.3 Maintenance of Exits. 

21.7.3.1 Proper maintenance shall be provided to ensure the 
dependability of the method of evacuation selected. 

21.7.3.2 Ambulatory health care occupancies that find it nec- 
essary to lock exits shall, at all times, maintain an adequate 
staff qualified to release locks and direct occupants from the 
immediate danger area to a place of safety in case of fire or 
other emergency. 

21.7.4* Smoking. Smoking regulations shall be adopted and 
shall include not less than the following provisions: 

(1) Smoking shall be prohibited in any room, ward, or com- 
partment where flammable liquids, combustible gases, or 
oxygen is used or stored and in any other hazardous loca- 
tion, and such areas shall be posted with signs that read 
NO SMOKING or shall be posted with the international 
symbol for no smoking. 

(2) In ambulatory health care facilities where smoking is pro- 
hibited and signs are placed at all major entrances, sec- 
ondary signs with language that prohibits smoking shall 
not be required. 

(3) Smoking by patients classified as not responsible shall be 
prohibited. 

(4) The requirement of 21.7.4(3) shall not apply where the 
patient is under direct supervision. 

(5) Ashtrays of noncombustible material and safe design shall 
be provided in all areas where smoking is permitted. 

(6) Metal containers with self-closing cover devices into which 
ashtrays can be emptied shall be readily available to all 
areas where smoking is permitted. 

21.7.5 Furnishings, Bedding, and Decorations. 

21.7.5.1* Draperies, curtains and other loosely hanging fab- 
rics and films serving as furnishings or decorations in ambula- 
tory health care occupancies shall be in accordance with the 
provisions of 10.3.1, and the following also shall apply: 

(1) Such curtains shall include cubicle curtains. 

(2) Such curtains shall not include curtains at showers. 

21.7.5.2 Newly introduced upholstered furniture shall meet 
the criteria specified when tested in accordance with the 
methods cited in 10.3.2(2) and 10.3.3. 

21.7.5.3 Newly introduced mattresses shall meet the criteria 
specified when tested in accordance with the methods cited in 
10.3.2(3) and 10.3.4. 

21.7.5.4 Combustible decorations shall be prohibited unless 
one of the following criteria is